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CIFOR:
conservation, development, research
and prospects for REDD
Terry Sunderland, PhD
THINKING beyond the canopy

FFPRI,...
Presentation outline







Who we are
Where we work
Impact
Why forests matter
Our research agenda
ICDP experiences ...
Who we are:
Centre for International Forestry
Research
THINKING beyond the canopy
Purpose
We advance human wellbeing,
environmental conservation and
equity by conducting research to

inform policies and p...
Vision
We envision a world where:
 Forests are high on the political
agenda
 People recognise the value of forests
for m...
How we work
We are the only pro-poor policy

orientated forestry institute in the
world with a fully independent and
globa...
How we work
 200 staff globally
 A „centre without walls‟, working in
partnership with:
• governments
• non-governmental...
Where we work
THINKING beyond the canopy
Where we work

Dry forest

Humid forest

Tropical forest
THINKING beyond the canopy
Where we work

Bolivia

Brazil

Burkina Faso Zambia
Guinea
Cameroon
Ethiopia

Headquarters:

2 Regional offices
7 Research...
Impact: policy, publications etc.
THINKING beyond the canopy
Sustaining Cameroon’s forests
 CIFOR research identified a loophole in the 1994 Forest Law, which
meant almost 25% of tot...
Co-management for co-benefits
 Landscape Management for Improved Livelihoods
 Research identified policy options for str...
Getting the message out…

THINKING beyond the canopy
Forests matter
THINKING beyond the canopy
Forests matter
Economic value

Forests underpin many developing
economies and employ large
numbers of rural people.

THINK...
Forests matter
Economic value
Global

 Timber, pulp, paper = more than
$US150 billion

 NTFPs = more than $US10
billion
...
Forests matter
Economic value
Indonesia

 $US8.9 billion forest-sector
export earnings in 2006

 $US3 billion annual los...
Forests matter
Local livelihoods

More than a billion people depend
on forests for food, fuel, shelter and

medicines

THI...
Forests matter
Local livelihoods

Health and nutrition

 Bushmeat contributes 30 to 80%
of rural protein in Cameroon

 M...
Forests matter

Environmental services

Forests stabilise soils and
discourage erosion

 So they‟re important for transpo...
Forests matter

Environmental services

Forests regulate water supply

 So they‟re important for drinking
water, agricult...
Forests matter

Environmental services
Forests store atmospheric carbon

 So they‟re important for stabilizing
the Earth‟...
Forests matter
Biodiversity

15%

Make up
of Earth’s surface

50%

Home to
of land-based species

THINKING beyond the cano...
Our research agenda
THINKING beyond the canopy
CIFOR’s strategic research agenda

1
2

Enhancing the role of forests in mitigating climate change
Enhancing the role of f...
Domain 4: Conservation and
development trade-offs at the
landscape scale

 “CIFOR‟s goal [within this domain] is to shift...
Research
domain

4

Managing trade-offs between conservation and
development at the landscape scale

 Most forest biodive...
Research
domain

4

Managing trade-offs between conservation and
development at the landscape scale

Research themes
 Dev...
Research
domain

4

Managing trade-offs between conservation and
development at the landscape scale

Research projects
Bio...
Research
domain

4

Managing trade-offs between conservation and
development at the landscape scale

Research projects
Lan...
Research
domain

4

Managing trade-offs between conservation and
development at the landscape scale

Research projects
Sca...
What is REDD?
 Reducing Emissions from
Deforestation and forest
Degradation

 Forest conservation to compete
with driver...
ICDP’s and REDD: what relationship?
 ICDP‟s = Integrated conservation and development projects







(traditional ...
Brief history of ICDP’s
 Conservation projects that include elements of local








development
Linking biodiver...
ICDP best practices of relevance to
REDD
 Have measurable and




clearly defined goals
Project duration should
reflec...
ICDP practices that require greater
diligence for REDD
 National policies should support project activities
 Locally bas...
The key issues
 We do not suggest that all REDD projects should always








follow the ICDP approach
REDD implem...
A silver bullet?…

“REDD could provide us with the greatest opportunity for forest
conservation and the equitable sharing ...
Road to Copenhagen
 COP13 (Bali, 2007), Forest Day 1

• Do Trees Grow on Money?
 COP14 (Poznan, 2008), Forest Day 2
• Mo...
Precedents

 Climate change is the most pressing issue in our lifetime
(Myers, 1988)
 “What have we done to the Earth” (...
www.cifor.cgiar.org

Thank you!!
Arigatou!!

THINKING beyond the canopy
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CIFOR: conservation, development, research and prospects for REDD

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This presentation by Terry Sunderland presents CIFOR and it's research agenda as well as the ICDP and REDD experiences.

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CIFOR: conservation, development, research and prospects for REDD

  1. 1. CIFOR: conservation, development, research and prospects for REDD Terry Sunderland, PhD THINKING beyond the canopy FFPRI, Tsukuba, 9th November 2009
  2. 2. Presentation outline       Who we are Where we work Impact Why forests matter Our research agenda ICDP experiences and REDD THINKING beyond the canopy
  3. 3. Who we are: Centre for International Forestry Research THINKING beyond the canopy
  4. 4. Purpose We advance human wellbeing, environmental conservation and equity by conducting research to inform policies and practices that affect forests in developing countries. THINKING beyond the canopy
  5. 5. Vision We envision a world where:  Forests are high on the political agenda  People recognise the value of forests for maintaining livelihoods and ecosystems  Decisions that influence forests and the people that depend on them are based on solid science and principles of good governance, and reflect the perspectives of developing countries and forest-dependent people THINKING beyond the canopy
  6. 6. How we work We are the only pro-poor policy orientated forestry institute in the world with a fully independent and global mandate that focuses primarily on creating International Public Goods. THINKING beyond the canopy
  7. 7. How we work  200 staff globally  A „centre without walls‟, working in partnership with: • governments • non-governmental organisations • international organisations • development agencies • civil society • foresters • media • private sector THINKING beyond the canopy
  8. 8. Where we work THINKING beyond the canopy
  9. 9. Where we work Dry forest Humid forest Tropical forest THINKING beyond the canopy
  10. 10. Where we work Bolivia Brazil Burkina Faso Zambia Guinea Cameroon Ethiopia Headquarters: 2 Regional offices 7 Research sites 37Project offices Bogor, Indonesia Laos Vietnam THINKING beyond the canopy
  11. 11. Impact: policy, publications etc. THINKING beyond the canopy
  12. 12. Sustaining Cameroon’s forests  CIFOR research identified a loophole in the 1994 Forest Law, which meant almost 25% of total timber production in 2006 was drawn from unlisted valuable species  Ministry of Forests and Fauna has since revised the law  Impacts are likely to include conservation of forest resources and improved revenue flows (including community welfare) THINKING beyond the canopy
  13. 13. Co-management for co-benefits  Landscape Management for Improved Livelihoods  Research identified policy options for strengthening community forests as legal entities and practical options for agricultural intensification  Impacts have included up to threefold increases in local incomes, and significant growth in vegetation cover THINKING beyond the canopy
  14. 14. Getting the message out… THINKING beyond the canopy
  15. 15. Forests matter THINKING beyond the canopy
  16. 16. Forests matter Economic value Forests underpin many developing economies and employ large numbers of rural people. THINKING beyond the canopy
  17. 17. Forests matter Economic value Global  Timber, pulp, paper = more than $US150 billion  NTFPs = more than $US10 billion  Forests provide a third of rural, nonfarm employment in many developing countries THINKING beyond the canopy
  18. 18. Forests matter Economic value Indonesia  $US8.9 billion forest-sector export earnings in 2006  $US3 billion annual loss from undocumented timber extraction  $US1 billion development aid to forestry sector, 1988-2008 THINKING beyond the canopy
  19. 19. Forests matter Local livelihoods More than a billion people depend on forests for food, fuel, shelter and medicines THINKING beyond the canopy
  20. 20. Forests matter Local livelihoods Health and nutrition  Bushmeat contributes 30 to 80% of rural protein in Cameroon  Medicinal plants play a major role in primary health care and treating and preventing illness THINKING beyond the canopy
  21. 21. Forests matter Environmental services Forests stabilise soils and discourage erosion  So they‟re important for transport and infrastructure THINKING beyond the canopy
  22. 22. Forests matter Environmental services Forests regulate water supply  So they‟re important for drinking water, agriculture and hydroenergy THINKING beyond the canopy
  23. 23. Forests matter Environmental services Forests store atmospheric carbon  So they‟re important for stabilizing the Earth‟s climate  Forests absorb around15% of global emissions  Their destruction generates around 20% of global emissions THINKING beyond the canopy
  24. 24. Forests matter Biodiversity 15% Make up of Earth’s surface 50% Home to of land-based species THINKING beyond the canopy
  25. 25. Our research agenda THINKING beyond the canopy
  26. 26. CIFOR’s strategic research agenda 1 2 Enhancing the role of forests in mitigating climate change Enhancing the role of forests in adapting to climate change 3 4 Improving livelihoods through smallholder and community forestry 5 6 Managing impacts of globalised trade and investment on forests and forest communities Managing trade-offs between conservation and development at the landscape scale Sustainably managing tropical production forests THINKING beyond the canopy
  27. 27. Domain 4: Conservation and development trade-offs at the landscape scale  “CIFOR‟s goal [within this domain] is to shift policy and practice toward conservation and development approaches that are more effective, efficient and THINKING beyond the canopy equitable in process and outcome”
  28. 28. Research domain 4 Managing trade-offs between conservation and development at the landscape scale  Most forest biodiversity occurs outside protected areas  So trade-offs are often required between the needs of people and the need for forest conservation  Payments for Environmental Services (PES) • including carbon, watersheds, aesthetic value, biodiversity THINKING beyond the canopy
  29. 29. Research domain 4 Managing trade-offs between conservation and development at the landscape scale Research themes  Developing better methods for assessing environmental services  Establishing platforms for negotiating conservation and development trade-offs  Understanding the relative effectiveness of institutional frameworks and alternative conservation approaches THINKING beyond the canopy
  30. 30. Research domain 4 Managing trade-offs between conservation and development at the landscape scale Research projects Biodiversity in landscape mosaics • • Cameroon, Indonesia, Laos, Madagascar, Tanzania Funded by SDC THINKING beyond the canopy
  31. 31. Research domain 4 Managing trade-offs between conservation and development at the landscape scale Research projects Landscape management for improved livelihoods (LAMIL) • • Guinea, Sierra Leone Funded by USAID THINKING beyond the canopy
  32. 32. Research domain 4 Managing trade-offs between conservation and development at the landscape scale Research projects Scaling up payments for watershed services (PWS) • • Bolivia, Ecuador, India, South Africa Funded by the CGIAR THINKING beyond the canopy
  33. 33. What is REDD?  Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation  Forest conservation to compete with drivers of deforestation  Co-benefits include poverty alleviation, biodiversity protection and improved forest governance  3E’s: Effectiveness, Efficiency, Equity THINKING beyond the canopy
  34. 34. ICDP’s and REDD: what relationship?  ICDP‟s = Integrated conservation and development projects       (traditional means of tropical forest conservation) REDD = post-Kyoto mechanism for funding carbon storage in tropical forests Masters study undertaken by Betsy Hill from Charles Darwin University: analysis of ICDP‟s in Lower Mekong Identified constraints to ICDP implementation and what constitutes “best practice” Much to learn from ICDP implementation for REDD Build upon experience to ensure that REDD projects comply to the “3 e‟s”: effective, efficient and equitable REDD conceptually linked closely with Payments for Environmental Services (PES) THINKING beyond the canopy
  35. 35. Brief history of ICDP’s  Conservation projects that include elements of local        development Linking biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation Compensating for preservationist approaches However, ICDP‟s have poor track record and have been roundly criticised (“back to the barriers”) Accountability an issue (lack of monitoring) Yet remain pervasive approach to delivery of tropical conservation initiatives REDD initiatives expected to be incorporated into post Kyoto international climate change agreements But initial REDD examples resemble ICDP approach hence important to learn from experience THINKING beyond the canopy
  36. 36. ICDP best practices of relevance to REDD  Have measurable and    clearly defined goals Project duration should reflect time commitment needed to achieve goals Markets must be available for participants goods and services Mechanisms for monitoring and evaluation should be in place THINKING beyond the canopy
  37. 37. ICDP practices that require greater diligence for REDD  National policies should support project activities  Locally based conservation should be applied where        threats and solutions are local Recognise and negotiate for trade-offs Develop understanding of community heterogeneity and complexity Develop understanding of community needs Design projects to be adaptable Involve local stakeholders at all stages Collaborate with all potential partners Do what you are good at: get others to do the rest! THINKING beyond the canopy
  38. 38. The key issues  We do not suggest that all REDD projects should always       follow the ICDP approach REDD implementation will be far more complex than ICDP implementation However, experience of ICDPs show that project design are important for overall project success Must be careful not to regard REDD as a new approach Have seen these before (NTFP development, CBNRM, ICDP‟s, forest certification…) MUST integrate a pluralistic approach learning from project experiences Or we will be reviewing REDD experiences in the same way as ICDPs THINKING beyond the canopy
  39. 39. A silver bullet?… “REDD could provide us with the greatest opportunity for forest conservation and the equitable sharing of benefits for local communities or it could turn into yet another case of false promises, unrealistic expectations and diverted funds that will ultimately fail in slowing carbon emissions and conserving biodiversity, unless we learn from past experiences.” Editorial: The Guardian, 28th October, 2009 THINKING beyond the canopy
  40. 40. Road to Copenhagen  COP13 (Bali, 2007), Forest Day 1 • Do Trees Grow on Money?  COP14 (Poznan, 2008), Forest Day 2 • Moving ahead with REDD; Facing an Uncertain Future  COP15 (Copenhagen, 2009), Forest Day 3 THINKING beyond the canopy
  41. 41. Precedents  Climate change is the most pressing issue in our lifetime (Myers, 1988)  “What have we done to the Earth” (Jim Morrison, 1967) THINKING beyond the canopy
  42. 42. www.cifor.cgiar.org Thank you!! Arigatou!! THINKING beyond the canopy

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