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Landscape-scale management for sustainable development


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Presented by Terry Sunderland

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Landscape-scale management for sustainable development

  1. 1. THINKING beyond the canopy THINKING beyond the canopy Terry Sunderland Principal Scientist Presentation to IPB/Forest Information Centre 1st June 2016 Bogor, Indonesia Landscape-scale management for sustainable development
  2. 2. THINKING beyond the canopy What do we mean by landscapes? • Landscapes are often fuzzy concepts – they are not planning units • “A geographical construct that includes not only the biophysical components of an area but also the social, political, institutional and cultural components of that system”
  3. 3. THINKING beyond the canopy Development of the “Landscape Approach” 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010 - present 1980s: Integrated Rural Development 1998: Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM) 1985 onwards: Integrated Conservation & Development projects (ICDPs) Contributing Sciences: Ecosystem Management Landscape Ecology Island biogeography Conservation rooted frameworks e.g. “Ecosystem Approach” 1992: “Landscape Approach” first documented (Barrett 1992) (Integrated) Landscape Approach frameworks
  4. 4. THINKING beyond the canopy What are integrated landscape approaches? • A response to the failings of sectorial land management approaches • The latest in a series of attempts to concurrently address conservation, development and restoration challenges • A refinement of previous approaches • A method to integrate stakeholders at multiple scales • A framework to integrate policy and practice • A land management strategy to fulfill social, economic, ecological & cultural objectives, including forest restoration • A tool to assess performance and manage trade- offs within the landscape • All of the above?
  5. 5. THINKING beyond the canopy Shooting in the dark..? • Large body of literature on “landscape approaches” and “ecosystem approaches” but little consensus on the “how” of implementation • General principles and guidelines have largely been missing • However, need to avoid “one size fits all” approach. Context is everything: there is no silver bullet. • Complex landscapes; complex challenges
  6. 6. THINKING beyond the canopy Multi-functionality • Combination of separate land units with different functions (spatial segregation) • Different functions on the same unit of land but separated in time (temporal segregation) • Different functions on the same unit of land at the same time (functional integration or “real multi- functionality)
  7. 7. THINKING beyond the canopy But in reality, segregation is the norm Plantation Forest Agriculture
  8. 8. THINKING beyond the canopy “New” (landscape) approaches • CIFOR and multiple partners have been working on defining and refining broad “landscape approaches” building on previous initiatives • How? Review of published literature, multiple workshops for consensus building, conferences/side events (Global Landscapes Forum), site-based workshops • Validated by extensive survey of field practitioners, systematic reviews etc. • Based on this work, the Convention of Biodiversity (CBD) commissioned CIFOR to draft the report: “Sustainable use of biodiversity at the landscape scale” which was “taken note” of at COP11 in Hyderabad • “Ten principles” paper (Sayer et al. PNAS) + others
  9. 9. THINKING beyond the canopy So, what is new? • The landscape approach has been re-defined to include societal concerns related to conservation and development trade-offs and negotiate for them • Increased integration of poverty alleviation goals • Increased integration of agricultural production and food security • Emphasis is on adaptive management, stakeholder involvement and multiple objectives
  10. 10. THINKING beyond the canopy Landscapes and “management” • Collecting socio- economic data at various levels, engaging key stakeholders • Spatial data: administrative boundaries, land cover change and current land uses • “Governance landscape” including local (traditional) institutions • Focus on ecosystem services and agricultural productivity; moving away from protected areas alone
  11. 11. THINKING beyond the canopy The “Ten Commandments”...?
  12. 12. THINKING beyond the canopy Sayer et al. 2013 PNAS
  13. 13. THINKING beyond the canopy Getting the message out
  14. 14. THINKING beyond the canopy
  15. 15. THINKING beyond the canopy Initial outcomes and impacts? • USD50 million USAID project LESTARI have used the “ten principles” as an intervention framework for six landscapes in Indonesia • Conservation International used CIFOR’s research in the design of their Sustainable Landscapes Partnership • Wildlife Conservation Society have begun to implement landscape approaches as advised by CIFOR on the Asia Programme
  16. 16. THINKING beyond the canopy • World’s largest science-led platform on sustainable land use, identifying integrated landscape-based solutions • 148 organizations sharing knowledge • 12 new initiative launches • 12 private sector-led sessions • 3,200 participants • 1 President, 3 former Presidents • 18 Ministers and Vice Ministers, 8 Governors and regional leaders • 200 indigenous peoples’ reps, 50 youth innovators, 650 UNFCCC negotiators • Social media reach 15.7 million people on Twitter, 957 GLF mentions in media • Participant feedback: 96% rate Forum as successful or very successful Global landscapes forum - Paris Ministers pledged to restore 128 million ha of degraded lands in Africa and Latin America. Watershed initiatives by 75 cities and regions
  17. 17. THINKING beyond the canopy Aligning implementation pathways for SDG’s SDG Sustainable Development Goal Description L.A applicability 1 End poverty in all its forms everywhere Important 2 End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture Important 3 Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages Relevant 4 Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all Relevant 5 Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls Relevant/Not applicable 6 Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all Vital 7 Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all Relevant 8 Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all Relevant
  18. 18. THINKING beyond the canopy Aligning implementation pathways for SDG’s SDG Sustainable Development Goal Description L.A applicability 9 Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation Relevant 10 Reduce inequality within and among countries Relevant 11 Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable Relevant 12 Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns Relevant 13 Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts Important 14 Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources Important 15 Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems Vital 16 Promote peace and justice Not applicable 17 Strengthen partnerships for sustainable development Relevant
  19. 19. THINKING beyond the canopy Challenges of the landscape approach • Understanding complex systems is not straightforward • Understanding and influencing underlying trajectories of change • Functionality of landscape mosaics • The landscape approach is different to spatial planning. Landscapes are dynamic and subjective. Different people see them in different ways. • Trade-offs are the norm and have to be negotiated • There is no “end point” or best solution for a landscape – one can simply intervene to avoid negative outcomes and favour potentially better ones
  20. 20. THINKING beyond the canopy Some (final) tricky issues • What are we actually trying to achieve? • Who decides? • Strong (and trusted) facilitation • How to reconcile and negotiate for trade-offs? • How to predict outcomes and understand “landscape dynamics”? • Landscape approach is a process, not a project!
  21. 21. THINKING beyond the canopy @TCHSunderland