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Plastic use as building material ppt

plastic use as building material

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Plastic use as building material ppt

  1. 1. plastic Plastic is a synthetic material made from a wide range of organic polymers such as polyethylene, PVC, nylon, etc., that can be moulded into shape while soft, and then set into a rigid or slightly elastic form.
  2. 2. Composition of plastic Organic Polymers + Carbon + O2 + Nitrogen Sulphur+ Organic Polymers may include : CHA LK, STA RCH, IVORY DUST, WOOD F LOO R , ZINC OX IDE
  3. 3. Classification of plastic There are many ways of classifying plastics. They can be classified considering various aspects, as according to their: 1. Behaviour with respect to heating, 2. Structure, and 3. Physical and mechanical properties.
  4. 4. Classification of plastic Behaviour with respect to heating Structure Physical and mechanical properties Thermo-plastics Thermo-setting Homogeneous Heterogeneous Rigid Plastics Semi-rigid Plastics Soft Plastics Elastomers
  5. 5. Themoplastic & thermosetting Basic difference between Thermoplastics and Thermosetting plastics THERMOPLASTICS THERMO-SETTING PLASTICS Thermoplastics variety softens by heat and hardens when cooled down. It can be used by remolding as many times as required. Thermosetting plastics can not be reused .This variety requires a great pressure and momentary heat during molding which hardens on cooling.
  6. 6. Thermo-plastics  The thermo-plastic or heat non-convertible group is the general term applied to the plastics which becomes soft when heated and hard when cooled.  Thermoplastic materials can be cooled and heated several times.  They can be recycled.  When thermoplastics are heated, they melt to a liquid. They also freeze to a glassy state when cooled enough.  Thermoplastic can be moulded into any shape.
  7. 7. Thermo-plastics
  8. 8. Thermo-plastics  It may melt before passing to a gaseous state.  Allow plastic deformation when it is heated.  They are brittle and glossy.  They are soluble in certain solvents.  Swell in the presence of certain solvents.  Good resistance to creep. PROPERTIES
  9. 9. Thermo-plastics  Thermoplastic materials have many features. Some products made from thermoplastic materials are used for electronic applications. They protect against electrostatic discharge and radio frequency interference.  High pressure polyethylene as applied to rigid material covered with electrical machines, tubes, etc...  Low pressure polyethylene elastic material used for insulation of electrical cables, etc...  Polystyrene applied for electrical insulation, handles of tools...  Polyamide used for making ropes, belts, etc...  PVC or polyvinyl chloride for the manufacture of insulation materials, pipes, containers, etc... Examples and applications of thermoplastic plastic materials
  10. 10. Thermo-plastics
  11. 11. Thermo-setting plastics  The thermo-setting or heat convertible group is the general term applied to the plastics which become rigid when moulded at suitable pressure and temperature.  This type of plastic passes originally through thermo-plastic stage. When they are heated in temperature range of 127 ͦC to 177 ͦC, they set permanently and further application of heat does not alter their form or soften them.  But at the temperature of about 343 ͦC, the charring occurs. This charring is a peculiar characteristic of the organic substances.
  12. 12. Thermo-setting
  13. 13. Thermo-setting plastics  These are soluble in alcohol and certain organic solvents, when they are in thermo-plastic stage. This property is utilized for making paints and varnishes from these plastics.  These are durable, strong and hard.  They are available in a variety of beautiful colours.  They are mainly used in engineering application of plastics. PROPERTIES *Melamine Crockeries
  14. 14. Thermo-setting plastics APPLICATIONS Epoxies Properties: good dimensional stability, excellent mechanical and electrical properties, good resistance to heat and chemicals Applications: electrical components requiring strength, tools and dies, fiber reinforced epoxies are used in structural components, tanks, pressure vessels, rocket motor casing Phenolics Properties: good dimensional stability, rigid, high resistance to heat, water, electricity, and chemicals Applications: laminated panels, handles, knobs, electrical components; connectors, insulators
  15. 15. Thermo-setting plastics APPLICATIONS Polyesters (thermosetting, reinforced with glass fibers) Properties: good mechanical, electrical, and chemical properties, good resistance to heat and chemicals Applications: boats, luggage, swimming pools, automotive bodies, chairs Silicones Properties: excellent electrical properties over a wide rang of temperature and humidity, good heat and chemical properties Applications: electrical components requiring strength at high temp., waterproof materials, heat seals
  16. 16. Thermo-setting plastics  Electronic chips  Fibre-reinforced composites  Polymeric coatings  Spectacle lenses  Dental fillings General Uses
  17. 17. Natural vs. synthetic polymers NATURAL POLYMERS SYNTHETIC POLYMER Thermoplastic polymer (Chemical composition do not change on heating) Thermosetting polymer (Irreversible chemical process) Remouldable Polymers Non-remouldable Polymers These are brittle, glossy, elasticity, flexible They possess matt effect, elasticity, and are flexible Eg: Polyethylene, Polypropylene, Polystyrene, PVC Eg: Rubber, Nylon, Glass Fibre, Cork
  18. 18. Structure based Homogeneous Plastics Heterogeneous Plastics
  19. 19. Homogeneous plastics This variety of plastic contains carbon chain i.e. the plastics of this group are composed only of carbon atoms and they exhibit homogeneous structure. Heterogeneous plastics This variety of plastic is composed of the chain containing carbon and oxygen, the nitrogen and other elements and they exhibit heterogeneous structure.
  20. 20. Based on physical and chemical properties Soft Plastics Semi-rigid Plastics Elastomers Rigid Plastics
  21. 21. Rigid plastics These plastics have a high modulus of elasticity and they retain their shape under exterior stresses applied at normal or moderately increased temperatures. Semi-Rigid plastics These plastics have a medium modulus of elasticity and the elongation under pressure completely disappears, when pressure is removed.
  22. 22. soft plastics  These plastics have a low modulus of elasticity and the elongation under pressure disappears slowly, when pressure is removed.  Soft plastics are available in a large range of colours, sizes and particularly shapes. USES: Used in making children’s toys eg: rattles etc., fishing baits.
  23. 23. Elastomers These plastics are soft and elastic materials with a low modulus of elasticity. They deform considerably under load at room temperature and return to their original shape, when the load is released. The extensions can range upto ten times their original dimensions.
  24. 24. Bio-degradable Plastics  Biodegradable plastic decomposes in the natural environment. It is produced from biopolymers called polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). This material is completely biodegradable.  Biodegradation of plastics can be achieved by enabling microorganisms in the environment to metabolize the molecular structure of plastic films to produce an inert humus like material that is harmful to environment.  The use of bio-active compounds compounded with swelling agents ensures that, when combined with heat and moisture, they expand the plastic’s molecular structure and allow the bio-active compounds to metabolise and neutralize the plastic.
  25. 25. Bio-degradable Plastics
  26. 26. Advantages & disadvantages  Under proper conditions biodegradable plastics can degrade to the point where microorganisms can metabolize them.  This reduces the problems with litter and reduces harmful effects on wildlife.  However degradation of biodegradable plastic occurs very slowly.  Proper composting methods are required to degrade the plastic, which may actually contribute to carbon dioxide emissions.
  27. 27. Moulding compounds Some of the moulding components are:  Catalyst  Fillers  Hardeners  Lubricants  Pigments  Plasticizers  Solvents
  28. 28. Catalysts  These components are added to assist and accelerate the hardening of resins.  For instance, the ester acts as catalyst for urea formaldehyde.  They are used for quick and complete polymerization.
  29. 29. fillers  The fillers are inert materials and they impart strength, hardness and other properties to the plastic.  The choice of filler should be carefully made.  It should be confirmed that the addition of a filler does not have detrimental effect on other properties of plastic.  The filler may be used in the following forms-  Fibrous fillers  Laminated fillers  Power fillers
  30. 30. hardeners  These compounds are added to increase the hardness of resin.  For instance, the hexamethylene tetramine acts as hardeners for phenol formaldehyde.
  31. 31. lubricants  The lubricants are applied on the surface of moulds so that the articles of plastic do not stick to the moulds.  The application of lubricants on surface of moulds allows easy removal of articles of plastic from the moulds.  The commonly used lubricants are graphite, parafine, wax, etc.
  32. 32. pigments  The addition of dyes and pigments helps in two ways, namely, they act as fillers an they impart desired colour to the plastic.  They should be durable and adequately fast to light.  The commonly used pigments are zinc oxide, barytes, etc.  The selection of pigments should be done in such a way that their addition does not alter or affect the other properties of plastic.
  33. 33. plasticizers  The plasticizers are the organic compounds which are oily in nature and low molecular weight.  They are used to separate the polymer chain by a greater distance to make the crystallization difficult.  These components are added to improve the plasticity and to impart softness to the plastic.  They gives flexibility to the material and act like a lubricant.  The addition of plasticizers facilitates the moulding process of plastic articles.  The commonly used plasticizers in plastic are camphor, triacetin, tributyl phosphate, etc.  The properties of plasticizers in plastic should not exceed 10% otherwise strength of plastic will decrease.
  34. 34. solvents  These components are added to dissolve the plasticizers.  For instance the alcohol is added in cellulose nitrate plastics to dissolve camphor.
  35. 35. Fabrication Following are the process involved in the fabrication of articles of plastics:  Blowing  Calendering  Casting  Laminating  Moulding
  36. 36. blowing  This method of lubrication of articles of plastic is more or less the same as the one employed in the glass industry.  A lump of plastic material is taken and by blowing, it is converted into hollow plastic articles such as jars, bottles, toys, etc.
  37. 37. calendering  In this process the plastic material is allowed to pass between the cylindrical rollers.  The process is used to prepare plain flat sheets of plastics.  The roller may be provided with artistic designs which will appear on the finished product.
  38. 38. calendering
  39. 39. Casting  This process is similar in principle to that of metal casting.  The resin is heated and when it is in plastic form, it is poured into the mould.  The curing of articles is then done either with or without the application of heat.  During curing the low pressure may be applied if necessary.  This process is used to prepare plastics of beautiful colours and it is most suitable for cellulose plastics.
  40. 40. Casting
  41. 41. Laminating  In this process, the thermosetting resin are just applied on sheets of paper, asbestos, cloth, wood, glass, fibre, etc. and they are subjected to heavy pressure by allowing them to pass through rollers to form plastic laminates.  The thickness of sheets varies from 0.12 mm to 15 mm  Due to the pleasing finished surface, they are used for ornamental and decorative purposes.
  42. 42. Laminating
  43. 43. moulding  This is the most commonly adopted process for the fabrication of plastic articles.  The general process consist in placing the raw materials in a mould and then heating it.  The moulding can be done by various methods:  Compression moulding  Extrusion moulding  Injection moulding  Jet moulding  Transfer moulding NOTE: The choice of moulding method will depend on the article to be prepared.
  44. 44. CLICK TO VIEW THE MOVIE
  45. 45. moulding MOULDING MACHINE (PROCESS)
  46. 46. moulding A VARIETY OF MOULDED ARCTICLES
  47. 47. properties  APPEARANCE: Some plastics are completely transparent in appearance. With the addition of suitable pigments, the plastics can be made to have appearance of variety of attractive, opaque, stable and translucent colours.  CHEMICAL RESISTANCE: The plastics offer great resistance to moisture, chemicals and solvents. The degree of chemical resistance depends on the chemical composition of plastics. Many plastics are found to possess excellent corrosion resistance. Hence they are used to convey chemicals.  DIMENSIONAL STABILITY: This property of plastic favours quite satisfactory with that of other common engineering materials.  DUCTILITY: The plastics possess excellent electric insulating property. They are far superior to ordinary electric insulators.
  48. 48. properties  MAINTENANCE: It is easy to maintain plastic surfaces. They do not require any protective coat of paints.  MELTING POINT: Most of the plastics have low melting point and the melting point of some plastics is only about 50 ͦC. They cannot therefore be used in positions having high temperatures or to convey boiling water.  OPTICAL PROPERTY: Several types of plastics are transparent and translucent.  RECYCLING: The most environmentally aware people condemn the use of plastics for the amount of pollution caused by them in disposal. The plastics used for soft- drink bottles, milk and juice bottles, bread bags, syrup bottles, coffee cups, plastic utensils, etc. can be conveniently recycled into carpets, detergent bottles, drainage pipes, fencing, handrails, grocery bags, car battery cases, pencil holders, benches, picnic tables, roadside posts, etc.
  49. 49. properties  SOUND ABSORPTION: The acoustical boards are prepared by impregnating fibre- glass with phenolic resins. This material has absorption coefficient of about 0.67.  STRENGTH: An ideal section of plastics for structural member has yet not been designed. The plastics are reasonably strong. The strength of plastics may be increased by reinforcing with various fibrous materials. Following considerations are responsible to discourage the use of plastics as the structural material: 1. The plastics are costly. 2. The plastics are subject to creep under constant heavy loads. 3. The behaviour of plastics is very sensitive to the changes in temperature. 4. The stiffness of plastics is very poor
  50. 50. properties  THERMAL PROPERTY: The thermal conductivity of plastics is low and it can be compared with that of wood. The foamed or expanded plastics are among the leading thermal insulators.  WEATHER RESISTANCE: Only limited varieties of plastics can be exposed to weather. The certain plastics are seriously affected by ultraviolet light in the presence of sunlight. The resistance to sunlight of such plastics can be improved by incorporating fillers and pigments which absorb or reflect the ultraviolet light at the surface. Thus the interior of plastics is protected.  WEIGHT: The plastics, whether thermo-plastic or thermo-setting, have low specific gravity, the average being 1.30 to 1.40. The light weight of plastics reduces the transport costs and facilitates fixing.
  51. 51. Add to your knowledge The Indian Petrochemical Corporation Ltd. (IPCL), near Baroda, has put a commercial brand of plastics, known as the ‘Koylene’. It is the lightest of all commercial known plastics and it is available in a wide range of grades. It is tailor- made to suit various applications such as automotive and scooter parts, box strappings, industrial woven fabrics, ball pen refills, drinking straws, etc. This material possesses rigidity, good gloss, ability to withstand temperatures upto 100 ͦC and easy processibility.
  52. 52. Uses of plastic SECTION USED FOR JOINING PVC SHEET
  53. 53. ADVANTAGES of plastic  Corrosion resistance  Low electrical and thermal conductivity, insulator  Easily formed into complex shapes, can be formed, casted and joined.  Wide choice of appearance, colors and transparencies Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering 54
  54. 54. DISADVANTAGES of plastic  Low strength  Low useful temperature range (up to 600 o F)  Less dimensional stability over period of time (creep effect)  Aging effect, hardens and become brittle over time  Sensitive to environment, moisture and chemicals  Poor machinibility
  55. 55. Uses of plastic  There are more than 10000 different kinds of plastics available in the market and their performance abilities span those of every other known material from soft rubber to steel.  The typical uses of plastics in building are summarized as follows:  Bath and sink units  Cistern ball floats  Corrugated and plain sheets  Decorative laminates and mouldings  Electrical conduits  Electrical Insulators  Films for water proofing, damp proofing and concrete curing  Floor tiles  Foams for thermal insulation  Jointless flooring  Lighting fixtures  Overhead water tanks  Paints and varnishes  Pipes to carry cold water  Roof lights  Safety glass  Wall tiles  Water resistance adhesives
  56. 56. World consumption of plastic
  57. 57. COMPANIES- GE, POLYGAL, GOODSALES, SUNBEAM COLOURS-  NATURAL  SMOKE  GREEN  BLUE RATE DIFFERENCES- Rates difference as per texture is Rs 15 to 20 PER SQ FT. IT IS TRANSPORTED IN THE FORM OF ROLLS POLYCARBONATESHEETS USES OF POLYCARBONATE SHEETS Market Analysis
  58. 58. SIZE - 3X100 sq ft ,4X100 sq ft (FOR 1 mm) 7X20 sq ft, 7X40 sq ft (FOR 2 TO 12 mm) THICKNESS - 1,2,4 ,6 ,8 ,10,12 mm PVC PANELS Market Analysis THICKNESS RATES PER SQ. FT. 1 MM RS. 57 2 MM RS. 65 4 MM RS. 75 6 MM RS. 95 8 MM RS. 135 10 MM RS. 140 12 MM RS. 145
  59. 59. Market Analysis
  60. 60. DOME CONSTRUCTION BY PVC SHEETS Market Analysis
  61. 61. Market Analysis
  62. 62. Market Analysis PVC DOORS
  63. 63. Seminar presented by: Namit Mittal Deepak Sharma Utkarsha Singh Pavas Sharma (B.Arch IV SEM) Guided By: AR. Amrita Rastogi Bibliography: Book on Engineering Materials (Author-Rangwala) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastic

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