CBRN

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For MSc Defence Study students

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CBRN

  1. 1. RNBC WARFARE & NUC ENERGY
  2. 2. Meaning <ul><li>R – Radiological
  3. 3. N – Nuclear
  4. 4. B – Biological
  5. 5. C – Chemical
  6. 6. more correctly called CBRN </li></ul>
  7. 7. CHEMICAL WARFARE
  8. 8. Definitions <ul><li>Chemical weapon - a device that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm to human beings
  9. 9. Chemical agent - chemical substances that can be delivered using munitions and dispersal devices to cause death or severe harm to people and animals and plants
  10. 10. Chemical warfare - Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Types of agents <ul><li>Beased on physiological reaction </li><ul><li>Nerve agent
  12. 12. Blister agent
  13. 13. Blood agent
  14. 14. Choking agent </li></ul><li>Based on delivery – air, missile, spray, bomb
  15. 15. Based on lethality – lethal, disabling, crowd control
  16. 16. Based on duration - </li><ul><li>Persistent
  17. 17. Temporary </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Nerve Agent The nerve agents are a group of particularly toxic chemical warfare agents. They were developed just before and during World War II and are related chemically to the organophosphorus insecticides. In the pure state nerve agents are colorless and mobile liquids. The principle agents in this group are: • GA - tabun • GB - sarin • GD - soman • VX - methylphosphonothioic acid The &quot;G&quot; agents tend to be non-persistent whereas the &quot;V&quot; agents are persistent.
  19. 19. Nerve Agent The nerve agents kill in minutes through skin, eye or respiration. The rapid action of nerve agents call for immediate self treatment. Unexplained nasal secretion, salivation, tightness of the chest, shortness of breath, constriction of pupils, muscular twitching, or nausea and abdominal cramps call for the immediate intramuscular injection of 2 mg of atropine, combined if possible with oxime.
  20. 20. Blister Agents Blister or vesicant agents are likely to be used both to produce casualties and to force opposing troops to wear full protective equipment thus degrading fighting efficiency, rather than to kill, although exposure to such agents can be fatal. Blister agents can be used to contaminate terrain, ships, aircraft, vehicles or equipment with a persistent hazard. Vesicants burn and blister the skin or any other part of the body they contact. They act on the eyes, mucous membranes, lungs, skin and blood-forming organs. They damage the respiratory tract when inhaled and cause vomiting and diarrhea when ingested. The vesicant agents include: HD - sulfur mustard, or yperite • HN - nitrogen mustard • L - lewisite (arsenical vesicants may be used in a mixture with HD) • CX - phosgene (properties and effects are very different from other vesicants)
  21. 21. Choking agents Chemical agents which attack lung tissue, primarily causing pulmonary edema, are classed as lung damaging agents. To this group belong: • CG - phosgene • DP - diphosgene • Cl - chlorine • PS - chloropicrin The toxic action of phosgene is typical of a certain group of lung damaging agents. Phosgene is the most dangerous member of this group and the only one considered likely to be used in the future. Phosgene was used for the first time in 1915, and it accounted for 80% of all chemical fatalities during World War I. Phosgene is a colorless gas under ordinary conditions of temperature and pressure. It is an extremely volatile and non-persistent agent. Its vapor density is 3.4 times that of air. It may therefore remain for long periods of time in trenches and other low lying areas.
  22. 22. BLOOD AGENTS The name blood agent, like those of other groups of agents, derives from its effect on victims. Blood agents are distributed via the blood and generally enter the body via inhalation. They inhibit the ability of blood cells to utilise and transfer oxygen. Thus, blood agents are poisons that effectively cause the body to suffocate. Examples of blood agents include: <ul><li>AC - Hydrogen Cyanide
  23. 23. CK - Cyanogen Chloride
  24. 24. SA - Arsine </li></ul>
  25. 25. INCAPACITATING AGENTS They incapacitate the body by mental disturbances such as delerium or hallucination. <ul><li>3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate (BZ)
  26. 26. Phencyclidine (SN)
  27. 27. Lysergic acid diethylamide (K) </li></ul>
  28. 28. RIOT CONTROL AGENTS <ul><li>Tear gas
  29. 29. Laughter gas
  30. 30. CS </li></ul>
  31. 31. CHEMICAL WARFARE CONVENTION <ul><li>Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction (usually referred to as the Chemical Weapons Convention)
  32. 32. Signed in 1993 in Paris & New York
  33. 33. 165 states signed
  34. 34. Prohibits chemical weapon use </li></ul>
  35. 35. BIOLOGICAL WARFARE <ul><li>History </li><ul><li>Antiquity </li><ul><li>Poisoning of wells
  36. 36. Tipping arrows to cause wound infection
  37. 37. Snake and scorpion pots </li></ul><li>Middle ages </li><ul><li>Plague </li></ul><li>Modern times </li><ul><li>Smallpox in blankets
  38. 38. Exposing primitive peoples to new diseases
  39. 39. Plague fleas dropped by Japanese in China (Second Sino-Japanese War) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. DEFINITIONS <ul><li>Biological weapon - the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.
  41. 41. Biological weapons (often termed &quot;bio-weapons&quot; or &quot;bio-agents&quot;) - are living organisms or replicating entities (viruses) that reproduce or replicate within their host victims. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Biological agents <ul><li>Classification based on taxonomy - </li><ul><li>Bacteria (anthrax, plague tularemia )
  43. 43. Viruses (smallpox, ebola, marbola)
  44. 44. Biotoxins (botulism. ricin ) </li></ul><li>Based on target </li><ul><li>Against humans (brucellosis)
  45. 45. Against animals (anthrax) </li></ul><li>Based on lethality – Lethal, incapacitating, debilitating </li></ul>
  46. 46. BIOLOGICAL WARFARE CONVENTION <ul><li>Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (usually referred to as the Biological Weapons Convention)
  47. 47. Signed in 1975 in London. Moscow & Washington
  48. 48. 165 states signed
  49. 49. Prohibits biological weapon use </li></ul>
  50. 50. RADIOLOGICAL WARFARE <ul><li>Definition - is any weapon that is designed to spread radioactive material with the intent to kill, and cause disruption upon a city or nation.
  51. 51. Effect – cause widespread uncontrollable contamination.
  52. 52. Never been used.
  53. 53. Prohibited. Poor man's atomic weapon
  54. 54. Likely terrorist threat. </li></ul>
  55. 55. NUCLEAR WARFARE
  56. 56. NUCLEAR WARFARE <ul><li>History - </li><ul><li>Race in World War II
  57. 57. Dropping of bombs in Hiroshima & Nagasaki in 1945
  58. 58. Nuclear weapons race post-war
  59. 59. Devp of H-Bomb in 1950s
  60. 60. Big five nuclear weapon states – US, USSR, France, UK, China
  61. 61. Clandestine states – Israel, India, Pakistan, North Korea etc. </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. HIROSHIMA <ul><li>First Atomic Explosion
  63. 63. World War II
  64. 64. Dropped by USA on Japan
  65. 65. Dropped by B29 Superfortress aircraft called Enola Gay
  66. 66. Weapon – Fission, Kt with 64 kg Uranium , named ”Little Boy”
  67. 67. 64 kg uranium, 600 gms underwent fission, 0.6 gms converted to energy.
  68. 68. Casualties – 90,000 to 1,66,000 </li></ul>
  69. 69. HIROSHIMA
  70. 70. HIROSHIMA
  71. 71. HIROSHIMA
  72. 72. HIROSHIMA
  73. 73. HIROSHIMA
  74. 74. HIROSHIMA
  75. 75. HIROSHIMA
  76. 76. TYPES OF WEAPONS <ul><li>Fission weapons
  77. 77. Fusion weapons
  78. 78. Others - </li><ul><li>Boosted Fission weapons
  79. 79. Neutron Bomb
  80. 80. Salted Bomb </li></ul></ul>
  81. 81. YIELD <ul><li>Expressed in tons of TNT explosive equivalent </li><ul><li>1 kiloton= 1000 tons of TNT
  82. 82. Megaton = 1000,000 tons of TNT </li></ul><li>Yield of Hiroshima weapon – 13 to 18 kiloton
  83. 83. Yield of Nagasaki Weapon – 21 kiloton
  84. 84. Fissile material used – Uranium, Plutonium </li></ul>
  85. 85. EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR EXPLOSION <ul><li>Shock
  86. 86. Blast
  87. 87. Thermal radiation
  88. 88. Nuclear radition </li><ul><li>Instant
  89. 89. Residual </li></ul><li>Electro-magnetic pulse
  90. 90. Ionising raditaion
  91. 91. Earthquake </li></ul>
  92. 92. TREATIES <ul><li>Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty
  93. 93. Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty
  94. 94. Missile Control Technology Regime
  95. 95. IAEC
  96. 96. Nuclear Weapons Suppliers Group </li></ul>
  97. 97. Any Questions

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