• India is considered as ‘The land of spices’ and enjoys from time immemorial a unique position in the production and export of turmeric.• These crops are cultivated for their underground rhizomes, which are used in many ways• Turmeric is used as a coloring agent, in confectioneries, and as an antiseptic in cosmetics.
StageCommon Name Scientific Name affected All stages of Shoot borer Conogethes punctiferalis the crop Leaf roller Udaspes folus 2-5 months RhizomeRhizome scale Aspidiella hartii formationLace wing bug Stephanitis typicus 2-5 months Bihar hairy Diacrisia obliqua 2-5 months caterpillar Rhizome Rhizome fly Mimegralla coeruleifrons formation
Conogethes punctiferalis; Synonym: Dichocrosis punctiferalis (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera)• It is the most important serious pest of turmeric and it was first recorded by Fletcher (1914).Crop Loss• When 50 per cent of the pseudostem in a clump was affected, there was a reduction of 38 g of yield per clump (Fletcher 1914).
larva• The larvae bore into the pseudostems and feed on the growing shoot.• Larvae always within the pseudostem.
• Yellowing and drying of infested shoots.• The larvae bores into the rhizome also.• The presence of bore holes in the Pseudostem through which frass is extruded and the withered central shoots (dead hearts) are characteristics symptoms of pest infestation.
Identificatio n• Egg: is pink, oval, flat and lays singly or in group on the tender part of the plant• Larva: is long, pale greenish with a pinkish dots dorsally, head and pro-thoracic shield brown in colour and body covered with minute hairs arising on wards.• Pupa: Pupation takes place in lose silken cocoon in larval tunnel.• Adult: is a medium sized moth, the wings are pale yellowish with black spots on the wings
• IP - 3-4 days. 30-60 pinkish oval flat eggs during their life span.• Larval period: five larval instars and the larval periods were 3-4,4- 5, 5-7, 7-8 and 8-14 days respectively for the five instars.• Full grown larvae were light brown/pale green and 16-26 mm in length. The prepupal and pupal periods were 3-4 and 9-10 days respectively.• Larva pupates inside the affected pseudostem in a thin silk cocoon.• In the field, 6-7 generations were completed during a crop season.
Alternative hostsThe shoot borer is highly polyphagous.The alternate hosts include cardamom, guava, mango, peaches, pomegranate, jack, ginger, avacado, mulberry, loquat, pear, sorghum, cacao, castor, tamarind, amaranthus, soapnut, holly hocks, Caesalpinia bonducella, Anona and Cherimelia.
Life cycle• The moths lay eggs on leaves and other soft parts of the plant. The eggs hatch in about a week.• The larvae pass through 4–5 instars and are full fledged in 2–3 weeks.• Pupation takes place inside the seed or sometimes in the grass that collects after feeding. The pupal stage lasts about one week.• The life cycle is completed in 4– 5 weeks and 6 to 7 generations are completed in a year. The pest is most active from July to October.Economic threshold level• Management methods should be adopted at a stage when there is 1 egg mass per squaremeter.
• RESISTANT VARIETIES :• Dindigam, Ca-68, Mannuthy local• Most susceptible - Amruthapani, Kothapeta and C 11-317• Spraying any one of the following during July - October was the most effective. – Malathion 50 EC - 1000 ml/ha – Quinalphos 25 EC - 500 ml/ha
• Seed rhizomes should be free from any infection or infestation. Biocides like Trichoderma may be used while planting seed rhizome.• Keep the plot weed free.• Use biofertiliser as per soil test recommendation Proper drainage facilities must be provided to drain off stagnant water. Best choice of land should be with a gentle slope. Gently sloping land is best.• Visit the field periodically to check for pests or disease.• Install light traps for collecting and monitoring shoot borer adult moths, if such infestation is observed.
Udaspes folus (Hesperiidae, Lepidoptera)• Which can be seen frequently on turmeric crop and sometimes cause devastating damage under favourable climatic conditions.• Alternate hosts: Arrow root, ginger, cardamom, wild lilies etc• Damaging stage: larva or caterpiller• Nature of damage: larva soon after hatching initially start scraping later it goes on feed on leaves by rolling the leaves together.
Symptoms of Damage• Leaves become folded or rolled longitudinally.• Complete defoliationIdentification of pest• Larva: is smooth green with black head• Adult : It is brownish black butterfly Forewing: has a white spots Hind wing: has a large white patch
• The butterflies emerge in February or March and lay eggs before they die. The eggs remain dormant till the rains, that is, usually the month of May, when they hatch.• The caterpillars pupate in September–October and the adults emerge four to six months later. In some cases the caterpillars pupate later and in these cases the pupa remain dormant, throughout the dry season, till May when the rains begin.Eggs• The female normally sits on the underside of the leaf of the host plant and lays a single egg. The egg is reddish and appears smooth and dome shaped. When about to hatch it turns white with a red top. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Udaspes_folus
Larva : Soon after hatching, the caterpillar does not consume the eggshell completely and it makes itself a spacious cell and hides inside it. The caterpillar is sluggish and comes out to feed only at night. Even when disturbed it is reluctant to leave its cell.• caterpillar of grass demon(threat) on turmeric• Caterpillar constructing its leaf shelter• The full grown larva has the habit of resting with the first three segments contracted, so as to give a humped appearance. It always lies closely applied to the leaf, by turning over a triangular piece from the edge onto the upper surface over itself.
Pupa• Pupation takes place on the same plant within a cell. The pupa is long and cylindrical, watery green in colour. It has a long conical projection in front of the head.• The most striking characteristic of the pupa is its proboscis. It is long and thin generally extending up to and a little beyond the tip of the abdomen. The pupa is the same color of the caterpillar and unmarked. It is covered in a thin layer of white powder. The body band is neither too tight nor too loose and allows the pupa to wriggle if disturbed.
Managemen t• Sanitation• Natural enemies viz., egg parasitoid: Trichogramma sps;• larval parasitoids: Brachymeria bengalinsis pulchellae; Elasmus indicus; Apanteles spp.; Bracon lefroyi; Microbracon recinicola; and Pupal parasitoids: Trichospilus pupivora and Xanthopimpla spp• A spray with carbaryl (0.1%) or quinolphos 2 ml/lt. may be undertaken when the severe infestation
Aspidiella hartii, A. cucumae (Cockerell) Diaspididae :Hemiptera• This is one of the important pests infesting the ginger and turmeric both in field and in storage (of seed rhizomes).• Alternate hosts:• Amorphophallus companulatus, Dioscorea alatta and Xanthossoma sagittifollum.• DS – Both crawlers and adults
• The insect fixes itself on the host by means of thread like rostrum. In initial stage of infestation in storage, the white coloured scales are seen scattered on rhizomes and latter they congregate near the growing buds.• When the infestation is severe the rhizome and buds shrivel and ultimately the entire rhizome dries. In field, in severe cases of infestation plants look devitalized, pale and withered before drying completely.• In such cases at the time of harvest minute yellowish crawlers can be seen moving in large numbers and this is the potential stage of dissemination.
• The scale reproduces ovoviviparously or sometimes parthenogenetically. The transparent eggs are oval and yellowish measuring 0.25 mm in length and 0.17 mm breadth.• About 100 eggs are laid by a single female and the crawlers emerge from the eggs usually within a day. The crawlers emerging from the eggs are seen huddled near the mother scale. With a day of emergence, the crawler searches out an appropriate spot on the rhizome and starts feeding by sucking.• The male crawlers when fully mature pupate. The adult males move among the colonies for mating. The adult male is orange coloured with transparent wings, distinct head, thorax and abdomen.
• The tumeric root scale belongs to a family of scales called the armored scales.• EGGS : The elongate eggs, with ends equally rounded, are laid within the puparium.
NYMPHS : The first stage larvae are active crawlers for a short time before selecting a feeding site. Once feeding begins the waxy protective shield starts to form.• The second stage larvae occur after the first molt in which the discarded skin becomes incorporated into the puparium. This stage is similar in appearance to the adult except it does not have the grouped circumgenital glands.• The last stage is sometimes referred to as pupae. They have lost all traces of mouth organs and are thus a non-feeding stage. They posses rudimentary legs, antennae, wings and stylus (mouth).
ADULTS : Adults are moderately convex, approximately 1/20 inch in diameter, and brownish- gray with a slight purplish tint. Females are generally circular in shape where males are more oval. Refer to Cockerell (1895) or Williams (1988) for a detailed microscopic description.• Females have rudimentary antennae and are unable to move about.BEHAVIOR• This scale is sedentary once it selects a feeding site.
1. Selecting healthy rhizomes free from scale infestation for seed materials will help in preventing this pest entering in new areas.2. To ensure the seed materials free from the scale infestation, the rhizomes could be treated with any one of the insecticides viz., DDVP (Dichlorvos), monocrotophos, phosalone at 0.05%.3. The scale infested rhizomes are to be dipped in the insecticidal fluid for 15 minutes; air dried and can be stored on sand. The sprouting of rhizome was not affected by these insecticides. The treated rhizomes must be kept at least for a week before planting to get the maximum effect of the toxicants.4. Two hymenopteran parasites, Physcus sp., and Adelecrytus moderatus, attack this pest.
Mimegralla coeruleifrons Micropezidae: Diptera• It is reported from Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Maharashtra. It also infests ginger. Flies are noticed in the field during August - September.• Adult flies are dark blackish. Wings are transparent with three light ashy bands. Tarsi of forelegs are white in colour• The whitish eggs are laid on the lower surface of leaves or in soil in the vicinity of plants or on exposed rhizomes. Egg period is 4 days.• Maggot is creamy white, apodous and 9 mm long.
Nature of damage• In the beginning the maggots bore into the shoot causing dead hearts.• Finally they reach rhizomes and feed on them.• In association with Pythium they cause rotting of the rhizomes.
• Dead hearts due to primary injury• Wilting and drying of aerial plants• Rotting of rhizomes due to invasion of fungus, Pythium sp. through feeding injuries caused by the maggot.
Life cycle• Eggs will hatch within 5 to 6 days. The larval period is completed in 17 days and pupation takes place in tunnel of rhizomes or soil.• Adult fly emerges in 14 days.• The adult has a longevity of 18 days.• The fly completes its life cycle in 38-62 days
• Removal of dead hearts and rotting rhizomes along with maggots after harvest.• Treating seed material in dimethoate 2ml/l solution before planting.• Spraying monocrotophos 1.6 ml/l or fenitrothion 2 ml/l two sprays.• Avoiding waterlogging in the field.• As soon as rotting of rhizome is noticed, application of neem cake 100 Kg/ac or carbofuran 3G 10 Kg/ac + equal quantity of sand
Spilarctia (Spilosoma) obliqua (Arctiidae:Lepidoptera)• This pest damages the turmeric plants extensively in Bihar and West bengal states.• It is a highly polyphagous pest.• Alternate hosts - sunflower, millets, cotton, jute, sunhemp, castor, cauliflower, cabbage etc.• It has been reported to feed on 96 plant species in India.
Damaging stage – Damage is caused by the caterpillars. The larva defoliates the plants and move from one field to another.Nature of Damage• First two stages the tiny caterpillars feed gregariously• Older larvae disperse widely in search of food.• For identification and life cycle see insect pests of beans
• The adult is dull yellow with oblique line of black dots on hind wings. The dorsal side of the abdomen is red with dull yellow ventral side.• The full grown larva is darkened with yellowish brown abdomen having numerous pale white brown and black hairs and measures about 43 mm.• Pupation - soil
Management:• Collection and destruction of egg masses and gregarious larva.• application of NSKE 5 % and foliar sprays particularly for grown up larva with phasalone 2 ml/l or chlorpyriphos 2 ml/l or dichlorvos 1 ml/l are effective measures.• Moths can be trapped in artificial light and killed• Young gregarious caterpillars can be collected and killed manually in kerosinized water.
Stephanitis typicus Tingidae: Hemiptera.• It also infests banana, coconut, turmeric, cardamom. Bugs measure about 4 mm long with transparent, shiny reticulated wings and black body.• The pest infestation is more common during the post monsoon period especially in drier regions of the country.• Nymphs and adults suck sap from leaf surface causing yellowing of leaves in patches which dry and drop off.• Black resinous excretion in tiny spots are seen between the damaged areas
• Symptoms: leaves turn yellow and black resinous excretions in the form of tiny spots may be seen between the damaged areas.• Mangement : Foliar spray with malathion 2ml/l or oxy demeton methyl 2ml/l, or dimethoate 2 ml/l is effective
Panchaetothrips indicus Thripidae; ThysanopteraSymptoms of Damage• Leaves become rolled up• Turn pale and gradually dry-up• Infestation is more common during post monsoon period especially in drier regions of the country.Identification of pest• Adult is with fringed wingsManagement: spraying with 0.05% dimethoate or 0.1% phospamidon.
Holotrichia sp.• In Dharmapuri district, white grubs which are infesting sugarcane are found to be feeding on the rhizomes of the turmeric.• Damage: root grubs feed on tender rhizomes, root and base of pseudostems causing yellowing and wilting of shoots.
• The initial symptoms are yellowing of leaves and wilting. The infected plants can be removed from soil easily.• Activity :The adult whitegrubs become active with the onset of summer showers (May – June). They come out of the soil during the night.• Alternate hosts - Acacia, Ailanthus etc and mate. The female lays the eggs in the moist soil.
MANAGEMENT• Provide adequate irrigation, since under inadequate soil moisture conditions the pest appears in the root zone.• Collect and destroy adult beetles when they are found feeding on the trees.• Install light traps to collect the adults (or) burn fire. Adopt crop rotation in the endemic areas• Apply Carbofuran3G 10kg/ha near the root zone and give one more round 30 days later.• Utilisation of fungal pathogens like Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria brongniartii is now under consideration• Seed treatment with chlorpyriphos 6 - 10 ml/kg seed is effective against root grubs.• Application of phorate 10 G 15 kg/ha at sowing time.
• Ecourses –ebschort.com• Insect, mite & vertebrate pests & their management in Horticultural crops – P . Parvatha Reddy.• Study material - ACHARYA N G RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY• Turmeric (text book) – V. A. Parthasarathy spices board of India, cochin.• GUIDE TO GOOD CROP PROTECTION PRACTICES - Programme PIP COLEACP – Belgium (www.coleacp.org/pip)• TNAU• News paper -