Maize stem borer, Chilo partellus
• Most destructive pests of maize and sorghum.
• Its caterpillar damage maize and sorghum by
boring into the stems, cobs or ear.
• The grown up caterpillar are about 20-25 mm
long and dirty greyish white with black head and
four brownish longitudinal stripes on the back.
• The adult are yellowish grey moths, about 25mm
across the wing when spread.
• The insect breeds actively from March- April to October.
• The rest of the year it remains in hibernation as full grown larva in
maize stubble, stalks or unshelled cobs.
• The larva pupate sometime in March and emerge as moths in the
end of that moth or in early April.
• They are active at night, when they mate and lay eggs on the
underside of the leaves of various hosts plants, particularly the early
crop of maize.
• The eggs are flat oval, yellowish and are laid in overlapping clusters
each containing up to 20 eggs.
• A female lays over 300 eggs during its life span of 2-12 days and the
egg hatch in 4-5 days in summer.
Continue life cycle
• The young larva first feed on the leaves making a few shot holes and
then bore their way downward through the central whorl as it opens.
• More shot holes becomes visible, indicating an earlier attack and the
plant also shows dead heart.
• The larva becomes full fed in 14-28 days, passing through six stages
and after making a hole in the stem pupate inside it.
• The life cycle is completed in about 4-7 weeks and there are probably 5
generation in a year.
• The full grown caterpillar of the last generation hibernates in stubble,
stalks etc. and remain there till next spring.
• The damage is done by the caterpillars by
eating inside of the stem.
• Production of dead hearts, weakening of the
plants are the symptoms of attack of any stem
• Destroying the stubble, weed and other alternate hosts of the stem
borer by ploughing field after harvest.
• Removal and destruction of dead hearts and destruction of infested
plants showing early pin hole damage.
• Destruction of crop residues and chopping and stem harbouring
diapauses larva could be effective.
• Clipping of lower leaves of maize (upto 4th )
• Release Trichogramma chilonis @one lakh per ha on 10-15 days old
maize field crop.
• Spray crop 2-3 weeks after sowing as soon as borer injury to the
leaves is noticed with either of Fenvalerate 20EC @100ml/ha,
Cypermethrin 10EC@100ml/ha or deltamethrin 2.8EC@200ml
using 150 liters of water.
• Use granular pesticide Furadan 3%G@12-15kg/ha
White grub, Phyllophaga rugosa (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)
White grubs are the larva of scarb “chafer” beetles.
They are creamy white in color, C- shaped with brown head with 3
pair of thoracic legs.
Some species of white grubs (Phyllogphaga spp.) feed on roots of
Root damage is manifested by wilting seedling, poor plant stands,
patches of tilted or lodged plants showing uneven growth.
Injured plants can easily be pulled out from ground.
The third instar is often the most damaging one and may be present
in the soil for longest time.
The extent of damage and species composition varies from place to
The larva is the major damaging stage but adults also damage the leaf
during night time.
Generally, most beetles takes 3 years to complete their life cycles in
temperate regions but only 2 years in optimum soil temperature.
Female white grubs lay the eggs in soil in pasture land or in fresh
Hatching of egg takes place after 2-3 weeks.
First instar larva begin to feed on organic matter after hatching, later
feed on plants roots.
With cooling soil temperature, larva descends into the soil profile,
where they spend the winter.
In the spring, larvae begin their upward migration as soil
The larval period ranges from 9-21 months and pupal period is 3-6
• Different cultural practices such as ploughing, harrowing, hoeing,
flooding and fallowing of field.
• The use of well decomposed Farm yard manure (FYM).
• Light traps can be used for collecting adults beetles during night.
• Use of Metarrhizium and Beauveria based biopesticide (1- 1 kg of
Metarrhizium & beauveria mixed with 25 kg of FYM and kept for 8
days in shade. Using this during land preparation).
• In Highly affected area, use Chloropyriophos 10 G @ 1kg per Ropani
• Treat the seed before sowing with 12.5ml of Chorpyriphos 20EC per Kg
• Kills the beetles by spraying 500g of carbaryl 50WP in 250 liter of water
per ha on preferred host like Zizyphus, Guava, Grapevine etc.
• Apply 30Kg of carbofuran 3G per ha in the soil at or before sowing.
Armyworm, Mythimna separate
• The armyworm is a pest of graminaceous crops all over the
world mainly pests of maize, wheat, sugarcan, jowar,
• The larva feed voraciously and migrate from one field to
• The adult moths of armyworm are pale brown.
• They live for 1-9 days and lay eggs singly in row or in
clusters on dry or fresh plants or on the soil.
• The eggs are round, light green when freshly laid and
turns pale yellow and finally black.
• The egg hatch in 4-11 days from March to May and in 19
days in December- January.
• Freshly emerged larva are very active, dull white and
later turn green.
• In the spring, the larval stage is completed in 13-14 days,
but in winter it is prolonged to 88-100 days.
• In the pre-pupal stage, the insect spins a Cocoon.
Continue life cycle
• The pre-pupal stage last 1-11 days during January to
• Pupation usually takes place in the soil at a depth of
0.5- 5 cm, but it may also occur under dry leaves
among the stubble or fresh tillers.
• Generally, the larva before pupation seem to select
sites near the water channels.
• The pupal stage is completed in 9-13 days in May and
36-48 days in the winter months.
• The survival of the pupae depends on soil moisture.
• The population build up starts in the beginning of
March & increase with the rise of temperature in the
• In the early stages, they feed on tender leaves in the central
whorl of the plant.
• As they grow, they are able to feed on older leaves also and
skeletonize them totally.
• The grown up caterpillar throw out faecal pellets, which are
• In case of a severe attacks by the armyworm, whole leaves
including the mid rib, are consumend and field look as if
grazed by cattle.
• The larva of all instars feed mainly on leaves.
• Fourth and older instars larvae cause the main harm, roughly
gnaw out and eating around the leaf blade and damaging
inflorescences, ears, growth points and grain in ears .
• Collecting and destroying the caterpillar.
• Spray 500ml of dichlorovous 85 SL or 3 Kg of carbaryl
50WP or 1 Lit of Quinalphos 25EC in 250 Liters of water
Flower beetle, Chiloloba acuta
• They are pollen feeders and are common on
flowers and may occur under loose bark in debris.
• Flower beetle caused damage in rice, maize,
sorghum, millets etc.
• They also feed on the leaves, bud and flower.
• The main injury consists in feeding and destroying
• If many beetles are present, their excrement
often discolor the blossom.
• The adult beetles are shiny metallic green and
appear sometimes red or deep blue.
• The are irregularly covered with hairs on the
upper side but more densely on the sides and
• Female lays hundreds of tiny, oval eggs, usually on a
leaf or in rotten wood, which usually takes 4-10 days
• The larva pass through 3-5 instars, they vary in shape
and size depending on where they live and what they
• They generally appears grub like with a well defined
head capsule, which may be highly sclerotised.
• The larvae of Chiloloba species feeds on trunks,
branches or twigs of dying plants.
• The pupal stage is usually found during the winter
period and adult emergence occurs in spring.
• Hand collection of adults beetle
• Collection with help of sweep nets
• Spray 500ml of dichlorovous 85 SL 1 Lit of
Quinalphos 25EC in 250 Liters of water per ha.
Wireworms, Agriotes spp (Coleoptera: Elateridae)
• Wireworm is the common name of the larva of click beetle.
• The name ” click beetle” originates from the habit of clicking its body into the
• The adult beetle are harmless feeding on pollen, however, the larva belongs to
the most destructive soil insect pests.
• They are important pests of potatoes and other crops including cereals & also
damage germinating seeds.
• Most adult are light to dark brown and dull, between 6 to 10 mm long and
about 2 mm wide.
• The body of the beetles is convex.
• The egg are white, nearly globe shaped about 0.5 mm in diameter.
• The larva are dark yellow up to 25mm long and 2 mm wide. The apex of the last
segment of the larval body is sharp pointed.
• The larva are hard, nearly cylindrical and shining as those in all the species.
• Pupae are white 9-12 mm long.
• The females lay eggs in cluster or singly on roots or into
soil at a depth of 3-15 cm.
• The total female fecundity amounts to 50-350 eggs.
• The larva develops during 3-5 years, molting 8-11times.
• Overwintering takes place at a soil depth of 20-50cm.
• The larvae prefer moist soils, As soils dry out, they migrate
in deeper soil layer.
• Larger larvae are able to starve several months.
• A generation lasts 3-6 years depending on food
availability and environmental conditions.
Continue Life cycle
• Plants in unploughed soil and grassland represents the
primary food source for wireworm.
• Therefore, problems arise when infested pastures are
ploughed and planted with crops.
• Because of their extended life cycle, wireworm
damage may persists for 2-3 years after.
• The most significant damage is caused to germinating
seeds and seedling during cold, wet springs.
• Wireworm injury is often associated with a small
feeding hole at the base of the plant, which may kill
the growing point and stunt plant growth.
• The wireworm feed on seeds, seedling and
underground parts of crops & weed.
• The wireworm are more harmful for the grain
cereals, especially for maize, sunflower, potato,
Solanaceous and Cruciferous vegetables,
carrot, beet, turnip etc.
• Wireworm cause shoot thining, stunting of
damaged plants and quality loss of tuber crops
• Crop rotation that include alfa-alfa and high
glucosinolate Brassica spp may help in management of
• Field drying and summer ploughing
• Flooding field with water at least for 2 weeks
• Use of wheat as trap crop while growing maize and
other cash crops
• Use of Metarrhizium and Beauveria based biopesticide
(1- 1 kg of Metarrhizium & beauveria mixed with 25
kg of FYM and kept for 8 days in shade. Using this
during land preparation).