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Needs of others November 2011


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Version i gave talk to Open Source hardware user group

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Needs of others November 2011

  1. 1. The Needs of Others Al Razi Masri @jumplogic [email_address]
  2. 2. Talk Outline <ul><li>A bit on terminology
  3. 3. Delivering Technology
  4. 4. Appropriate Instructions
  5. 5. Open Documentation </li></ul>
  6. 6. Terminology <ul>Open Source Appropriate Technology What does this mean? </ul>
  7. 7. Terminology <ul>Technology Noun: <li>The application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes, esp. in industry: &quot;computer technology&quot;; &quot;recycling technologies&quot;
  8. 8. Machinery and equipment developed from such scientific knowledge </li></ul>
  9. 9. Terminology Appropriate Technology <ul>Noun: <li>A flexible and participatory approach to developing economically viable, regionally applicable and sustainable technology </li></ul>
  10. 10. For our purposes <ul>Define by goals: <ul><li>Targeted at those in poverty
  11. 11. Free to use and modify
  12. 12. Environmentally, economically, locally sustainable
  13. 13. Sensitive to the needs of the users and local conditions
  14. 14. Leads to increased income or substantially better quality of life
  15. 15. Does NOT harm </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Translating to Physical Objects <ul>Features of code: <ul><li>Embodied knowledge
  17. 17. Copy and pasting </li></ul>Features of electronics: <ul><li>Abstracted diagrams
  18. 18. Build sequence and physical form largely irrelevant </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Delivering Technology <ul><li>The technology is a means to an end. Not the end
  20. 20. It takes a lot to get a good invention/idea adopted
  21. 21. For illiterate populations unreached by mass media, flyers, brochures, or radio campaigns do not work
  22. 22. Even then people often like what they are used to
  23. 23. Goal is achieving success as opposed to nominal functionality </li></ul>
  24. 25. Scalable Documentation <ul><li>Conveying an invention to a single small group is very different from a large number of large groups
  25. 26. Needs of each group very different
  26. 27. All important parts of the delivery chain
  27. 28. Documents need to meet the needs of each part of the delivery chain, or at the very least a large chunk of it so that only small segments require extra effort </li></ul>
  28. 29. Priorities <ul><li>Can we make a set of instructions suitable for all?
  29. 30. If not how much can we cover in one step?
  30. 31. ...and in how few steps can we cover all of the important stuff?
  31. 32. …............................I'm still figuring this out </li></ul>
  32. 33. Who uses Instructions? <ul><li>Different from users of the invention, such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers
  33. 34. Developers
  34. 35. Implementers (builders & maintainers) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NGO & governmental involvement spans across these three roles </li></ul>
  35. 36. What are their needs? RESOURCES HIGH MEDIUM LOW NONE TEACH Expert Presenter Trained Presenter Novice presenter A VERY FREQUENT OCCURENCE Video Slideshow Posters/OHP Info Pack Take away booklet Single Reference Booklet Example Build Protoype/model build Premade model BUIILD Website Infopack Booklet/printout Borrowed photocopy Expert help (private) Course Second-hand advice Video Slideshow CAD model & Schematics Simple Diagrams Sketches DEVELOP Source material Compiled material CAD Model & Schematics Experience of product Second hand experience Viewed Multiple builds Few builds One Build Tech Data Estimations Guesses Many examples/variants Few Examples/variants One Example
  36. 37. Who makes these instructions? <ul><li>Right now it's whoever
  37. 38. BUT …..
  38. 39. Many inventors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack Graphic Design skills
  39. 40. Lack CAD skills
  40. 41. Are too busy inventing or engaged with other projects
  41. 42. Gave up </li></ul></ul>
  42. 43. Example 1: Warwick University <ul><li>Called “Technical Release”
  43. 44. Issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All in PDFs
  44. 45. Hidden in the depth of their website
  45. 46. No source material
  46. 47. No declaration of license
  47. 48. Internal network </li></ul></ul><ul>…....BUT <li>Will mail instruction to people in developing countries on request </li></ul>
  48. 49. Example 2: Made in Kenya <ul><li>Ikea Style documents
  49. 50. Made by industrial design students
  50. 51. Issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No words
  51. 52. Are the diagrams comprehensible? </li></ul></ul>
  52. 60. Example 3: <ul><li>Wiki hosting a range of technologies
  53. 61. Issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many articles incomplete
  54. 62. Crowd sourced content, but are the crowds on their way?
  55. 63. Photos and Hyperlinks
  56. 64. Reliant on other formats </li></ul></ul>
  57. 69. What do the Documentors Need? <ul><li>EVERYTHING! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All of the source material
  58. 70. Pre-compiled file formats
  59. 71. Compiled files for comparison
  60. 72. Fonts and similar (best avoided but not always possible)
  61. 73. A way to track revisions </li></ul></ul><ul>TRANSLATORS - Text kept separate from everything </ul>
  62. 74. Video <ul><li>Multiple resolution and aspect Ratio
  63. 75. No overlays
  64. 76. No Presenter (Value of the presenter? Complicates modification)
  65. 77. Narrators (how to make multiple voices feel normal)
  66. 78. Source Material
  67. 79. Padding and filler (different languages take different times to say the same thing) </li></ul>
  68. 80. Video Source Materials <ul><li>Editing Suite files
  69. 81. Animations (has own source material)
  70. 82. Unedited Footage
  71. 83. Audio
  72. 84. Music
  73. 85. Transcripts & Subtitle Footage
  74. 86. Time Data (unedited video cuts and activities, edited video cut and activities, and transcript)
  75. 87. Still images </li></ul>
  76. 88. Other Issues <ul>All comes down to remembering who are the most important people in the whole picture </ul>
  77. 89. The Needs of Others Al Razi Masri @jumplogic [email_address]