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Factors Enhancing Bifacial Gain in India & Middle East_06.03.2020

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Gensol has estimated Bifacial Gain varying between ~4.0-10.5% when Bifacial PV Modules are configured with Single Axis Tracker (SAT) system depending on system configuration & ground albedo. Various iterations of energy generation were simulated using PVsyst to understand the impact of design considerations and climatic factors on the Bifacial Gain of 1P x 30 Bifacial PV array with SAT system equipped over-torqueΒ tube for India & Middle East regions.

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Factors Enhancing Bifacial Gain in India & Middle East_06.03.2020

  1. 1. 1 Impacting design factors & climatic conditions Bifacial Gain in Asia & Middle East Region Solar PV Consulting Gensol Engineering Limited Published on 06th March 2020
  2. 2. 2 β€’ Bifacial solar cells and modules collects light incident on both of its surface (front & rear) including the light reflected from the surroundings and ground. The bifacial modules are beneficial for deployment at regions where a space constraint exists. The advancement in research, large scale manufacturing technologies and higher energy output of bifacial cells & modules leads to significant levelized cost of energy savings in comparison to conventional mono-facial PV modules. β€’ Single axis tracking (SAT) is a cost-effective deployment for large scale ground mounted PV systems receiving good amount of solar radiation. The emergence of cost competitive bifacial PV modules has raised the question of additional value of bifacial modules in SAT systems. A) Introduction Gensol has estimated Bifacial Gain varying between ~4.0-10.5% when Bifacial PV Modules are configured with SAT system depending on system configuration & ground albedo. Various iterations of energy generation were simulated using PVsyst to see the impact of design considerations and climatic factors on the bifacial gain of 1P x 30 Bifacial PV array with SAT system equipped over - torque tube for India & Middle East regions.
  3. 3. 3 B) About Pvsyst Model The model is used to study the bifacial gain as a function of below factors : 1. Reflection from ground surface (Albedo) 2. Pitch between the rows of PV array 3. Height of PV mounting structure 4. Geo co-ordinates of location PVsyst simulation software provides a simplified model which captures the main bifacial contributions as mentioned below, depending on the design parameters, weather parameters and region selected. β€’ Direct and diffused light scattered back from the ground β€’ Direct and diffused light directly reaching the rear side of the bifacial PV modules
  4. 4. 4 C) Mathematical Formula For determining the Bifacial Gain, the mathematical formula used as below: Where, 𝐸 π‘π‘–π‘“π‘Žπ‘π‘–π‘Žπ‘™ = Energy generated by bifacial PV module 𝐸 π‘šπ‘œπ‘›π‘œπ‘“π‘Žπ‘π‘–π‘Žπ‘™ =Energy generated by bifacial PV module considering rear surface inactive π΅π‘–π‘“π‘Žπ‘π‘–π‘Žπ‘™ πΊπ‘Žπ‘–π‘› = 𝐸 π‘π‘–π‘“π‘Žπ‘π‘–π‘Žπ‘™ 𝐸 π‘šπ‘œπ‘›π‘œπ‘“π‘Žπ‘π‘–π‘Žπ‘™ βˆ’ 1 Source: Soltec Sankey’s Loss Diagram for Bifacial Module
  5. 5. 5 D) Methodology & Assumptions i. Locations & Plant Configuration East Zone West Zone S.No. Parameter Value 1. Plant Capacity & Overloading 3.125 MW/4.374 MWp 40% Overloading 2. Module Make & Capacity Trina Solar – 360 Wp 3. Module Technology Bifacial (glass- to - glass) 4. Inverter Make & Capacity Sungrow – 3125 kW 5. Inverter Technology Central 6. Orientation Plant Location Tilt(Β°) a) Optimized Fixed Tilt Bhadla 20 Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum 15 Pavagada 12 b) Horizontal Single Axis Tracker - 60⁰ to +60⁰ 7. Azimuth (⁰) 0 8. Rear shading factor (%) 5 9. Rear mismatch factor (%) 10
  6. 6. 6 D) Methodology & Assumptions ii. Ground Surface and Albedo For the mentioned project configuration and locations, plant energy generation has been analyzed by considering ground surfaces having different albedo as follows: iii. Pitch & Height of Mounting Structure East Zone South Zone West Zone The range of pitch and height of mounting structure considered for analyzing the performance of plant is as follows: *Source: i) https://www.researchgate.net/publication/242547003_Albedo ii) https://www.researchgate.net/publication/257794750_Variation_of_albedo_to_soil_moisture_for_sand_dunes_and_biological_soil_crusts_in_arid_desert_ecosystems S.No. Ground Surface Albedo* 1. Snow 0.85 2. White Paint 0.80 3. Dry Sand 0.45 4. Dry Soil 0.35 5. Desert 0.25 6. Green Grass 0.20 7. Dark and Wet Soil 0.15 Pitch – 5.00 to 6.00 m (Interval of 0.1 m) Height – 1.35 to 1.95 m (Interval of 0.1 m) Snow Desert Green Grass Dry Sand Dry Soil Dark & Wet Soil
  7. 7. 7 β€’ The solar PV plant is assumed to have horizontal single axis trackers with regular spacing. β€’ Snow and white paint has been considered as benchmark scenario. β€’ The rotation limit of the tracker has been considered as - 60Β° to + 60Β°. β€’ The rear shading loss factor and rear mismatch loss has been considered as 5.0% & 10.0% respectively. iv. Assumptions β€’ It has been considered that no radiation scattering occurs due to the nearby PV arrays and radiation reaching the rear surface of module is due to scattering by sky/atmospheric particles. β€’ The variation in pitch and height of module mounting structure (MMS) has no effect on operating temperature of module. β€’ Meteonorm database has been used for determination of energy generation for all the considered combinations. D) Methodology & Assumptions Rear shading loss factor: It accounts for the losses that occur due to the shading of some of mechanical structures behind the module. Rear mismatch loss: It accounts for the losses that occur due to non-uniform current being generated in modules because of non-uniform irradiance incident on the rear side of the module.
  8. 8. 8 D) Methodology & Assumptions Technology Selection & Finalization Of Plant Configuration Sets Of Pitch, Height Of Mounting Structure, Ground Albedos & Locations Has Been Defined Simulation Of Pvsyst For Predefined Project Configuration And Combination Of Sets Calculation Of Bifacial Gain For All Combination Of Sets Analysis Of Results
  9. 9. 16.84% 16.03% 10.41% 8.56% 6.59% 5.56% 4.51% 14.40% 13.72% 9.04% 7.46% 5.78% 4.90% 3.99% 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 BifacialGain(%) Albedo Bifacial Gain(%) Vs Albedo Bhadla Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Pavagada 9 E) Analysis & Results ❑ IMPACT OF GROUND SURFACE ALBEDO ON BIFACIAL GAIN: The trend indicates that bifacial gain of the module with SAT increases with increase in ground surface albedos for all the three considered locations. Height = 1.95 m , Pitch =6.00 m Dark&WetSoil GreenGrass Desert DrySoil Dry Sand WhitePaint Snow
  10. 10. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 4.8 5.0 5.2 5.4 5.6 5.8 6.0 6.2 Globalirradianceonrearside(kWh/m2) Pitch(m) Ground Irradiance on Rear Side Vs Pitch 10 E) Analysis & Results ❑ IMPACT OF PITCH ON BIFACIAL GAIN: The trend indicates that bifacial gain of the module with SAT increases by ~ 0.5% to 0.7% with increase in inter row pitch by 1 m for all the considered ground surface albedos. Height = 1.35 m , Pitch =Varying White Paint Dry Sand Dry Soil Desert Green Grass Dark & Wet Soil Snow Parameter Location Increase in Bifacial Gain(%) Increase in Energy Generation(%) Increase in Pitch by 1m Bhadla 0.49% 2.09% Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum 0.73% 2.30% Pavagada 0.62% 2.21% 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00% 16.00% 18.00% 4.8 5.0 5.2 5.4 5.6 5.8 6.0 6.2 BifacialGain(%) Pitch(m) Bifacial Gain Vs Pitch Snow White Paint Dry Sand Dry Soil Desert Green Grass Dark & Wet Soil
  11. 11. 11 E) Analysis & Results ❑ IMPACT OF HEIGHT ON BIFACIAL GAIN: The trend indicates that bifacial gain of the module with SAT increases by ~1.2% to 1.8% with increase in height of module mounting structure by 1m for all the considered ground surface albedo. Pitch = 6.00 m , Height = Varying 130 250 370 490 610 730 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2 Globalirradianceinrearside(kWh/m2) Height(m) Global Irradiance on Rear Side Vs Height Snow White Paint Dry Sand Dry Soil Desert Green Grass Dry & Wet Soil 3% 5% 7% 9% 11% 13% 15% 17% 19% 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2 BifacialGain(%) Height (m) Bifacial Gain Vs Height Snow White Paint Dry Sand Dry Soil Desert Green Grass Dry & Wet Soil Parameter Location Increase in Bifacial Gain(%) Increase in Energy Generation(%) Increase in Height by 1 m Bhadla 1.15% 1.09% Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum 1.82% 1.67% Pavagada 1.52% 1.40%
  12. 12. E) Analysis & Results ❑ IMPACT OF GEO CO-ORDINATES ON BIFACIAL GAIN: The trend indicates that for the same design parameters (pitch & height) and ground albedos considered, the bifacial gain of module with SAT increases with increase in latitude (⁰) of the plant location. Latitude (⁰) 14.27 24.75 27.52 Ground Surface Albedo Bifacial Gain (%) Pavagada Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Bhadla Snow 0.85 14.40% 16.03% 16.84% White Paint 0.8 13.72% 15.28% 16.03% Dry Sand 0.45 9.04% 10.11% 10.41% Dry Soil 0.35 7.46% 8.38% 8.56% Desert 0.25 5.78% 6.49% 6.59% Green Grass 0.2 4.90% 5.50% 5.56% Dark and Wet Soil 0.15 3.99% 4.47% 4.51% Increase in Latitude of location leads to increase in Bifacial Gain 13Pitch = 6.00 m , Height = 1.95 m 14.40% 16.03% 16.84% 13.72% 15.28% 16.03% 9.04% 10.11% 10.41% 7.46% 8.38% 8.56% 5.78% 6.49% 6.59% 4.90% 5.50% 5.56% 3.99% 4.47% 4.51% 3% 6% 9% 12% 15% 18% 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 BifacialGain(%) Latitude(⁰) Bifacial Gain Vs Latitude Snow White Paint Dry Sand Dry Soil Desert Green Grass Dry & Wet Soil
  13. 13. 13 E) Analysis & Results ❑ IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY & CONFIGURATION ON ENERGY GAIN: The trend indicates that the energy yield of the 3.125 MW/4.374 MWp plant corresponding to optimum pitch & height of mounting structure (1.50 m) is maximum for Bifacial module with SAT configuration for all the considered locations. Latitude: 27.52Β°N ,Surface: Desert Albedo: 0.25, Pitch: i) FT – 3m, ii) SAT- 6.5m Latitude: 14.27Β°N, Surface: Dry Soil Albedo: 0.35, Pitch: i) FT – 3m, ii) SAT- 6m Technology and Configurations: i) Monofacial Module – Fixed Tilt (FT) & SAT ii) Bifacial Module – Fixed Tilt (FT) & SAT Latitude: 24.75Β°N, Surface: Dry Sand Albedo: 0.45, Pitch: i) FT – 3m, ii) SAT- 6.5m
  14. 14. 14 Email: solar@gensol.in | Web: www.gensol.in | Phone: +91 79 40068235 | Twitter: gensol_tweets Gensol Engineering Limited | Gensol Consultants Pvt Ltd | Solarig Gensol Utilities Pvt Ltd Corporate Office A2, 12th Floor Palladium, Opp. to Vodafone House , Corporate Road, Prahladnagar, Ahmedabad, Gujarat. India - 380015

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