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Assignment on Cloud Computing

Teaching Assistant at Northern University Bangladesh
Aug. 27, 2015
Assignment on Cloud Computing
Assignment on Cloud Computing
Assignment on Cloud Computing
Assignment on Cloud Computing
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Assignment on Cloud Computing
Assignment on Cloud Computing
Assignment on Cloud Computing
Assignment on Cloud Computing
Assignment on Cloud Computing
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Assignment on Cloud Computing
Assignment on Cloud Computing
Assignment on Cloud Computing
Assignment on Cloud Computing
Assignment on Cloud Computing
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Assignment on Cloud Computing
Assignment on Cloud Computing
Assignment on Cloud Computing
Assignment on Cloud Computing
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Assignment on Cloud Computing

  1. P a g e | 1 Assignment on Cloud Computing
  2. P a g e | 2 Management Information System Tropic: Assignment on Cloud Computing Supervised By Md Mustafizur Rahman Associate Professor Departmentof Business Administration Submitted To: Departmentof Business Administration Northern University Bangladesh Submitted By: Section- B Submission Date: 18-08-2015 Sl No Name ID 01 S.M. Al-Shahriar BBA 120304790
  3. P a g e | 3 Table of content Sl Name of Content Page No 01 Title fly 1 02 Title Page 2 03 Table of content 3 04 Introduction 4-5 05 Topic definition 6-8 06 Issues/Consideration 9-13 07 Potential impact 14-16 08 Conclusion 17 09 References
  4. P a g e | 4 Introduction Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources. Cloud Computing, the long-held dream of computing as a utility, has the potential to transform a large part of the IT industry, making software even more attractive as a service and shaping the way IT hardware is designed and purchased. Developers with innovative ideas for new Internet services no longer require the large capital outlays in hardware to deploy their service or the human expense to operate it. They need not be concerned about over- provisioning for a service whose popularity does not meet their predictions, thus wasting costly resources, or under- provisioning for one that becomes wildly popular, thus missing potential customers and revenue. Moreover, companies with large batch-oriented tasks can get results as quickly as their programs can scale, since using 1000 servers for one hour costs no more than using one server for 1000 hours. This elasticity of resources, without paying a premium for large scale, is unprecedented in the history of IT. Cloud computing and storage solutions provide users and enterprises with various capabilities to store and process their data in third-party data centers. It relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economies of scale, similar to a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network. At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of converged infrastructure and shared services. Cloud computing, or in simpler shorthand just "the cloud", also focuses on maximizing the effectiveness of the shared resources. Cloud resources are usually not only shared by multiple users but are also dynamically reallocated per demand. This can work for allocating resources to users. For example, a cloud computer facility that serves European users during European business hours with a specific application (e.g., email) may reallocate the same resources to serve North American users during North America's business hours with a different application (e.g., a web server). This approach should maximize the use of computing power thus reducing environmental damage as well since less power, air conditioning, rack space, etc. are required for a variety of functions. With cloud computing, multiple users can access a single server to retrieve and update their data without purchasing licenses for different applications. The term "moving to cloud" also refers to an organization moving away from a traditional CAPEX model (buy the dedicated hardware and depreciate it over a period of time) to the OPEX model (use a shared cloud infrastructure and pay as one uses it). Proponents claim that cloud computing allows companies to avoid upfront infrastructure costs, and focus on projects that differentiate their businesses instead of on infrastructure. Proponents also claim that cloud computing allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with improved manageability and less maintenance, and enables IT to more rapidly adjust resources to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand. Cloud providers typically use a "pay as you go" model. This can lead to unexpectedly high charges if administrators do not adapt to the cloud pricing model.
  5. P a g e | 5 The present availability of high-capacity networks, low-cost computers and storage devices as well as the widespread adoption of hardware virtualization, service-oriented architecture, and autonomic and utility computing have led to a growth in cloud computing. Companies can scale up as computing needs increase and then scale down again as demands decrease. Cloud vendors are experiencing growth rates of 50% per annum WHO'S WHO IN CLOUD COMPUTING Some of the companies researching cloud computing are big names in the computer industry. Microsoft, IBM and Google are investing millions of dollars into research. Some people think Apple might investigate the possibility of producing interface hardware for cloud computing systems.
  6. P a g e | 6 Topic Definition: The interesting thing about Cloud Computing is that we’ve redefined Cloud Computing to include everything that we already do.... I don’t understand what we would do differently in the light of Cloud Computing other than change the wording of some of our ads. Larry Ellison, quoted in the Wall Street Journal, September 26, 2008 These remarks are echoed more mildly by Hewlett-Packard’s Vice President of European Software Sales: A lot of people are jumping on the [cloud] bandwagon, but I have not heard two people say the same thing about it. There are multiple definitions out there of “the cloud.” Andy Isherwood, quoted in ZDnet News, December 11, 2008 Richard Stallman, known for his advocacy of “free software”, thinks Cloud Computing is a trap for users—if applications and data are managed “in the cloud”, users might become dependent on proprietary systems whose costs will escalate or whose terms of service might be changed unilaterally and adversely: It’s stupidity. It’s worse than stupidity: it’s a marketing hype campaign. Somebody is saying this is inevitable — and whenever you hear somebody saying that, it’s very likely to be a set of businesses campaigning to make it true. Richard Stallman, quoted in The Guardian, September 29, 2008 I don’t need a hard disk in my computer if I can get to the server faster… carrying around these non- connected computers is byzantine by comparison. Steve Jobs, 1997 Moving to the cloud. Running in the cloud. Stored in the cloud. Accessed from the cloud: these days is seems like everything is happening “in the cloud”. But what exactly is this nebulous concept? The short answer is that it's somewhere at the other end of your internet connection – a place where you can access apps and services, and where your data can be stored securely. The cloud is a big deal for three reasons: *It doesn't need any effort on your part to maintain or manage it. *It's effectively infinite in size, so you don't need to worry about it running out of capacity. *You can access cloud-based applications and services from anywhere – all you need is a device with an Internet connection. Cloud computing is a topic that many find confusing. It isn’t, though, as confusing as it sounds. In fact, most of those who claim not to understand the subject are part of the majority that use it daily.
  7. P a g e | 7 In basic terms, cloud computing is the phrase used to describe different scenarios in which computing resource is delivered as a service over a network connection (usually, this is the internet). Cloud computing is therefore a type of computing that relies on sharing a pool of physical and/or virtual resources, rather than deploying local or personal hardware and software. It is somewhat synonymous with the term ‘utility computing’ as users are able to tap into a supply of computing resource rather than manage the equipment needed to generate it themselves; much in the same way as a consumer tapping into the national electricity supply, instead of running their own generator. Cloud computing is defined as a type of computing that relies onsharing computing resources rather than having local servers or personal devices to handle applications. Cloud computing is comparable to grid computing, a type of computing where unused processing cycles of all computers in a network are harnesses to solve problems too intensive for any stand-alone machine. In cloud computing, the word cloud (also phrased as "the cloud") is used as a metaphor for "the Internet," so the phrase cloud computing means "a type of Internet-based computing," where different services — such as servers, storage and applications —are delivered to an organization's computers and devices through the Internet. Cloud Computing refers to both the applications delivered as services over the Internet and the hardware and systems software in the data centers that provide those services. The services themselves have long been referred to as Software as a Service (SaaS), so we use that term. The datacenter hardware and software is what we will call a Cloud. In the simplest terms, cloud computing means storing and accessing data and programs over the Internet instead of your computer's hard drive. The cloud is just a metaphor for the Internet. It goes back to the days of flowcharts and presentations that would represent the gigantic server- farm infrastructure of the Internet as nothing but a puffy, white cumulonimbus cloud, accepting connections and doling out information as it floats. Cloud computing is a general term for anything that involves delivering hosted services over the Internet. These services are broadly divided into three categories: Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). The name cloud was inspired by the symbol that's often used to represent the Internet in flowcharts and diagrams. What cloud computing is not about is your hard drive. When you store data on or run programs from the hard drive, that's called local storage and computing. Everything you need is physically close to you, which means accessing your data is fast and easy, for that one computer, or others on the local network. Working off your hard drive is how the computer industry functioned for decades; some would argue it's still superior to cloud computing, for reasons I'll explain shortly.
  8. P a g e | 8 The cloud is also not about having a dedicated network attached storage (NAS) hardware or server in residence. Storing data on a home or office network does not count as utilizing the cloud. (However, some NAS will let you remotely access things over the Internet, and there's at least one NAS named "My Cloud," just to keep things confusing.) For it to be considered "cloud computing," you need to access your data or your programs over the Internet, or at the very least, have that data synchronized with other information over the Web. In a big business, you may know all there is to know about what's on the other side of the connection; as an individual user, you may never have any idea what kind of massive data- processing is happening on the other end. The end result is the same: with an online connection, cloud computing can be done anywhere, anytime.
  9. P a g e | 9 Issues/Consideration: History of cloud computing Origin of the term The origin of the term cloud computing is unclear. The expression cloud is commonly used in science to describe a large agglomeration of objects that visually appear from a distance as a cloud and describes any set of things whose details are not inspected further in a given context. Another explanation is that the old programs to draw network schematics surrounded the icons for servers with a circle, and a cluster of servers in a network diagram had several overlapping circles, which resembled a cloud. In analogy to above usage the word cloud was used as a metaphor for the Internet and a standardized cloud-like shape was used to denote a network on telephony schematics and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams. With this simplification, the implication is that the specifics of how the end points of a network are connected are not relevant for the purposes of understanding the diagram. The cloud symbol was used to represent the Internet as early as 1994, in which servers were then shown connected to, but external to, the cloud. References to cloud computing in its modern sense appeared as early as 1996, with the earliest known mention in a Compaq internal document. The popularization of the term can be traced to 2006 when Amazon.com introduced the Elastic Compute Cloud. The 1970s During the mid-1970s, time-sharing was popularly known as RJE (Remote Job Entry); this terminology was mostly associated with large vendors such as IBM and DEC. IBM developed the VM Operating System (first released in 1972) to provide time-sharing services [via virtual machines. The 1990s In the 1990s, telecommunications companies, who previously offered primarily dedicated point- to-point data circuits, began offering virtual private network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service, but at a lower cost. By switching traffic as they saw fit to balance server use, they could use overall network bandwidth more effectively. They began to use the cloud symbol to denote the demarcation point between what the provider was responsible for and what users were responsible for. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover all servers as well as the network infrastructure. As computers became more prevalent, scientists and technologists explored ways to make large- scale computing power available to more users through time-sharing. They experimented with algorithms to optimize the infrastructure, platform, and applications to prioritize CPUs and increase efficiency for end users.
  10. P a g e | 10 The New Millenium: 2000s Since 2000 cloud computing has come into existence. In early 2008, NASA's Open Nebula, enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission-funded project, became the first open- source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds, and for the federation of clouds. In the same year, efforts were focused on providing quality of service guarantees (as required by real- time interactive applications) to cloud-based infrastructures, in the framework of the IRMOS European Commission-funded project, resulting in a real-time cloud environment. By mid-2008, Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services, those who use IT services and those who sell them" and observed that "organizations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to computing ... will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other areas." Microsoft Azure became available in late 2008. In July 2010, Rackspace Hosting and NASA jointly launched an open-source cloud-software initiative known as Open Stack. The Open Stack project intended to help organizations offer cloud-computing services running on standard hardware. The early code came from NASA's Nebula platform as well as from Rackspace's Cloud Files platform. On March 1, 2011, IBM announced the IBM Smart Cloud framework to support Smarter Planet. Among the various components of the Smarter Computing foundation, cloud computing is a critical piece. On June 7, 2012, Oracle announced the Oracle Cloud. While aspects of the Oracle Cloud are still in development, this cloud offering is posed to be the first to provide users with access to an integrated set of IT solutions, including the Applications (SaaS), Platform (PaaS), and Infrastructure (IaaS) layers.
  11. P a g e | 11 Cloud Computing Architecture When talking about a cloud computing system, it's helpful to divide it into two sections: the front end and the back end. They connect to each other through a network, usually the Internet. The front end is the side the computer user, or client, sees. The back end is the "cloud" section of the system. The front end includes the client's computer (or computer network) and the application required to access the cloud computing system. Not all cloud computing systems have the same user interface. Services like Web-based e-mail programs leverage existing Web browsers like Internet Explorer or Firefox. Other systems have unique applications that provide network access to clients. On the back end of the system are the various computers, servers and data storage systems that create the "cloud" of computing services. In theory, a cloud computing system could include practically any computer program you can imagine, from data processing to video games. Usually, each application will have its own dedicated server. A central server administers the system, monitoring traffic and client demands to ensure everything runs smoothly. It follows a set of rules called protocols and uses a special kind of software called middleware. Middleware allows networked computers to communicate with each other. Most of the time, servers don't run at full capacity. That means there's unused processing power going to waste. It's possible to fool a physical server into thinking it's actually multiple servers, each running with its own independent operating system. The technique is called server
  12. P a g e | 12 virtualization. By maximizing the output of individual servers, server virtualization reduces the need for more physical machines. If a cloud computing company has a lot of clients, there's likely to be a high demand for a lot of storage space. Some companies require hundreds of digital storage devices. Cloud computing systems need at least twice the number of storage devices it requires to keep all its clients' information stored. That's because these devices, like all computers, occasionally break down. A cloud computing system must make a copy of all its clients' information and store it on other devices. The copies enable the central server to access backup machines to retrieve data that otherwise would be unreachable. Making copies of data as a backup is called redundancy. Cloud Computing Applications The applications of cloud computing are practically limitless. With the right middleware, a cloud computing system could execute all the programs a normal computer could run. Potentially, everything from generic word processing software to customized computer programs designed for a specific company could work on a cloud computing system. Why would anyone want to rely on another computer system to run programs and store data? Here are just a few reasons:  Clients would be able to access their applications and data from anywhere at any time. They could access the cloud computing system using any computer linked to the Internet. Data wouldn't be confined to a hard drive on one user's computer or even a corporation's internal network.  It could bring hardware costs down. Cloud computing systems would reduce the need for advanced hardware on the client side. You wouldn't need to buy the fastest computer with the most memory, because the cloud system would take care of those needs for you. Instead, you could buy an inexpensive computer terminal. The terminal could include a monitor, input devices like a keyboard and mouse and just enough processing power to run the middleware necessary to connect to the cloud system. You wouldn't need a large hard drive because you'd store all your information on a remote computer.  Corporations that rely on computers have to make sure they have the right software in place to achieve goals. Cloud computing systems give these organizations company-wide access to computer applications.  Cloud computing gives companies the option of storing data on someone else's hardware, removing the need for physical space on the front end.  Corporations might save money on IT support. Streamlined hardware would, in theory, have fewer problems than a network of heterogeneous machines and operating systems.
  13. P a g e | 13  If the cloud computing system's back end is a grid computing system, then the client could take advantage of the entire network's processing power. On a grid computing system, the client could send the calculation to the cloud for processing. The cloud system would tap into the processing power of all available computers on the back end, significantly speeding up the calculation. Cloud Computing Concerns Perhaps the biggest concerns about cloud computing are security and privacy. The idea of handing over important data to another company worries some people. Corporate executives might hesitate to take advantage of a cloud computing system because they can't keep their company's information under lock and key. Privacy is another matter. Cloud computing companies will need to find ways to protect client privacy. One way is to use authentication techniques such as user names and passwords. Another is to employ an authorization format -- each user can access only the data and applications relevant to his or her job. Some questions regarding cloud computing are more philosophical. Does the user or company subscribing to the cloud computing service own the data? Does the cloud computing system, which provides the actual storage space, own it? Is it possible for a cloud computing company to deny a client access to that client's data? Several companies, law firms and universities are debating these and other questions about the nature of cloud computing. How will cloud computing affect other industries? There's a growing concern in the IT industry about how cloud computing could impact the business of computer maintenance and repair. If companies switch to using streamlined computer systems, they'll have fewer IT needs. Some industry experts believe that the need for IT jobs will migrate to the back end of the cloud computing system.
  14. P a g e | 14 Potential Impact: Advantages of Cloud Computing Cloud computing offers numerous advantages both to end users and businesses of all sizes. Let’s visit some of the most important advantages of cloud computing and discuss them in more detail. Those will include both a company’s and an end-user’s perspective. Cost Efficiency This is the biggest advantage of cloud computing, achieved by the elimination of the investment in stand-alone software or servers. By leveraging cloud’s capabilities, companies can save on licensing fees and at the same time eliminate overhead charges such as the cost of data storage, software updates, management etc. Convenience and continuous availability Public clouds offer services that are available wherever the end user might be located. This approach enables easy access to information and accommodates the needs of users in different time zones and geographic locations. Moreover, service uptime is in most cases guaranteed, providing in that way continuous availability of resources. Backup and Recovery The various cloud providers offer reliable and flexible backup/recovery solutions. In some cases, the cloud itself is used solely as a backup repository of the data located in local computers. Cloud is environmentally friendly The cloud is in general more efficient than the typical IT infrastructure and It takes fewer resources to compute, thus saving energy. Performance Regarding performance, the systems utilize distributed architectures which offer excellent speed of computations. Again, it is the provider’s responsibility to ensure that your services run on cutting edge machinery. Quick deployment and ease of integration A cloud system can be up and running in a very short period, making quick deployment a key benefit. On the same aspect, the introduction of a new user in the system happens instantaneously, eliminating waiting periods. Furthermore, software integration occurs automatically and organically in cloud installations.
  15. P a g e | 15 Increased Storage Capacity The cloud can accommodate and store much more data compared to a personal computer and in a way offers almost unlimited storage capacity. It eliminates worries about running out of storage space and at the same time It spares businesses the need to upgrade their computer hardware, further reducing the overall IT cost. Device Diversity and Location Independence Cloud computing services can be accessed via a electronic devices that are able to have access to the internet. These devices include not only the traditional PCs, but also smartphones, tablets etc. With the cloud, the “Bring your own device” (BYOD) policy can be easily adopted, permitting employees to bring personally owned mobile devices to their workplace. There is no limitation of place and medium. We can access our applications and data anywhere in the world, making this method very attractive to people. Smaller learning curve Cloud applications usually entail smaller learning curves since people are quietly used to them. Users find it easier to adopt them and come up to speed much faster. Main examples of this are applications like GMail and Google Docs. Disadvantages of Cloud Computing As made clear from the above, cloud computing is a tool that offers enormous benefits to its adopters. However, being a tool, it also comes with its set of problems and inefficiencies. Let’s address the most significant ones. Security and privacy in the Cloud Security is the biggest concern when it comes to cloud computing. It is then up to the cloud service provider to manage, protect and retain them, thus the provider’s reliability is very critical. The various stories of data loss and password leakage in the media does not help to reassure some of the most concerned users. Technical Difficulties and Downtime
  16. P a g e | 16 Certainly the smaller business will enjoy not having to deal with the daily technical issues and will prefer handing those to an established IT company, however you should keep in mind that all systems might face dysfunctions from time to time. Outage and downtime is possible even to the best cloud service providers. Limited control and flexibility Third party virtual environments, companies and users have limited control over the function and execution of the hardware and software. Moreover, since remote software is being used, it usually lacks the features of an application running locally.
  17. P a g e | 17 Conclusion According to Gartners Hype cycle, cloud computing has reached a maturity that leads it into a productive phase. This means that most of the main issues with cloud computing have been addressed to a degree that clouds have become interesting for full commercial exploitation. This however does not mean that all the problems listed above have actually been solved, only that the according risks can be tolerated to a certain degree. Cloud computing is therefore still as much a research topic, as it is a market offering. What is clear through the evolution of Cloud Computing services is that the CTO is a major driving force behind Cloud adoption. The major Cloud technology developers continue to invest billions a year in Cloud R&D; for example, in 2011 Microsoft committed 90% of its $9.6bn R&D budget to Cloud. Additionally, more industries are turning to cloud technology as an efficient way to improve quality services due to its capabilities to reduce overhead costs, downtime, and automate infrastructure deployment. Despite its disadvantages and the fact that it is still in an infant age, cloud computing remains strong and has great potential for the future. Its user base grows constantly and more big players are attracted to it, offering better and more fine-tuned services and solutions. We can only hope that the advantages will further grow and the disadvantages will be mitigated, since cloud computing seems to have made IT a little bit easier. At past cloud computing was a buzz phrase that only computer scientists, engineers and a few tech journalists used. It's now well on its way to becoming a household term. We see cloud computing applications everywhere. Smartphone apps use cloud computing technology to let you store and access data that normally wouldn't fit on your handheld device. Research institutions use cloud computing to house massive libraries of information. And video game companies are experimenting with ways to let you access state-of- the-art games without requiring a hefty investment in a gaming rig. It can be difficult to tell when a particular computing model will take off, but I think we can make the note that cloud computing is a huge success. Happy cloud computing!
  18. P a g e | 18 References 1. ^ http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-145/SP800-145.pdf 2. ^ Haghighat, M., Zonouz, S., & Abdel-Mottaleb, M. (2015). CloudID: Trustworthy Cloud-based and Cross-Enterprise Biometric Identification. Expert Systems with Applications, 42(21), 7905–7916. 3. ^ a b c d e f g "The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing" (PDF). National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 24 July 2011. 4. ^ a b "What is Cloud Computing?". Amazon Web Services. 2013-03-19. Retrieved2013- 03-20. 5. ^ "Baburajan, Rajani, "The Rising Cloud Storage Market Opportunity Strengthens Vendors," infoTECH, August 24, 2011". It.tmcnet.com. 2011-08-24. Retrieved2011-12- 02. 6. ^ Oestreich, Ken, (2010-11-15). "Converged Infrastructure". CTO Forum. Thectoforum.com. Retrieved 2011-12-02. 7. ^ "Where's The Rub: Cloud Computing's Hidden Costs". 2014-02-27. Retrieved2014-07- 14. 8. ^ "Cloud Computing: Clash of the clouds". The Economist. 2009-10-15. Retrieved2009- 11-03. 9. ^ "Gartner Says Cloud Computing Will Be As Influential As E-business". Gartner. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 10. ^ Gruman, Galen (2008-04-07). "What cloud computing really means". InfoWorld. Retrieved 2009-06-02. 11. ^ "The economy is flat so why are financials Cloud vendors growing at more than 90 percent per annum?". FSN. March 5, 2013. 12. ^ Liu, [edited by] Hongji Yang, Xiaodong (2012). "9". Software reuse in the emerging cloud computing era. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. pp. 204– 227.ISBN 9781466608979. Retrieved 11 December 2014. 13. ^ Schmidt, Eric; Rosenberg, Jonathan (2014). How Google Works. Grand Central Publishing. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-4555-6059-2. 14. ^ Figure 8, "A network 70 is shown schematically as a cloud", US Patent 5,485,455, column 17, line 22, filed Jan 28, 1994 15. ^ Figure 1, "the cloud indicated at 49 in Fig. 1.", US Patent 5,790,548, column 5 line 56– 57, filed April 18, 1996 16. ^ Antonio Regalado (31 October 2011). "Who Coined 'Cloud Computing'?". Technology Review (MIT). Retrieved 31 July 2013. 17. ^ "Announcing Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) - beta". Amazon.com. 2006-08-24. Retrieved 2014-05-31. 18. ^ "July, 1993 meeting report from the IP over ATM working group of the IETF". CH: Switch. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 19. ^ Corbató, Fernando J. "An Experimental Time-Sharing System". SJCC Proceedings. MIT. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
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