Unit I: Concept of Research
PROF. SHAILJA BHAKAR
Definitions
 Martin Shuttleworth - "In the broadest sense

of the word, the definition of research includes
any gathering...
Definition
 The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines

research in more detail as "a studious inquiry or
examination;...
Objectives
 It can be used to establish or confirm facts
 Reaffirm the results of previous work
 Solve new or existing ...
Objectives
 To

understand the characteristics of a
particular individual, situation or a group
 To determine the freque...
Nature of Research
1. It is systematic

2. It is scientific
3. It has objectivity
4. It has verifiability
5. It has defini...
Nature of Research
9. It serves as basis of management principles
10.It aids in decision making
11. It is qualitative & qu...
Significance of Research
 Research for decision making

Throws light on risk and uncertainty
2. Identify alternative cour...
Significance of Research
3.
4.
5.
6.


1.
2.
3.

Improves worse condition of farmers
The problem of big and small busines...
Significance of Research
 Research for Social Scientists
1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

In studying social relationship
Seeki...
Scientific Method
 Definition:

Scientific method refers to a body of techniques for
investigating phenomena, acquiring n...
Assumptions of Scientific Method
1.

Realism

2.
Determinism

Rationality 3.

4.
5.
Discoverability

Regularity

Realism: ...
Assumptions of Scientific Method: David Easton
1.
2.

3.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Regularities: Scientific research believes that ...
Stages in Scientific Method
Assessment of relevant existing
knowledge of a phenomenon
Formulation of concepts and preposit...
Stages in Scientific Method

Assessment of relevant existing knowledge of a phenomenon

• Some phenomena may not have been...
Types of Research
 Exploratory Research: Initial research conducted to clarify and define the

nature of a problem is cal...
Types of Research
 Causal Research: Research conducted to identify cause and effect relationships

among variables when t...
Types of Research
 Modern Methods
1. Basic v/s Applied: Investigation of problem to further and develop existing
2.

3.
4...
Types of Research
Clinical or Diagnostic: few sample and studies the phenomenon in depth and
observes the effects.
7. Expl...
Steps in the Research Process
Defining the Problem
Planning a Research Design

Planning a Sample
Gathering the Data
Proces...
Steps in the Research Process
Problem Discovery

Selection of Exploratory
Research Technique

Secondary

Pilot Study

Expe...
Steps in the Research Process
Objective

Urgency
Planning a Research Design

Available data
Sources

Survey

Interview

Qu...
Steps in the Research Process

Selection of Sample
Design

Non Probability
Sampling

Probability
Sampling

Simple
Random

...
Steps in the Research Process
Defining the Problem
Planning a Research Design

Planning a Sample
Gathering the Data
Proces...
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  1. 1. Unit I: Concept of Research PROF. SHAILJA BHAKAR
  2. 2. Definitions  Martin Shuttleworth - "In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge.“  Another definition of research is given by Creswell who states - "Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue". It consists of three steps: Pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.
  3. 3. Definition  The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as "a studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws".  “The systematic and objective process of gathering, recording and analyzing data for aid in making business decisions”
  4. 4. Objectives  It can be used to establish or confirm facts  Reaffirm the results of previous work  Solve new or existing problems  Develop new theories  Support theorems  An expansion on past work in a field  In order to test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects, or the project as a whole  To test the relationship between the variables
  5. 5. Objectives  To understand the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group  To determine the frequency with which something occurs  The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are: a) Discovery b) Documentation c) Interpretation d) The research and development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge
  6. 6. Nature of Research 1. It is systematic 2. It is scientific 3. It has objectivity 4. It has verifiability 5. It has definiteness 6. It is art & science both 7. It has wider scope
  7. 7. Nature of Research 9. It serves as basis of management principles 10.It aids in decision making 11. It is qualitative & quantitative both 12. It is helpful in prediction & control 13. It has psychological approaches too 14. It relies on empirical evidences 15. It explores new insights/describes in detail/obtain cause & effect relationships
  8. 8. Significance of Research  Research for decision making Throws light on risk and uncertainty 2. Identify alternative courses of action 3. Helps in economic use of scarce resources 4. Helps in project identification 5. Solves allocation problem 6. Investment problem 7. Helps in planning  Research for Government Policies and Economic Systems 1. Government Budgets 2. Facilitates the decision of the policy makers 1.
  9. 9. Significance of Research 3. 4. 5. 6.  1. 2. 3. Improves worse condition of farmers The problem of big and small business and industry, working conditions, trade union activities, the problem of distribution, size and nature of defense services Collecting information on the economic and social structure of the nation Prediction of future developments Research for solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry Market research- Investigation of the structure and development of market Operations research- Application of mathematical logical and analytical Motivational research- Market characteristics
  10. 10. Significance of Research  Research for Social Scientists 1. 2. 3.  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. In studying social relationship Seeking answers to various social problems such as understanding and predicting human interactions Provides practical guidance in solving immediate problems of human relations In addition to this For students research means careerism For professionals in research For philosophers and thinkers outlets of new ideas For literary men and women development of new styles For analysts and intellectuals generalization of new theories
  11. 11. Scientific Method  Definition: Scientific method refers to a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry must be based on gathering empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning.  The Oxford English Dictionary says that scientific method is: "a method or procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses.“  Whereas business research is a study of psychology of Human Behavior in organization and developing theories to explain facts and laws.
  12. 12. Assumptions of Scientific Method 1. Realism 2. Determinism Rationality 3. 4. 5. Discoverability Regularity Realism: The philosophy that objects perceived have an existence outside the mind Rationality: A view that reasoning is the basis for solving problems Regularity: A belief that phenomena exists in recurring patterns that conform with universal laws Discoverability: The belief that is possible to learn solutions to questions posed Determinism: The doctrine that all events happen because of preceding causes. Also called causality
  13. 13. Assumptions of Scientific Method: David Easton 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Regularities: Scientific research believes that the world is regular and phenomena occurs in patterns Integr Verification: Scientific research presupposes that ation knowledge consists of prepositions that have been subjected to empirical tests and that all evidence is based on observation Techniques: Correct technique should be adopted for Pure acquiring and interpreting data Science Quantification: Science necessarily involves mathematical formulae and measurement Values: Science is value free there is no value attached Systemati with its objectives zation Systematization: Systematic steps should be followed Pure Science: Both theory and application are part of scientific enterprise Integration: Of all the social sciences. Social, Political, Economic, Cultural and other activities Regula rities Verific ation Techniq ues Values Quantific ation
  14. 14. Stages in Scientific Method Assessment of relevant existing knowledge of a phenomenon Formulation of concepts and prepositions Statements of hypothesis Design of research to test the hypothesis Acquisition of meaningful empirical data Analysis and evaluation of data Proposal of an explanation of the phenomenon and statement of new problem raised by research
  15. 15. Stages in Scientific Method Assessment of relevant existing knowledge of a phenomenon • Some phenomena may not have been studied • Some variables affecting phenomena may not have been studied • Relationship between variables may not have been studied • May not have been studied in a particular context • Environment may have changed
  16. 16. Types of Research  Exploratory Research: Initial research conducted to clarify and define the nature of a problem is called exploratory research 1. Does not leads to any conclusive evidence 2. Does not suggest particular course of action 3. Subsequent research are needed  Descriptive Research: Research designed to describe characteristics of a population or a phenomenon 1. Determines the answers to questions like: who, what, when, where, how 2. Often helps in segmenting and targeting market 3. Accuracy is very important 4. Are based on some previous understanding of the nature of the problem
  17. 17. Types of Research  Causal Research: Research conducted to identify cause and effect relationships among variables when the research problem has already been narrowly defined 1. Attempts to establish relationship when we do one thing other follows 2. Cause should precede effect 3. There should be evidence of concominent variation 4. May be third variable has some influence  Research with purpose of inferring causality should do the following: 1. Establish the appropriate causal order/ sequence of event 2. Measure the concomitant variation between the presumed cause and presumed event/ effect 3. Recognize the presence or absence of alternative plausible explanation or causal factor
  18. 18. Types of Research  Modern Methods 1. Basic v/s Applied: Investigation of problem to further and develop existing 2. 3. 4. 5. knowledge and In applied research application is developed Descriptive v/s Analytical: describes present state of affairs as it exists without having control over variables and in analytical research researcher uses facts or information already available and analyze to make a critical evaluation of the material Quantitative v/s Qualitative: measurement of quantity or amount and qualitative research is concerned with qualitative phenomenon Conceptual v/s Empirical: related to some abstract ideas or theories on the other hand empirical research is data based coming up with conclusions that are capable of being verified, by observation or experimentation Laboratory
  19. 19. Types of Research Clinical or Diagnostic: few sample and studies the phenomenon in depth and observes the effects. 7. Exploratory: development of hypothesis 8. Historical: studies events or ideas of past  Traditional Methods 1. Philosophical Method: overall view of human development 2. Institutional Approach: enquires nature of institutions such as parliament, legal courts, educational institutions etc. 3. Legal Approach: Law that controls the institutions 4. Historical Approach: researches historic stories of individuals and a chronological study of human development in relation to nature and other institutions 6.
  20. 20. Steps in the Research Process Defining the Problem Planning a Research Design Planning a Sample Gathering the Data Processing and Analyzing the Data Formulating Conclusions and Preparing the Report Defining the New Problem
  21. 21. Steps in the Research Process Problem Discovery Selection of Exploratory Research Technique Secondary Pilot Study Experience Survey Case Study
  22. 22. Steps in the Research Process Objective Urgency Planning a Research Design Available data Sources Survey Interview Questionn aire Cost Experiment Lab Field Secondary Data Study Observation
  23. 23. Steps in the Research Process Selection of Sample Design Non Probability Sampling Probability Sampling Simple Random Stratified Sampling Systematic Sampling Cluster Sampling Judgmental Sampling Convenienc e Purposive Quota
  24. 24. Steps in the Research Process Defining the Problem Planning a Research Design Planning a Sample Gathering the Data Processing and Analyzing the Data Formulating Conclusions and Preparing the Report Defining the New Problem

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