Landscape approach initiatives and traditional village
systems: learning for sustainable use of natural resources
Per Ange...
Outline
• Research: need for knowledge production and
learning
• Landscape approaches
– Need to diagnose/evaluate concepts...
Managers’ reality is not disciplinary
• Natural sciences
– Goods
– Species, habitats and ecosystem processes
• Human scien...
Knowledge production
• To produce the needed knowledge
+
• To communicate the knowledge to the
people that need it
=
• Soc...
“The path forward lies
in shifting to an integrated landscape
approach, working with partners
outside the sector to develo...
Landscape approach as a tool
• Focus on a concrete area (= landscape)
– 10,000 to 1,000,000 ha
• Collaboration (sustainabl...
Different kinds of research
(Tress, Tress and Fry 2006)
Economic and
environmental
historyGeography
Finding scientific common ground?
Space
Conservation
biologyEcology
Policy
Soc...
Policy
Management in
actual landscape
”Policy cycle”
Assessment Governance
Policy
Management in
actual landscape
”Policy cycle”
Assessment Governance
(Michael Grodzinski 2005)
Step 1:
To identify a
case study
landscape
Step 2:
To study the
environmental
and economic
history
Step 3:
To map actors,
...
1. Identify a case study
landscape
• Biophysical
conditions (e.g.,
ecoregion)
• Economic history
• System of
governance
2. Environmental history
• What happened?
– Important phases
and consequences
• Who did it?
– Actors
• Why did it happen?
...
3. Map actors and their use
of “products” and land use
• Land owners
• Land users
• Goods, services
and values
• Managemen...
4. Analyse policies and
system of governance
• Multiple levels
– Local to global
• Multiple sectors
– Private, public, civ...
5. Measure ecological, economic
and socio-cultural dimensions
• Choose indicators
• Use indicators
– Statistics
– Maps
– G...
6. Assess sustainability dimensions
in the landscape
• Reference
conditions
• Ecological
thresholds
• Compare state and
tr...
7. Synthesis
• Comparative
studies
• Education material
• Communication
• Learning processes
Sweden and Russia
The Habsburg Empire
KRAKOW
LJUBLJANA
Europe as a
”landscape laboratory”
Scaling up using
multiple case studies
• Concepts aiming at landscape approach
– Review of 16 concepts’ trajectories of de...
16 concepts
• Global
– Agenda 21, Biosphere Reserve, Model Forest,
Ramsar
• African
– Campfire, Vi Agroforestry, Land husb...
Economic
Ecological Social
Economic
Ecological Social
Biosphere Reserve (n=32)
and Model Forest (n=32)
• ecological values
• cultural
values
economical values
•
• social
values...
Vi Agroforestry Programme
(Karl-Erik Johansson, Ngolia Kimanzu, Robert Axelsson, Per Angelstam ms.)
• Mara region in Tanza...
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
1997* 1998* 1999* 2000** 2001***
No of new ≥1srv Hhs accumulated No of ≥1srv Hhs
Households...
Variation in Agroforestry adoption
Inter-village variation in the proportion of households
with 10 or more AF-trees
0
0.2
...
Governance arrangement is key
(= sector + level + power)
Public Private Civil
Macro
Meso
Micro
Rostochya, Ukraine
Village structure...
settlementsout-field / forest
in-field /
meadow
in-field /
crops
...and social system
Traditional village system
Silva
Saltus
Ager
Hortus
Domus
Magnus Jirström
Lennart Olsson
Agnes Andersson
Thomas Rosswall
Bernard Vanlauwe
Lennart Båge
SLU’s mission:
• Research
• Education
• Environmental assessment
• Collaboration
• Need to improve integration
CONSIDERABL...
Obstacles to be overcome
• From disciplinary/silo to integrative –
weaken department and faculty borders
• Collaborative w...
Read more
• Axelsson, R. 2009. Landscape Approach for sustainable development. from
applied research to transdisciplinary ...
Landscape Approach Initiatives and Traditional Village Systems: Leaning for Sustainable Use of Natural Resources
Landscape Approach Initiatives and Traditional Village Systems: Leaning for Sustainable Use of Natural Resources
Landscape Approach Initiatives and Traditional Village Systems: Leaning for Sustainable Use of Natural Resources
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Landscape Approach Initiatives and Traditional Village Systems: Leaning for Sustainable Use of Natural Resources

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This study was presented during the conference “Production and Carbon Dynamics in Sustainable Agricultural and Forest Systems in Africa” held in September, 2010.

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Landscape Approach Initiatives and Traditional Village Systems: Leaning for Sustainable Use of Natural Resources

  1. 1. Landscape approach initiatives and traditional village systems: learning for sustainable use of natural resources Per Angelstam, Robert Axelsson, Marine Elbakidze, Monica Castro-Larrañaga, Karl-Erik Johansson, Ngolia Kimanzu, Shyamala Mani, Andrzej Szujecki, Johan Törnblom Management ABSTRACT: Sustainable Development (SD) and sustainability imply a major turning point for the formulation of global, national and business policies on the governance and management of natural resources and landscape values. Even if SD and sustainability has many interpretations, it is ultimately about satisfying ecological, economic and socio-cultural dimensions, and how they can be balanced by adaptive governance at multiple levels. To realize the vision of SD as a process and sustainability as a goal in actual landscapes, a number of concepts have been developed with the aim to create local governance arrangements where landscapes’ actors and stakeholders can meet, cooperate, produce and apply new knowledge for sustainable use of natural resources. The term ‘landscape approach’ captures this. We review the contents of four international, four African, four European and four Indian concepts designed to implement SD and sustainability policies on the ground. We make two conclusions. First, even if the starting points in terms of different dimensions of SD of actual landscapes as integrated social-ecological systems were different, the evolution of different local initiatives and different concepts has been similar in terms of balancing different dimensions of sustainability. However, the level of collaboration among actors and stakeholder in social-ecological systems differ, and often sustainability outcomes are not evaluated. Second, we argue that new and emerging concepts have much to learn from regionally adapted traditional village systems with governance systems that have evolved over long time before the SD discourse appeared. Finally, we stress the need to learn about the experiences from implementation of different landscape approach concepts by empirical applied interdisciplinary knowledge production using multiple case studies in real landscapes as social-ecological systems. Landscape approach initiatives located in large regions with differences in economic history and local governance arrangements, such as in Africa and the European and Indian subcontinents, are particularly interesting. *** DISCUSSION: The presentation was followed by a discussion on how to actually go about merging different disciplines and competences at the landscape level in one research project. This particular initiative has strived for: 1) building partnerships with different forest users such as the church, forest companies and municipalities, who have all realised that collaboration is necessary, and 2) formulating an agenda based on different actors’ interests, rather than focusing on fixed targets and projects.
  2. 2. Outline • Research: need for knowledge production and learning • Landscape approaches – Need to diagnose/evaluate concepts, application initiatives, and outcomes on the ground • Traditional Village System • Prescribe change to efforts which are: – Long-term, collaborative, on-the-gound, integrative, imply more work together, provide learning opportunity
  3. 3. Managers’ reality is not disciplinary • Natural sciences – Goods – Species, habitats and ecosystem processes • Human sciences – Humanities (cultural values and context) – Social sciences (understanding decision-makers life world, planning processes, governance etc.) • Tools and engineering – “Hardware” – management of natural resources – “Software” – learning and governance
  4. 4. Knowledge production • To produce the needed knowledge + • To communicate the knowledge to the people that need it = • Social learning processes (Gibbons et al. 1993, 1999)
  5. 5. “The path forward lies in shifting to an integrated landscape approach, working with partners outside the sector to develop sustainable multi-sector responses.” XIII World Forestry Congress 2009, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Forest Development: A Vital Balance, Findings and Strategic Actions.
  6. 6. Landscape approach as a tool • Focus on a concrete area (= landscape) – 10,000 to 1,000,000 ha • Collaboration (sustainable development process) – Private, public and civil sector • Commitment to sustainability (tangible and intangible benefits) – Criteria & Indicators & Norms • Production of new knowledge and tools – Quality assurance by external peer-review • Sharing of knowledge and experiences – Education, communication and public awareness
  7. 7. Different kinds of research (Tress, Tress and Fry 2006)
  8. 8. Economic and environmental historyGeography Finding scientific common ground? Space Conservation biologyEcology Policy Social sciences
  9. 9. Policy Management in actual landscape ”Policy cycle” Assessment Governance
  10. 10. Policy Management in actual landscape ”Policy cycle” Assessment Governance
  11. 11. (Michael Grodzinski 2005)
  12. 12. Step 1: To identify a case study landscape Step 2: To study the environmental and economic history Step 3: To map actors, stakeholders, products and land use Step 4: To analyse policies and the system of governance Step 5: To measure the ecological, economic and socio-cultural situation Step 6: To assess sustainability dimensions in the landscape Step 7: Synthesis of empirical data and development of integrated tools for accounting and adaptive governance Continuous communication with societal actors at multiple levels Collaboration among academic and non-academic actors Diagnosing sustainability (outcome) + sustainable development (process)
  13. 13. 1. Identify a case study landscape • Biophysical conditions (e.g., ecoregion) • Economic history • System of governance
  14. 14. 2. Environmental history • What happened? – Important phases and consequences • Who did it? – Actors • Why did it happen? – Ideology, economy?
  15. 15. 3. Map actors and their use of “products” and land use • Land owners • Land users • Goods, services and values • Management systems • Related to land cover and land cover change
  16. 16. 4. Analyse policies and system of governance • Multiple levels – Local to global • Multiple sectors – Private, public, civic • Level of co-operation – From information to partnership
  17. 17. 5. Measure ecological, economic and socio-cultural dimensions • Choose indicators • Use indicators – Statistics – Maps – GIS – Field work – Remote sensing – Interviews
  18. 18. 6. Assess sustainability dimensions in the landscape • Reference conditions • Ecological thresholds • Compare state and trends of indicators with policies
  19. 19. 7. Synthesis • Comparative studies • Education material • Communication • Learning processes
  20. 20. Sweden and Russia
  21. 21. The Habsburg Empire KRAKOW LJUBLJANA
  22. 22. Europe as a ”landscape laboratory”
  23. 23. Scaling up using multiple case studies • Concepts aiming at landscape approach – Review of 16 concepts’ trajectories of development • Initiatives’ profiles in actual landscapes – Comparison of Biosphere Reserve and Model Forest globally (n=32+32) • Outcomes – Governance of agriforestry developement in the Vi Forest Programme in East Africa • Pattern • Process
  24. 24. 16 concepts • Global – Agenda 21, Biosphere Reserve, Model Forest, Ramsar • African – Campfire, Vi Agroforestry, Land husbandry, Community-based SFM • European – Leader, Regional nature park, Promotional forest complex, Russian National Park • Indian – Joint Forest Management, Panchyati Raj, Water management, Participatory irrigation management
  25. 25. Economic Ecological Social
  26. 26. Economic Ecological Social
  27. 27. Biosphere Reserve (n=32) and Model Forest (n=32) • ecological values • cultural values economical values • • social values Biosphere Reserve Model Forest (Robert Axelsson, Per Angelstam ms.)
  28. 28. Vi Agroforestry Programme (Karl-Erik Johansson, Ngolia Kimanzu, Robert Axelsson, Per Angelstam ms.) • Mara region in Tanzania from 1994 • How are outcomes in terms of tree survival linked to... • ...the governance arrangement (sector, level, power) – 21 households per village – 102 villages – District, regional, national and international
  29. 29. 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 1997* 1998* 1999* 2000** 2001*** No of new ≥1srv Hhs accumulated No of ≥1srv Hhs Households with surviving trees
  30. 30. Variation in Agroforestry adoption Inter-village variation in the proportion of households with 10 or more AF-trees 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91 101 villages proportion 47%
  31. 31. Governance arrangement is key (= sector + level + power) Public Private Civil Macro Meso Micro
  32. 32. Rostochya, Ukraine
  33. 33. Village structure... settlementsout-field / forest in-field / meadow in-field / crops
  34. 34. ...and social system
  35. 35. Traditional village system Silva Saltus Ager Hortus Domus
  36. 36. Magnus Jirström Lennart Olsson Agnes Andersson Thomas Rosswall Bernard Vanlauwe Lennart Båge
  37. 37. SLU’s mission: • Research • Education • Environmental assessment • Collaboration • Need to improve integration CONSIDERABLE!
  38. 38. Obstacles to be overcome • From disciplinary/silo to integrative – weaken department and faculty borders • Collaborative work requires funding also for non-academic partipants • On-the-gound vertical and horisontal integration among levels and sectors • From short-term projects (3-4 yrs) to long- term learning (a decade) with bell-shaped funding
  39. 39. Read more • Axelsson, R. 2009. Landscape Approach for sustainable development. from applied research to transdisciplinary knowledge production. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae 94. • Elbakidze, M., Angelstam, P. 2007. Implementing sustainable forest management in Ukraine’s Carpathian Mountains: The role of traditional village systems. Forest Ecology and Management 249: 28–38. • Elbakidze, M., Angelstam, P., Axelsson, R. 2007. Sustainable forest management as an approach to regional development in the Russian Federation: state and trends in Kovdozersky Model Forest in the Barents region. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 22: 568-581. . • Lazdinis, M., Angelstam, P., Lazdinis, I. 2009. Governing forests of the European Union: institutional framework for interest representation at the European Community level. European Environment and Policy 19: 44-56. • Duit, A., Hall, O., Mikusinski, G., Angelstam, P. 2009. Saving the woodpeckers: Social capital, governance, and policy performance. Journal of Environment and Development 18:42-61. • Elbakidze, M., Angelstam, P. 2009. Cross-border cooperation along the eastern border of European Union: a review and approach to learning for sustainable landscapes. Central European Journal of Spatial and Landscape Planning 20(1):33-42. • Elbakidze, M., Angelstam, P., Sandström, C., Axelsson, R. 2010. Multi-stakeholder collaboration in Russian and Swedish Model Forest initiatives: adaptive governance towards sustainable forest management? Ecology and Society 15(2): 14.

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