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Integrated landscape approaches: Lessons learned from COLANDS

Presented by Terry Sunderland on behalf of the COLANDS team (CIFOR-ICRAF) at Landscapes for our Future Summit 15th October, 2023

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Integrated landscape approaches:
Lessons learned from COLANDS
cifor.org/colands
Terry Sunderland, on behalf of the COLANDS team
Landscapes for our Future Summit
15th October, 2023
1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s ------------------- present
1980s: Integrated Rural
Development
1998: Integrated Natural Resource
Management (INRM)
1985 onwards: Integrated
Conservation & Development
projects (ICDPs)
Contributing Sciences:
Ecosystem Management
Landscape Ecology
Island biogeography
Conservation rooted frameworks
e.g. “Ecosystem Approach”
1983: “Landscape Approach”
first documented (Noss, 1983) 2013 - present:
(Integrated) Landscape
Approaches
2013: “Ten Principles for a
Landscape Approach”
(Sayer et al. 2013)
The evolution of integrated (landscape) approaches
(Reed et al. 2016,
Global Ch. Biol.)
Operationalising landscape approaches: From theory to practice
THEORY & POLICY
PRACTICE:
Integration &
evaluation
Local stakeholders:
NGO’s; CSO’s
Local communities
Private sector
Local government
Drivers:
Researchers
Policy makers
Central government
The COLANDS initiative….
• Concept first submitted in May 2015
• Invited to re-submit in 2016
• Full proposal development through
2017
• Continued refinement* to June
2018 when project commenced
• Scheduled to end in June 2023 but
extension to November 2023
• Focused on landscapes in Zambia,
Ghana and Indonesia
*Delayed due to our refusal to supply a
Project Logical Framework as part of the
proposal
• To address gaps between strong scientific theory and weak implementation
• To facilitate multi-stakeholder dialogue to benefit actors across multiple
sectors and decision-making scales
• Raise awareness of the value of biological diversity in complex landscapes to
inform national policies and global commitments
• To empower marginalized groups to effectively participate in decision-making
processes
• To test the extent to which implementation of landscape approaches can
reduce conflict between resource exploitation and other forest uses
Project objectives
Approach and target groups
• Approach has been “bottom up”, which
involves government, civil society and
local communities.
• The primary targets are multi-stakeholder
platforms across multiple scales, regional
to national.
• Facilitation not implementation!

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Integrated landscape approaches: Lessons learned from COLANDS

  • 1. Integrated landscape approaches: Lessons learned from COLANDS cifor.org/colands Terry Sunderland, on behalf of the COLANDS team Landscapes for our Future Summit 15th October, 2023
  • 2. 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s ------------------- present 1980s: Integrated Rural Development 1998: Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM) 1985 onwards: Integrated Conservation & Development projects (ICDPs) Contributing Sciences: Ecosystem Management Landscape Ecology Island biogeography Conservation rooted frameworks e.g. “Ecosystem Approach” 1983: “Landscape Approach” first documented (Noss, 1983) 2013 - present: (Integrated) Landscape Approaches 2013: “Ten Principles for a Landscape Approach” (Sayer et al. 2013) The evolution of integrated (landscape) approaches (Reed et al. 2016, Global Ch. Biol.)
  • 3. Operationalising landscape approaches: From theory to practice THEORY & POLICY PRACTICE: Integration & evaluation Local stakeholders: NGO’s; CSO’s Local communities Private sector Local government Drivers: Researchers Policy makers Central government
  • 4. The COLANDS initiative…. • Concept first submitted in May 2015 • Invited to re-submit in 2016 • Full proposal development through 2017 • Continued refinement* to June 2018 when project commenced • Scheduled to end in June 2023 but extension to November 2023 • Focused on landscapes in Zambia, Ghana and Indonesia *Delayed due to our refusal to supply a Project Logical Framework as part of the proposal
  • 5. • To address gaps between strong scientific theory and weak implementation • To facilitate multi-stakeholder dialogue to benefit actors across multiple sectors and decision-making scales • Raise awareness of the value of biological diversity in complex landscapes to inform national policies and global commitments • To empower marginalized groups to effectively participate in decision-making processes • To test the extent to which implementation of landscape approaches can reduce conflict between resource exploitation and other forest uses Project objectives
  • 6. Approach and target groups • Approach has been “bottom up”, which involves government, civil society and local communities. • The primary targets are multi-stakeholder platforms across multiple scales, regional to national. • Facilitation not implementation!
  • 8. Theoretical perspective of legal pluralism and polycentric governance in Indonesia: Augusta Anandi • Social Forestry in Indonesia closely aligns with the ten principles. • Value the importance of local knowledge. • Alignment of statutory and customary tenure arrangements. • Role of local champions should be recognised. • Address issues of financial insecurity and the need for improved monitoring and evaluation.
  • 9. Understanding collaborative landscape governance to inform integrated landscape approaches: Alida O’Connor • Over 100 land use priorities identified; most common were agriculture, trees, livestock, water, & livelihood opportunities • Different stakeholders exerted different types of power to achieve shared priorities • Collaborative processes, such as ILAs, have potential to make power dynamics more complimentary and equitable • Collaboration is happening, however, to strengthen across groups and scales, long term support is needed
  • 10. Towards inclusive and negotiated environmental governance: Freddie Siangulube “MSP design should improve linkages of global, regional and national goals to local objectives for inclusive decision- making processes and ensuring institutionalisation of policies at the local level where impacts are felt”.
  • 11. Emerging challenges and opportunities for ILAs: Sam Adeyanju • Although, ILAs are being implemented globally, there is limitedevaluation of landscape approaches in practice. (The LFF experience from 19 countries could help address this) • Limited private sector engagement in ILA hinders opportunity for capacity building and diversifying sources of support. • ILA Sustainability is dependent on long-term financing and sustained multistakeholder motivation.
  • 12. Community engagement in landscape governance and prospects for operationalising integrated landscape approaches in northern Ghana; Eric Bayala • Stakeholders perceive landscape problems and solutions differently. Exclusion of Fulani herdsmen extreme example. • Conflicting relationships, power imbalances, and weak governance capacity hinder inclusive landscape governance. • Knowledge, culture, and power inequities influence trade-off negotiations and consensus-building: inclusive platforms for multistakeholder processes are necessary to bring actors to a common vision.
  • 13. How can local knowledge contribute to the implementation of ILAs in Kalomo district, Zambia? Malaika Yanou • Local knowledge is central to land use and conservation goals • Documentation valuing Indigenous and local knowledge, addressing power relations is needed • Further research is required for insights into how the hybridisation of local and external knowledge and ethics can be effectively and equitably integrated into ILAs • MSPs demonstrate potential for interaction amongst various knowledge systems, but better strategies are needed for more equitable and collaborative processes to foster their influence on policymaking.
  • 14. Need to move from “project” to “process” Natural Science Social Science Borgstrom 2019: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13280-018-01142-1
  • 15. Summary of lessons learned: • Short-term nature of project cycles not appropriate at the landscape scale • Related to this, external finance needed to support MSP’s • Local knowledge should be integrated into management strategies • Need to link the national with the local in terms of policy adherence • Recognise differing land tenure arrangements (customary vs statutory) • Understand power relations • Engage private sector • MSP’s important to negotiate shared vision and trade-offs • Facilitation not implementation!
  • 16. Thank you This project is working with CIFOR, the Global Landscapes Forum (GLF) and other partners to conduct innovative research related to landscapes, including forestry and other productive processes; as well as the essential work of engaging multiple stakeholders www.cifor.org/colands terry.sunderland@ubc.ca