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PVAc

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PVAc

  1. 1. In this research are described answers on following questions: - What is the composition of the Mowilith resins? - How are they made? - What is process? - What are costs of the materials? - What are costs of production? - Business plan for production.
  2. 2. <ul><li>The aim is by research proposals as: - literature research/patent inventory </li></ul><ul><li>polymerisations of the PVAc(with attention </li></ul><ul><li>points on Mowilith dispersions in PVa as </li></ul><ul><li>stabilization: Mowilith D ca.50 %, Mowilith DHS S1, Mowilith LD 167 and Mowilith SDM 4230 KL), - Economic perspective - researches and - Lab. tests possible polymerisation routes, determinate the possibilities for production with possible commitment (use) present equipment at &quot;Paramelt”. </li></ul>
  3. 3. polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) Emulsion Polymerisation
  4. 4. Monomer Addition <ul><ul><li>radical attacks double bond of monomer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>new radical forms that is one monomer unit longer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chain reaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The polymer chain grows by addition of monomer units: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chain has propagated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>called free radical polymerisation </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Initiation <ul><li>From where does the first unpaired electron come? </li></ul><ul><li>Generated by an initiator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>has O–O bond (easy to break) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>generates 2 OH • radicals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>usually don’t use H 2 O 2 but other peroxides, e.g.: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>potassium persulfate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>persulfate ion is: [O 3 S–O–O–SO 3 ] 2– </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>O–O- bond breaks readily at 60 o C to initiate reaction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Polymer Colloids <ul><li>Polymers often prepared in colloidal form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polymer Colloids in water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Called a latex </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More environmentally friendly than organic solvents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to process and transport than polymer solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to get greater efficiency in process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can get up to 50/50 polymer/water </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. What is a Colloid? <ul><li>Small blobs suspended in water, e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>paint, glue polymer in water latex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ink pigment in water dispersion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>muddy pond clay in water dispersion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>milk fat or oil in water emulsion </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Colloid Stability <ul><li>What stops colloidal particles joining together and settling out? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brownian Motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surfactants </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. About Surfactants <ul><li>Surfactants (soaps/detergents) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure of a typical surfactant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>long hydrocarbon chain (water-hating or hydrophobic ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ionic head group (water-loving or hydrophilic ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>household detergent, soap, shampoo </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Colloid Stability: Surfactants <ul><li>Surfactants (soaps) stop particles joining together </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>like dissolves like </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>water-hating tails go into water-hating polymer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>water-loving heads go into water </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>charge repulsion of ionic head groups stops coalescence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>form a stabilised latex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. with SDS, latex surface covered in negatively charged surfactant head groups </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Theory into Practice <ul><li>Making a polyvinyl acetate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chemicals required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dispersion medium water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>monomer vinyl acetate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>initiator potassium persulfate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>soap AMA, AOT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>preparation ( emulsion polymerisation ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mix all chemicals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>warm in water bath (60 o C) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stir for several hours (overnight) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Emulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Polymerisation </li></ul>Emulsion Polymerisation <ul><li>monomer (oil) droplets: (stabilised by soap) in water </li></ul><ul><li>polymer colloids: (stabilised by soap) in water </li></ul>Water Polymer Water Oil
  14. 14. * <ul><li>actual polymerisation process very complex - area of lots of research </li></ul>
  15. 15. Project Cash Flow <ul><li>Project cost money, the spending of which usually has to be justified in terms of receiving a return or making profit. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Project Cash Flow Analysis- the Manufacture of PVAc emulsion <ul><li>The Initial Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial design capacity 20.000 t/year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment (plant costs) 10.000.000 € </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building costs 5% of Investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working capital 14% of Investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For plant construction would take two years from the investment decision. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The plant and building costs would be spend in two years and the working capital all in in second year . Working capital is fully recovered at the end of the plant’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>productive life. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Production costs estimates <ul><li>Comprise the annual : </li></ul><ul><li>- fixed costs </li></ul><ul><li>- variable costs </li></ul>
  18. 18. Fixed Production Costs for PVAc Plant FIXED COSTS of PVAc       Capacity(ton/year) design 20.000     20.000 Capex(€) 10.000.000     Operating cost 3 60000 9 Other staff 0,5 10000 0,3 Maintenance 2% 2%   10 General 65% of Op.,Ot +Ma.     13 TOTAL FIXED COSTS of PVA c (55%)     32
  19. 19. TOTAL VARIABLE COSTS GENERAL RECIPT(large-particle size)(CELANESE)   PVAc (55%) Cost item Yield kg/t Cost €/t Cost €/t emul. Water 427,5 20 9 Vinyl Acetate 550,0 400 220 Hydroxyethylcellulose or Polyvinylalcohol 20,0 1500 30 Soap (Tergitol NPXl)-Polyoxyethylene nonylphenol 0,5 2500 1 K2S2O8 (Potassiumperoxydisulfate) 0,5 3038 2 NaHCO3 1,5 557 1 Enrgy     100 Utilities     50 TOTAL VARIABLE COSTS of PVAc     412
  20. 20. The producion - can be increased gradually to 106-120%without requiring increased capital investment 1th year of production 10.000 t/year 2 th year of production 20.000 t/year 3 th year of production 21.250 t/year 3-14th year of production 21.250 t/ year
  21. 21. ? V A c -monomer price 400-1200 €/t
  22. 22. Price of polimer <ul><li>PVAc emulsion(~55%) 610-700 €/t emul. </li></ul>
  23. 23. CHASH FLOWS FOR SIMPLE PLANT PVAc
  24. 24. Payback Time= 4,5 Years % ROI (ex.dep) = 24 %ROI (inc.dep.) = 17
  • alamin10888938

    Mar. 14, 2021
  • JuanGregorioCorreaVa

    Aug. 15, 2019
  • JuanGregorioCorreaVa

    Aug. 15, 2019
  • ELSAYEDELKELANY

    Sep. 2, 2018
  • a3296b

    Aug. 28, 2018
  • VikasVaishnav7

    Sep. 12, 2017
  • sasidharkantheti

    Mar. 7, 2017
  • FaroukDehmchi

    Jun. 18, 2016
  • ajabba

    Mar. 12, 2015

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