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Lesson 1 crafting the curriculum


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Lesson 1 crafting the curriculum

  2. 2. ELEMENTS/ COMPONENTS OF THE CURRICULUM BILBAO’S 4 MAJOR ELEMENTS OR COMPONENTS OF THE CURRICULUM Elements / Components of the Curriculum 1. Curriculum Goals and Objectives Features Gives purpose and clearer focus to the school. The curriculum gives form and structure to the ideals of the VMGO of the school. In a curriculum, goals are simplified and specified for the attainment of each learner (Educational Objectives). 2. Curriculum Content or Subject Matter For a subject-centered view of curriculum, the fund of knowledge represents the repository of accumulated discoveries ad inventions of man down the centuries, due to man’s exploration of his world. For a learner-centered, knowledge relates to the individual’s personal and social world on how he/she defines reality.
  3. 3. Elements / Components of the Curriculum Features 3. Curriculum Learning Experiences Refers to certain activities that the learner undergoes in reaction to the environment with which he has an opportunity to interact. Since learning results directly from personal experiences, the selection of learning experiences and resources becomes a vital concern in the classroom. Teaching strategies, methods and educational activities will put into action the goals and objectives using the contents in order to produce a learning outcome. 4. Curriculum Evaluation Curriculum evaluation is the attempt to assess or judge the worth of students and educational practices, materials or programs. It is a determinant whether a curriculum has to be continued, stopped or revised.
  4. 4. Elements / Components of the Curriculum Features The Context refers to the environment (real situation) of the curriculum. It also refers to the situational analysis.  The Input refers to the ingredients of the curriculum: • The goals •The contents •Instructional Strategies •The learners •The teachers and all the materials needed The Process looks into the entire operation of the curriculum has be implemented.
  5. 5. 1. Curriculum Goals and Objectives / School Purpose School purpose maybe formulated to encompass a direction for spiritual, intellectual, aesthetic, emotional, social and physical development of the students. It can be mirrored in the statements made in the school’s philosophy, vision, mission, goals, and objectives. Diagram 1.1 The School Purpose System Philosophy Mission Goals Objectives Contributes to Driven by Vision
  6. 6.  According to Palma, School goals can be solicited from the Learner, culture, society and pool knowledge. Palma and Oliver Sources of School Goals School goals Learner Culture Society Knowledge Pool
  7. 7. Hierarchy of Objectives School Philosophy Vision – Mission – Goal – Objective statement Contribute to Driven by Grade Level objective Subject objective Teaching Objective Learning Objective
  8. 8. 2. Curriculum Content Planned vs. Hidden Curriculum There is a need to distinguish the official or planned curriculum, the formally approved program of study , from the de facto or lived (hidden) curriculum, the lessons that are actually learned. Learning content The learning content mirrors the objectives of the curriculum .It is the medium through which objectives are accomplished. It involves three major categories: knowledge, skills and values. Four basic sources of Learning Opportunities 1. Self-Awareness 2. Theology 3. Socialization 4. The World
  9. 9. 3. Curriculum Experiences The teaching strategies, methods and educational activities provide the learning experiences of the learner. Teacher- Student Interaction Both the teacher and student play active roles to facilitate learning. Eight M’s of Learning Experience 1. Milieu - refers to the learning environment 2. Matter – pertains to the subject content 3. Material – as associated with the resources of learning 4. Media – refers to the communication system in the teaching-learning situation; 5. Method – refers to the teaching-learning strategy employed by the teacher in the classroom situation; 6. Motivation – centers' on arousing and sustaining interests in learning; 7. Mastery – is the internalization of learning that can be manifested through change in behaviour ; 8. Measurement – refers to evaluating the overt change in behaviour of the learner.
  10. 10.  Some Learning Theories that will help in creating and sustaining meaningful learning experiences. 1. Human Developmental Theories - learning activities have to be appropriate to every age level 2. Behavioural Learning Theories - emphasize observable behaviour such as new skills, knowledge, or attitudes which can be demonstrated. 3. Cognitive Learning Theories - are concerned with human learning in which unobservable mental processes are used to learned remember new information or acquire skills. 4. Brain-Friendly Theories - this learning theories is based on the structure and function of the brain.
  11. 11. Multiple Intelligences by Gardner challeanged traditional beliefs in education.These intelligences can be grouped under the following foci: 1. Focus on thought and thinking ( Verbal-linguistic, logic- mathematics ) 2. Focus on senses ( Visual-spatial, body-kinesthetic, auditory-musical, ) 3. Focus on communication ( intra-personal, interpersonal ) 4. Focus on relationship ( naturalist/ existentialist ) Learning Styles is similar to MI Theory it is commonly believed that most students favor some particular method of interacting with, taking in and processing stimuli or information in the classroom. Learning Styles Theories can be divided into two categories: Visual, Aural, Kinesthetic ( VAK) Model 1. Visual ( learn by seeing) 2. Verbal/Auditory ( learn by hearing ) 3. Kinesthetic or practical ( learn by doing ) 4. Reading or writing ( learn by processing text Multi- modal describes people who have more than one learning styles. Other Models 1. 2. 3. 4. Robert Sternberg’s Thinking Styles Howard Gardner’s MI Theory Myers- Briggs Type Indicator Jackson’s Learning Styles Profiler