Research notes nursing 4rth year +919887888167


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best resultable notes for nursing studens of nursing research and statistics.

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Research notes nursing 4rth year +919887888167

  1. 1. Defination [1].Research is define as systematic and scientific process to answer the question about fact and relationship . [2]. Meaning of Research Research is defined as the scientific investigation of phenomena which includes collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of facts that lines an individual’s speculation with reality. Nursing research Nursing research develops knowledge to: Build the scientific foundation for clinical practice Prevent disease and disability Manage and eliminate symptom caused by illness Enhance end-of-life and palliative care Need of nursing research Development a good standered of nursing care Developed a scientific knowledge Provide evidance based nursing care
  2. 2. The scientific method is a way to ask and answer scientific questions by making observations and doing experiments.The steps of the scientific method are to:  Ask a Question  Do Background Research  Construct a Hypothesis  Test Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment  Analyze , Data and Draw a Conclusion  Communicate , Results  Ask a Question: The scientific method starts when ask a question about something that you observe: How, What, When, Who, Which, Why, or Where? And, in order for the scientific method to answer the question it must be about something that you can measure, preferably with a number.
  3. 3. Do Background Research: Rather than starting from scratch in putting together a plan for answering question,want to be a sarvy scientist using library and Internet research to help find the best way to do things and insure that don't repeat mistakes from the past. Construct a Hypothesis: A hypothesis is an educated guess about how things work: "If _____[I do this] _____, then _____[this]_____ will happen." must state hypothesis in a way that can easily measure, and of course, hypothesis should be constructed in a way to help answer , original question. Test Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment: experiment tests whether hypothesis is supported or not. It is important for experiment to be a fair test.conduct a fair test by making sure that change only one factor at a time while keeping all other conditions the same.repeat experiments several times to make sure that the first results weren't just an accident.
  4. 4. Analyze , Data and Draw a Conclusion: Once , experiment is complete, collect , measurements and analyze them to see if they support , hypothesis or not.Scientists often find that their hypothesis was not supported, and in such cases they will construct a new hypothesis based on the information they learned during their experiment. Communicate , Results: To complete , science fair project will communicate , results to others in a final report and/or a display board. Professional scientists do almost exactly the same thing by publishing their final report in a scientific journal or by presenting their results on a poster at a scientific meeting. In a science fair, judges are interested in The scientific method is a process for experimentation that is used to explore observations and answer questions.
  5. 5. 1.Empirical. Research is based on direct experience or observation by the researcher. 2. Logical. Research is based on valid procedures and principles. 3. Cyclical. Research is a cyclical process because it starts with a problem and ends with a problem. 4. Analytical. Research utilizes proven analytical procedures in gathering the data, whether historical, descriptive, experimental and case study. 5. Critical. Research exhibits careful and precise judgment. 6. Methodical. Research is conducted in a methodical manner without bias using systematic method and procedures. 7. Replicability. The research design and procedures are replicated or repeated to enable the researcher to arrive at valid and conclusive results.
  6. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Research-oriented Efficient Scientific Effective Active Resourceful Creative Honest Economical Religious
  7. 7. 1. Basic Research. This is also called as “fundamental research” or “pure research”. It seeks to discover basic truths or principles. Examples: Archimedes’ Principle Hooke’s Law Newton’s Law 2. Applied Research. This type of research involves seeking new applications of scientific knowledge to the solution of a problem, such as a development of a new system or procedure, new device, or new method in order to solve the problem. 3. Developmental Research. This is a decision-oriented research involving the application of the steps of the scientific method in response to an immediate need to improve existing practices.
  8. 8. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Problem/ Objectives Hypotheses Theoretical/ Conceptual Framework Assumptions Review of Related Literature Research Design Data Collection Data Processing and Statistical Treatment Analysis and Interpretation Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
  9. 9. It involves the of new and existing data from new sources . It is directed toward the solution of the problem. It emphasizes the development of generalizations, principles, theories that may be helpful in predicting future occurrence. It requires expertise. The researcher must be adequately prepared to undertake such behavior. It is empirical. It is based on direct experience and demands accurate observation and description of what is being studied. Itis honest and characterized patient and unhurried activities. It is enable the researcher to achieve valid and comprehensive results.
  10. 10. The Research Problem and objectives The Research Problem .5 factors to consider to determine that a problem is researchable or not. 1. The problem existing in the locality or country but no known solution to the problem. 2. The solution can be answered by using statistical methods and techniques. 3. There are probable solutions but they are not yet tested. 4. The occurrence of phenomena requires scientific investigation to arrive at precise solution. 5. Serious needs/problems of the people where it demands research. Research objectives Research objectives are a specification of the ultimate reason for carrying out research in the first place. They help in developing a specific list of information needs. Only when the researcher knows the problem that management wants to solve can the research project be designed to
  11. 11. Specific. The problem should be specificallytested Measurable. It is easy to measure by using research instruments, apparatus or equipment. Achievable. The data are achievable using correct statistical tools to arrive at precise results. Realistic. Real results are attained because they are gathered scientifically and not manipulated or maneuvered. Time-bound. Time frame is required in every activity because the shorter completion of the activity, the better. Sources of Research Problem 1. Specialization of the researcher. 2. Current and past researches.
  12. 12. Identification of research problem is the first step in a scientific method for conducting a research. To initiate a research, there should be preoccurred ideas that generated the necessity for the research to be carried out. The ideas are developed while going though literatures, discourses with experts and continuation of activities related to the subject matter. These ideas develop into some specific topics that will be interesting or rewarding if investigated. These topics generally called problems. Some guidelines for selecting problems: The problem should be such in which the researcher may be deeply interested. The problem should be related with the chain of thinking. Stray problems can mislead the whole research project. The problem selected should not necessarily be new one. It may be old problem or one on which work has already been done i.e., verification of old problem may be equally useful.