Historical Foundations

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Dr. William Allan Kritsonis earned his BA in 1969 from Central Washington University, Ellensburg, Washington. In 1971, he earned his M.Ed. from Seattle Pacific University. In 1976, he earned his PhD from the University of Iowa. In 1981, he was a Visiting Scholar at Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, and in 1987 was a Visiting Scholar at Stanford University, Palo Alto, California.
In June 2008, Dr. Kritsonis received the Doctor of Humane Letters, School of Graduate Studies from Southern Christian University. The ceremony was held at the Hilton Hotel in New Orleans, Louisiana.

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Historical Foundations

  1. 1. Historical Foundations Historical Foundations of Education William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Questions 1. Identify a value issue or conflict in contemporary education and examine it from a [selected] philosophical perspective. 2. Examine the concept of change from a [selected] perspective. What are the educational implications of such a view of change? 3. Examine the impact of [selected] philosophy on education as we know it today. 4. What impact, if any, has the role of religion in education during the colonial period through the Civil War had on the role of religion in schools today? 5. What are some significant changes in curriculum, instruction, and assessment within the last century? 6. How does the criteria for school success used during colonial times differ from the criteria used today? 7. Describe the historical, cultural, and philosophical events that influenced public education in Texas. 8. Analyze the reasons for changes in school organization, programs, and opportunities in the modern era in relation to historical, political and sociological events. 9. Describe ways in which the curriculum became more standardized and more diversified. 10.Identify issues related to educational evaluation in the modern era and describe the arguments related to those issues. 11.Describe how each of [selected] modern philosophies influences Western education. 12.Interpret how each of those philosophies might relate to one's own developing educational philosophy.
  2. 2. Historical Foundations 13.Explain the history, evolution, and current status of three organizational structures of schooling in the United States. Key Terms 1. Socrates 16. Francis Bacon 2. Plato 17. John Calvin 3. Idealism 18. Old Deluder Satan Law 4. Realism 19. Dame Schools 5. Thomas Aquinas 20. Town Schools 6. Theistic Realism 21. Latin Grammar Schools 7. Francis Petrach 22. Colonial Colleges 8. Desiderius Erasmus 23. New England Primer 9. Juan Luis Vives 24. Rene Descartes 10.Sir Thomas More 25. John Amos Comenius 11.Edmund Coote 26. Republicanism 12. Northwest Ordinance of 1785 27. Friedrich Froebel 13. Northwest Ordinance of 1787 28. Morrill Act of 1862 14. Nationalism 29. Morrill Act of 1890 15. John Locke 30. John Dewey 31. Benjamin Franklin 45. Pragmatism 32. Thomas Jefferson 46. Maria Montessori 33. Noah Webster 47. Pestalozzi 34. Jean Jacques Rousseau 48. Brown v. Topeka 35. Naturalism 49. Civil Rights Act-1964 36. William McClure 50. Anna Freud 37. Industrial Schools 51. Jean Piaget 38. Monitorial Schools 52. Alfred Adler 39. Robert Owen 53. Erik Erickson 40. The Common School 54. Butler Statute 41. Henry Barnard 55. Engel v. Vitale 42. Horace Mann 56. U.S. National 43. William Torrey Harris Education Goals-1989 44. Kalamazoo Case of 1874 57. Goals 2000
  3. 3. Historical Foundations Discussion In order to fully understand our educational systems, we should be aware of their evolutionary developments. An historical overview of education, beginning with early philosphers and moving through the unfolding of events in America, is provided as a comprehensive review of Historical Foundations of Education. B.C. In ancient Athens, the social critic Socrates had attracted a circle of students, one of whom was Plato. Socrates philosophy embraced an ethic that asserted that human beings should seek to live lives that were morally excellent. Like Socrates, Plato rejected claims that ethical behavior was situationally determined and that education could be reduced to specialized vocational or professional training. He asserted that human beings were good and honorable when their conduct conformed to the ideal and universal concepts of truth, goodness, and beauty. In his famous “Allegory of the Cave’, Plato asserted that the information that comes to us through our senses was not reality but merely a shadow or an imperfect copy of it. Sense impressions gave us a reflected, but distorted, view of reality. This philosophy of Idealism proclaimed the spiritual nature of the human being and the universe and asserted that the good, true, and beautiful are
  4. 4. Historical Foundations permanently part of the structure of a related, coherent, orderly, and unchanging universe. Unlike Idealists, Realists assert that objects exist regardless of our perception of them. Realism can be defined as a philosophical position that asserts the existence of an objective order of reality and the possibility of human beings gaining knowledge about that reality. It further prescribes that we should order our behavior in conformity with this knowledge. Drawing from its Aristotelian origins, it argues that the primary goal of education is to contribute to the discovery, transmission, and use of knowledge. Aristotle, a student of Plato, is known as the founder of Realism. 1000-1099 The 11th century was a dark era for education. Few people in Western Europe were receiving any kind of schooling. The knowledge of the ancient Romans was preserved in cathedrals and monasteries. Culture, which was centered around the church, began to flourish again as the 1100’s approached. Across the globe, contributions were being made to the future of education. In China, printing by movable type was invented in 1045, and proved to be one of the most powerful inventions of this era. With future
  5. 5. Historical Foundations educational systems focusing on the written word, the invention of type printing set the path for future publications. In Salerno Italy, the earliest Italian medical school opened in 1050. 1100-1199 An enlightened educational policy allows serfs to receive vocational training. They also receive religious instruction so they can participate in the church. Several universities were founded across Europe in the 12th Century. In 1108, Bologna University was founded in Italy. It is known to be the most ancient in the world. The university was established mainly for the study of Roman law. In 1150, Paris University was founded in France, and said to be the greatest university in the Middle Ages. Undergraduate study followed, but had no prescribed hours or credit units. In 1167, Oxford University in England was founded. 1200-1299 In the 13th century, Latin was phased out as the language of the university. For the first time, students were taught in their common language. Thomas Aquinas was born in 1225, and is known as a founder of Theistic Realism. Thomas Aquinas came up with a "triangle of education."
  6. 6. Historical Foundations The base of the triangle consists of the seven liberal arts; the middle section is "dialectic" (Plato's style of debate by question and answer, and Aristotle's reasoning with syllogisms). The top of the triangle is divided into the study of law and philosophy. Thomistic education rests upon premises that are found in Artistotelian philosophy and Christian Scriptures. It asserts that education should aid human beings to merit supernatural life, and that it should also facilitate every person’s active participation in his or her own culture and history. Theistic Realism has sought to reconcile faith and reason, or religion and science, in a comprehensive synthesis. 1300-1399 The Renaissance introduced new ideas and leaders that influenced education. Francis Petrach was born in 1304. He is known as the first modern scholar because he focused on classical Greek literature instead of medieval literature in his search for examples of human perfection. This interest in classical antiquity is the defining feature of Renaissance artists and thinkers. The first paper mill was built in France in 1338. Paper was a Chinese invention (c. 600 AD), brought to Europe by the Arabs in the 11th century. There was a gradual shift from use of papyrus to paper, beginning in Spain, then Italy, then France. The Book of the Knight of La Tour-Landry (1370),
  7. 7. Historical Foundations was written for the instruction of the nobleman's daughters. Education for women was otherwise limited to those in religious orders. 1400-1499 Education in the Renaissance was a very selective affair. Women and the lower classes were still being excluded from education. At the same time, the first secondary schools appeared in Italy. Desiderius Erasmus, in 1450, wrote about the need for play and games in children's schoolwork. He believed it was a teacher's role to encourage children to think, instead of to display his own learning and have the child learn it verbatim. In 1456, the Gutenberg bible was printed. Approximately 40,000 copies were printed between 1450 and 1500. In 1492, the profession of book publisher emerged. 1500-1599 During the 16th century, women started focusing less on needlepoint, and more on liberal arts education. In 1529, Juan Luis Vives published his Instruction for a Christian Woman. Erasmus, and Sir Thomas More played a key role in introducing the new humanist learning into the great households. Some of the women of royal and noble families benefited from the humanist view that girls should receive an education in the liberal arts, as well as in
  8. 8. Historical Foundations the more usual fields of manners, housekeeping and basic religious knowledge. Other pieces of literature published during this time period influenced schools of thought and general instructional philosophies. The first complete edition of Aristotle's works published by Erasmus in 1531. The English Schoole-Maister was published in 1596. This book, by Edmund Coote, was one of the first about teaching the English language. In 1597, Francis Bacon published his Essays of Counsels, Civil and Moral. Topics included parenting, marriage and single life, friendship, and the role of custom in education. 1600-1699 Europeans settled in various regions, and influenced the creation and lack of educational systems. French settled from Canada down the Mississippi River Valley to Louisiana. The Jesuit priests journeyed with the settlers and educated the Indians and children of the settlers. The defeat of the French by the British in 1763 brought an end to French dreams of an empire and their educational efforts also diminished. The Spanish influence was heaviest in California where a number of missions were established and the Franciscan priests taught the Indians. The Dutch were influential in New Amsterdam, which became New York when the British took over. It was
  9. 9. Historical Foundations the English, however, who had the greatest influence on American education. Colonists came to America and set up schools exactly like the ones they knew in Europe. They were run and supported by the church. The curriculum was centered on the learning of letters, numbers, and prayers. The strict learning environment did not allow for crafts nor recess breaks, and only one out of ten children attended school. There were common characteristics shared by the 13 colonies: 1) Education was religious; its major aim was personal salvation; 2) Education was centered on social class: dual system, 2-tract, or class system. The children of workers should have minimal primary education in vernacular schools where they learned the 4 Rs (reading, writing, arithmetic, and religion); 3) The well-educated person would know the classical languages--Latin and Greek; 4) With the exception of Dame Schools (Kindergarten), education was only for boys; and 5) Most children in colonial times received their education through informal means such as the family, the farm, and the shop (where many boys were apprenticed). The family was the most important social and economic unit, and frequently the most important source of education as well. The New England Colonies (Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, and New Hampshire) were settled by the intensely-
  10. 10. Historical Foundations religious Puritans who followed the theology of John Calvin. They believed that the righteous would be saved and sinners would be damned. Puritans were supposed to be especially favored by God because they were hardworking, frugal, law-abiding, obedient to religious and civil authority, and literate (referred to as the Puritan or Protestant ethic). There was no separation between Church and State. In fact, church, state, and schools were closely related and were frequently governed by the same men. Children were born in sin, and were seen as little savages that needed strong measures to keep them in line. They were expected to act like adults, and corporal punishment was frequently used both at home and at school to control children's behavior. Schooling was very important as a means of educating children in religion and obedience to the laws of the colony. As early as 1642, the Massachusetts General Court required parents and masters of apprentices to see that their children could read and understand religious principles and laws of the colony. In 1647, the General Court enacted the Old Deluder Satan Law which required every township of 50 households to appoint and pay for an elementary teacher, and every township of 100 households to hire a Latin (secondary) teacher. These laws of 1642 and 1647 were significant in that they demonstrated that the colonial government was concerned about
  11. 11. Historical Foundations the education of its citizens, gave civil authorities some control of the schools, and indicated that taxation was to be used to support the schools. There were four types of colonial schools in New England: 1) Dame Schools were the equivalent of kindergarten. Classes were taught in a lady's kitchen while she did the chores. Both boys and girls learned the alphabet and numbers. Girls also learned cooking and sewing and household domestic duties; 2) Town Schools were the equivalent of elementary school. They were taught in the vernacular (mother tongue) and offered a basic curriculum of the 4 R's. Memorization and recitation were common teaching strategies found in town schools. Materials most commonly used were the Hornbook and the New England Primer. The teachers were all men and the students were all boys; 3) Latin grammar schools were secondary schools whose curriculum was mainly Latin and Greek grammar. A few boys who would go to Harvard attended them. The first Latin grammar school was established in Boston in 1635. Boston helped support the school with the income from a land sale, marking the beginning of public education in America; and 4) Colonial colleges prepared young men for the ministry and government service. In 1636, Massachusetts founded Harvard College, the first institution of higher learning in the colonies. The college had an average enrollment of about 20 male students.
  12. 12. Historical Foundations The Southern Colonies (Maryland, Virginia, Georgia and the Carolinas) were made up of settlers who considered themselves descendants of the Cavaliers, the English aristocrats who had supported the Stuart Kings against Cromwell. These landed gentry, unlike the Puritans, did not come to the colonies because they were persecuted. They came for economic reasons--to improve their family fortunes. Southern Colonists established the plantation system and a hierarchical social system. Plantation owners hired tutors to teach their sons and daughters. However, the children of poor rarely had any opportunity for formal education. Some were able to attend schools run by the SPG (Society for the Propagation of the Gospel) for paupers. Many were apprenticed. Generally, however, Southern colonies left the responsibility of education to parents and churches. The Middle Atlantic Colonies (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware) had a great diversity of settlers with no common language, religion, or cultural heritage. Many parochial (denominational) schools were established, while private venture schools prepared students for commercial trades. In 1637, French philosopher René Descartes proposed mathematics as the perfect model for reasoning and invented analytic geometry. In 1658,
  13. 13. Historical Foundations John Amos Comenius published the first-ever children's picture book, Orbis Pictus (The World Illustrated). The book became a best seller in every major European language. Comenius was a kind teacher, who thought that children were born with a natural goodness and craving for knowledge. He is now known by many as the father of modern education. 1700-1799 Schools in the colonies began to teach more practical subjects, like bookkeeping, navigation, and algebra. After the Revolutionary war and toward the end of the century, church control over schools declined in the U.S. and in most other western countries. Between 1776 and 1830, a number of new trends and patterns emerged in American education. Education became a state responsibility: the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1788, did not mention education; consequently, the states became responsible. However, the federal government showed an interest in the development of state educational systems by passing the Northwest Ordinances of 1785 and 1787. The Ordinance of 1785 required each territory to set aside the income from the 16th section of each township for the support of education (a township was 6 square miles, subdivided into 36 sections). The Ordinance of 1787 included a statement of the federal governments philosophy of education, saying that
  14. 14. Historical Foundations it was "necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind." Education for citizenship became more important than education for personal salvation. Men like Franklin, Webster, and Jefferson, realized that for the new Republic to survive, the citizens had to have an education in order to become intelligent voters. The concepts of republicanism, science, and nationalism became key elements in American education: 1) Republicanism: John Locke’s assertion that government arises from the consent of the governed. Education for republican citizenship implied imparting those skill, knowledge, and attitudes that would help the new republic endure and flourish. 2) Science: An Enlightenment concept based on the belief that individuals could discover the laws of the universe. The scientific outlook called for experimentation and reexamination of accepted beliefs. 3) Nationalism: This concept stressed a sense of American identity and loyalty. There were many important contributors to educational thought during the 18th century. Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), was the founder of the American Philosophical Society. His Poor Richard's Almanac emphasized values such as frugality, hard work, and inventiveness. In 1731, he founded the first public library in America, and chartered it as the Philadelphia
  15. 15. Historical Foundations Library in 1742. Franklin advocated a utilitarian and scientific education, and founded the Philadelphia Academy in 1749. This was significant because it presented an alternative to the Latin Grammar School and anticipated the rise of academies and high schools. The school offered a religion-based curriculum, like its Latin School counterpart, but it also taught courses that applied to everyday life, such as history, merchant accounts, algebra, surveying, modern languages, and navigation. In 1779, the academy became the University of Pennsylvania. Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), was president of the American Philosophical Association. He was also author of the "Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge," 1779 which was based on the following assumptions: a) Schools should produce a literate citizenry; b) State was responsible for providing schools; c) Schools should be secular rather than religious; and d) Schools should identify the academically talented Noah Webster (1758-1843) was an important influence on the development of American English and American culture. He wrote the American Spelling Book, also known as the blue-back speller, which simplified and standardized the language, and imparted "American" values. He also wrote the American Dictionary, which we know as Webster's. Interest in state control of education was on the rise. An ordinance
  16. 16. Historical Foundations passed in 1785, declaring that the income gained from the sale of the land at the center of each township was to be used for public elementary schools. In 1787, another ordinance confirmed this land policy, insuring the establishment of elementary schools in the Northwest Territory. It set a new standard of federal aid to education. In France, Jean Jacques Rousseau was publishing literary works reflecting his school of thought, Naturalism. Central to his political and educational philosophy was his belief that human character should be formed according to nature. In Emile, Rousseau’s didactic novel, a boy, in experiencing a natural education, has his character develop naturally, in a country estate, away from corrupting social institutions and conventions. In the novel, he identified stages of human growth and development, and organized education according to Emile’s stages of development. According to Rousseau, the child is a noble savage, a primitive unspoiled by the nices of a corrupting society. The child’s needs, instincts and impulses are to be trusted and relied upon as the raw ingredients of further education. When these impulses are acted upon, they lead to sensory experience that provide a direct relationship with the environment—thus, leading to clear ideas and reflection.
  17. 17. Historical Foundations 1800-1899 The industrial revolution took hold, changing both the U.S. economy and its educational system. Public schools, kindergarten, and teacher training were all introduced in this century. American society changed from a rural-agricultural society to an urban-industrial society, which required workers with at least basic literacy skills. Educational responses to this need included: 1) Industrial schools based on the ideas of William Maclure (1763-1840) which taught basic science and its industrial and agricultural applications. He supported Pestalozzian methods, and believed that schools should be used to bring about social change (philosophy of Social Reconstructionism); 2) Monitorial schools based on the ideas of Joseph Lancaster (Lancasterian Schools) who claimed it was possible to educate large numbers of children effectively and cheaply. Essentially, a master teacher would train aids or monitors who, in turn, would teach the other students; 3) Sunday schools: Children who worked 6-day weeks in the factories were taught the basics of reading, writing, and religion on Sundays; 4) Infant schools were a prototype of the modern day-care center, devised by Scottish industrialist, Robert Owen, for the young mothers who worked in his factories.
  18. 18. Historical Foundations These efforts were not sufficient to meet the needs of American society. Consequently, the Common School, the forerunner of the American public school came into existence between 1830 and 1850. The Common School idea grew out of New England's locally controlled schools. Supporters of the common school included political and educational reformers like Horace Mann, James Carter, Thaddeus Stevens, Henry Barnard, and Wm. T. Harris. These men were believers in the Jeffersonian ideal in education (the concept that the republic could not survive and thrive without an educated citizenry); advocates of public education as a means of social and economic advancement for their children; and nationalists who wanted the schools to cultivate common values, loyalties, and a sense of Americanness in children from different ethnic backgrounds. Opponents of the common school included owners of factories, mines, and plantations who did not want to lose cheap child labor; pluralistic groups who wanted their children taught in their own language, religion, and traditions; and those who did not want to raise taxes (legislators), as well as those who did not want to pay taxes for the support of education. The common school included grades 1-8, eventually each in its own classroom with its own teacher. It was free, because it was supported by taxes. Eventually, the common school was compulsory, universal, non-
  19. 19. Historical Foundations sectarian, and staffed by trained teachers. The movement was first successful in the New England states, with Massachusetts leading the way. The Middle Atlantic states were slower, with Lancasterianism holding on. The Southern states did not have public school systems until after the Civil War. After 1850, the common school was found in 2 major versions: the urban public school found in large cities like Boston and New York, and the country school, commonly referred to as the "one-room school house." The locally-elected school boards established and ran virtually every aspect of the school. One simply-furnished room held all the children in the school district, each working at his or her own level (ungraded) with one teacher in charge. Both males and females, with varying degrees of professional education were teachers. The standard curriculum included the 3 Rs, Spelling and perhaps history, geography, or elocution (public speaking). The standard methods were memorization and recitation. Henry Barnard (1811-1900) was one of the founders of the common school movement, along with Horace Mann. He worked both in Connecticut and Rhode Island to establish a public school system, and then went on to head the University of Wisconsin and to serve as the first U.S. Commissioner of Education (1867-1870). He edited 2 of the first journals
  20. 20. Historical Foundations related to education-The Connecticut Common School Journal and the American Journal of Education. He proposed that the common school teach the basic skill, civic values, the principles of health and diet, and careful observation and reflection (thinking skills). He supported the establishment of normal schools for teacher education and higher pay for teachers. William Torrey Harris (1835-1909) was a major educational leader after the Civil War as superintendent of schools in St. Louis, and then as U.S. Commissioner of Education (1889-1906). He advocated that schools transmit the cultural heritage to the young through a carefully designed curriculum, stressing such values as self-discipline, obedience, respect for property, and good citizenship. Under Harris, St. Louis established the first successful public kindergarten program in 1873. In the early 19th century, the colonial Latin grammar school declined and was largely replaced by the academy, a private secondary institution that taught more varied and practical courses. After the Kalamazoo case of 1874, in which the Supreme Court of Michigan ruled that school districts could support high schools with taxes, high schools became more and more popular (because they were free and because they trained students for jobs in an increasingly industrial society). High schools evolved from one-track academic institutions to comprehensive schools in the early 20th century.
  21. 21. Historical Foundations In 1821, Boston opens the nation's first public high school, and in 1827, Massachusetts passes a law that requires towns of 500 families or more to establish high schools. Other states soon followed. By mid-century, public high schools absorbed their Latin grammar school predecessors. Towns begin to establish separate secondary schools for girls. The first state board of education is established in Massachusetts in 1837, and Horace Mann is its first secretary. In 1839, Horace Mann begins the nation's first teacher-training school in Massachusetts. Friedrich Froebel founds the first kindergarten in Blakenburg, Germany. It uses stories, play, crafts, and songs to stimulate children's imaginations and help develop motor skills (Our nation's first public kindergarten opens in St. Louis later in 1873). By 1850, the Industrial Revolution is in full swing. One-room schools in urban areas are on the decline as new schools begin to follow the assembly-line model, where students move from class to class, teacher to teacher. Massachusetts passes the first compulsory school-attendance law in the U.S. in 1852. By 1918, every state has a similar law. In 1862, Congress passes the Morrill Act, or "Land Grant" Act, which gives vast areas of federal land to states. It requires them to sell the land and use the money to
  22. 22. Historical Foundations establish agricultural and technical colleges. In 1874, A Michigan Supreme Court decision rules that local governments can use tax money to support elementary and secondary schools. Congress passes the second Morrill Act in 1890, which withholds grants from states that deny admission to land grant schools based on race. A state can still receive money if it establishes a separate school for blacks, as many Southern states do. 1900-1999 The civil rights movement and technology change the face of the 20th century classroom. In the 1950s, the U.S. Supreme Court bans segregation in public schools. In the 1990s, schools "log on" and computers invade the classroom. Changes in educational philosophy and curriculum came about in this era as well. In 1901, John Dewey wrote The Child and the Curriculum, and later Democracy and Education, in which he shows concern for the relationship between society and education. Dewey was a philosopher, psychologist, and educator. His philosophy of education focused on learning by doing rather than rote memorization. He criticized education that emphasizes amusing and keeping students busy. From Dewey’s educational philosophy came the emphasis on experience, activity, and problem-solving that helped to reshape our thinking about education and schooling.
  23. 23. Historical Foundations Progressive education, which was part of a larger Progressive Movement in U.S. history from about 1900-1920, was an antidote to traditional, conservative education. It was based on John Dewey’s philosophy of pragmatism and his work at the Laboratory School at the University of Chicago. (Earlier progressive educators include Europeans such as Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Froebel, and Montessori). Rather than stressing the old strategies of memorization and recitation, progressive educators advocated: problem-solving skills, learning through sense perception (learning by doing or hands-on learning), using a child's interests as the basis for developing a curriculum, self-discipline, and flexible methods (small group learning, independent research, field trips, etc.). Racial integration and school desegregation was another major event in American education in the 20th century. It all began with Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka in 1954 in which the Supreme Court unanimously struck down the "separate but equal" doctrine in American education. This was followed by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which protected voting rights, and guaranteed civil rights in employment and education. In education, the law empowered the federal government to file desegregation suits and to withhold federal funds from districts that practiced discrimination in federal programs.
  24. 24. Historical Foundations Maria Montessori opened her first school in 1907. Maria Montessori was credited with developing a classroom without walls, manipulative learning materials, teaching toys, and programmed instruction. Many considered her to be the 20th century's leading advocate for early childhood education. Anna Freud, Jean Piaget, Alfred Adler, and Erik Erikson studied under Montessori and made their own contributions to education and child psychology. Educational policies and mandates make their presence in public schools. School attendance becomes compulsory in every U.S. state in 1918, and in 1921, foreign language becomes part of the U.S. curriculum. "Superior" children in Cleveland's elementary schools study French. The debate between evolution and creation peaks with the Scopes Monkey Trial in 1925. John Scopes, a high-school science teacher in Dayton, Tennessee, is tried for teaching the theory of evolution. This is illegal under the Butler Statute, which states that any theory that denies creationism can't be taught in publicly funded schools. Scopes is convicted and fined $100. His conviction is later overturned on a technicality. The Soviet Union launches Sputnik, the world's first artificial satellite in 1957. Fearing that the Soviets will surpass the U.S. in science and
  25. 25. Historical Foundations technology, many schools adopt a more rigorous curriculum-based education. In court rulings of Engel v. Vitale in 1962, the U.S. Supreme Court finds that the state does not have the right to enforce prayer in public schools. Proposition 13 is passed in California (Proposition 2-1/2 in Massachusetts) in the 1970’s. This freezes property taxes, a major source of funding for public schools. California drops from first in the nation in per- student spending in 1978 to number 43 in 1998. In 1989, U.S. governors create the National Education Goals, which focus on increased standards, teaching salaries, graduation requirements, and state assessment. The Clinton administration later recasts these as Goals 2000, calling for a restructuring to focus on results over process and regulation. Proposition 187 passes in California in 1994, making it illegal for the children of undocumented immigrants to attend public school. Federal courts later hold Proposition 187 to be unconstitutional. In 1996, the same state, California, passes Proposition 209, outlawing affirmative action in public education. In 1998, bilingual education is outlawed in California. By the end of the millennium, nearly eight of every ten public schools in the nation have access to the Internet, more than double the proportion in 1994. There is debate on best-suited software, and hardware organization in
  26. 26. Historical Foundations educational settings. However, state and federal funds are allocated for the support and integration of technology into the curriculum. Websites History of Public Education in Texas http://www.tea.state.tx.us/tea/history.html History of Education Timeline http://fcis.oise.utoronto.ca/~daniel_schugurensky/assignment1/index.h tml Colonial Web http://www.msu.edu/user/patter90/colonial.htm Links to the World of John Dewey http://www.cisnet.com/teacher-ed/dewey.html Center for Dewey Studies http://www.siu.edu/~deweyctr/ John Dewey http://www.epistemelinks.com/Main/MainPers.asp Maria Montessori http://webdev.loyola.edu/dmarco/education/Montessori/maria.html Philosophers and Education http://www.ais.msstate.edu/AEE/8593/phil_ed/outline.html Essentialism http://www.soe.purdue.edu/fac/georgeoff/400/ESSENTIALISM.html Test your knowledge with online practice quizzes: Foundations of Education, Chapters 2-5 http://cwabacon.pearsoned.com/bookbind/pubbooks/mcnergney_ab/ch apter2/deluxe.html
  27. 27. Historical Foundations Bibliography Gutek, Gerald. (1988). Philosphical and Ideological Perspectives in Education. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Gutek, Gerald. (1992). Education and schooling in America (3rd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. McNergney, Robert F. and Herbert, Joanne M. (2001). Foundations of Education: The Challenge of Professional Practice (3rd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

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