Nursing research introduction


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Nursing research introduction

  1. 1. Lecture Notes on Nursing ResearchPrepared By: Mark Fredderick R Abejo R.N, MAN  Systematic study and assessment of nursing problems or phenomena; finding ways to improve nursing practice and patient care through creative studies;initiating and evaluating change; and taking action to make new knowledge useful in nursing. (Vreeland, 1963 )  Includes the breadth and depth of the disciple of nursing and the rehabilitative, therapeutic and preventive aspects of nursing as well as the preparation of practitioners and personnel involved in the total nursing sphere. NURSING RESEARCH  According to NCNR, nursing research is the testing of knowledge that can be used to guide nursing practice. It is concerned with examining questions Lecturer: Mark Fredderick R. Abejo RN, MAN and verifying interventions based on human________________________________________________ experiences. NATURE OF RESEARCH The Goals of Nursing Research  Efficiency and effectiveness in nursing care.  Worthiness and value of the nursingResearch Definition profession.  Derived from the old French word “CERCHIER”  Indentify, implementing and evaluating meaning to seek or to search. effective health care modalities.  The prefix “re” means again and signifies  Potential for providing quality care of replication of the search, implying that the person clients. has to find out or to take another more careful look.  Is a scientific study or investigation that is pursued to discover theories and concepts based on new facts Sources of Knowledge in Nursing and information and its practical application.  Systematic collection and analysis of data to  Faith, Habits and Traditions illuminate, describe or explain new facts and  Authority relationship and for the purposes of prediction or  Borrowing explanation.  Clinical / Personal Experience  An attempt to gain solutions to the problem. (Treece,  Trial and Error 1986)  Intuition  Refers to a problem solving process that utilizes  Role Modeling scientific and develop ideas and theories that give  Logical Reasoning meaningful answer to complex questions about  Assembled Information human beings and the environment.  Disciplined Research  The Committee on Research of the Philippine Nurses Association has come up with its own Reason for Conducting Research in Nursing definition of research: Research is an honest, scientific investigation undertaken for the purpose 1. Gather data or information on nursing situations or of discovering new facts or establishing new conditions about which little knowledge is available. relationship among facts already known which will 2. Provides scientific knowledge base from which nursing contribute to the present body of knowledge and theories emerge and develop. can lead to an effective solution of existing 3. Helps correct, clarify and validate perceptions and problems. expands these. 4. Provides theoretical and scientific basis for nursing Theory – systematic, abstract explanation of some practice. aspect of reality. 5. Defines the parameters of nursing and identifies its Concepts – building blocks of theories boundaries. Data – pieces of information obtained in the course of 6. Documents the social relevance and efficacy of nursing investigation practice to people and health care providers. Phenomenon – an event, happening, incident and 7. Describes the characteristics of the nursing situation observable facts. about which little knowledge is known. 8. Predicts probable outcomes of nursing decisions in relations to client care.Nursing Research Definition 9. Provides knowledge for purposes of problem solving and  It is defined as a formal, systematic, rigorous and decision making. intensive process used for solutions to nursing 10. Develops and evaluates nursing theories, concepts and problems or to discover and interpret new facts and practices these for clarity and validity of nursing actions. trends in the clinical practice, nursing education and 11. Prevents undesirable client reactions. nursing administration. (Waltz and Bausell, 2001) 12. Develops a considerable degree of confidence.Introduction to Nursing Research Abejo
  2. 2. Lecture Notes on Nursing ResearchPrepared By: Mark Fredderick R Abejo R.N, MANGeneral and Specific Purposes of Research Types of ResearchGeneral Purposes 1. General Classification Research in general, answer questions to solve problems. Provide tools for observation in order to generate  Basic / Pure Research knowledge as basis for predicting and controlling the The researcher tries to find the truth about phenomenon. Thus, a nurse can apply this knowledge in something. practice and prescribe accurately and professionally It is done for the intellectual pleasure of without untoward client response or reactions to nursing learning to search for knowledge for its own interventions. (Polit and Beck, 2004 ) sake and eventually filter down the result into real life situation.Specific PurposesSpecifically, research aims to do the following tasks:  Applied Research Description Applied research seeks for practical application Exploration of theoretical or abstract knowledge. The truth Explanation is adapted to every situation. Prediction It results from present problems or from Control socially disorganized situations. It frequently raises theoretical questions that must beResearch Purpose Related to Evidence- Based Practice answered by basic/ pure research. Treatment, Therapy or Intervention Purpose of Conducting Applied Research Diagnosis and Assessment  To solve a problem Prognosis  To make a decision Prevention of harm  To develop a new program, product, Etiology or causation methods and procedure Meaning and Process  To evaluate program and methods.  Action ResearchParadigms for Nursing The process involves the study of certain problem and from that experience, decisions,Paradigms – an overall belief system, a view of the world that actions and conclusion are drawn.strives to make sense of the nature of reality and the basis of Findings are limited to settings actuallyknowledge. studied. MAJOR ASSUMPTIONS OF THE POSITIVIST AND 2. According to Level of Investigation NATURALISTIC PARADIGMS  Exploratory Research Allows one to study the variables pertinent to a Positivist Naturalistic specific situation. Paradigm ParadigmNature of Reality exist Reality is multiple and  Descriptive Researchreality subjective The exploration and description of phenomenaRelationship Inquirer is independent Inquirer interacts with in real life from those being those being researchResearcher researched Provides an accurate account of characteristicsand those of particular individuals, situations or groups.beingresearchedThe role of Values and biases are Subjectivity and value 3. According to Time Elementvalues in to be held in check are inevitableinquiry  Historical ResearchBest method Deductive processes Inductive processes Describes what was?for obtaining Emphasis on discrete, Emphasize on wholeevidence specific concept Focus on the subjective Focus on objectives Flexible  Descriptive Research Verification of Insider knowledge as Describes what is? researchers predictions internal Fixed designed Narrative information 4. According to Duration Outsider knowledge as Seek in depth external understanding  Longitudinal Study Measured Focus on the product and Seek generalization process Follows the subjects for a long period of time Focus on the product in order to observe change.Introduction to Nursing Research Abejo
  3. 3. Lecture Notes on Nursing ResearchPrepared By: Mark Fredderick R Abejo R.N, MAN Cross – sectional Study Takes information one at a time and may require subjects to recall past events or feelings. It may contribute to a loss of accuracy and  Qualitative Research support bias. It is more often done than the A systematic, interactive, subjective approach used longitudinal studies to describe life experiences and give them meaning. A type of research conducted to describe and5. According to Research Design promote understanding of human experiences. Evolved from the behavioral and social sciences as a Correlational Research method of understanding unique, dynamic, holistic Involves the systematic investigation of nature of human beings. relationship between or among variables. This design is used to quantify the strength of Approaches in Qualitative Research the relationships in the real world. This design is used to quantify the strength of  Phenomenological Research the relationship between variables or in testing - Used to answer questions of meaning a hypothesis about a specific relationship. - Begin with accumulation of evidence when little topic is known or when Experimental studying new topic it involves gathering of An objective, systematic, highly controlled fresh perspective. investigation for the purpose of predicting and - The goal of phenomenological inquiry is controlling phenomena in nursing practice. to understand fully lived experience and The researcher actively introduces some form perceptions. of treatment and has greater control over - Aspects of Lived Experience involves: extraneous variables. a. Lived Space (spatiality) b. Live Body (corporeality) Non Experimental c. Lived Time (temporality) The researcher collects data without d. Live Human Relation (relationality) introducing any treatment or making any changes.  Grounded Theory Research Non experimental research usually includes - Method designed to inductively develop a studies where the researcher’s primary interest theory based observations of selected is understanding some human behavior in people. naturalistic contexts. - The primary purpose of grounded theory research is to develop a theory. The Quasi – Experimental concepts and theories discovered through Is like experimental research because it actively this research approach are derived directly from the data. introduces some form of treatment or - The following are the major premises of manipulation of an independent variable. grounded theory: Unlike experimental research, however, it does  Humans act toward objects on the not utilize randomization or control group. basis of the meaning those objects have for them.  Social meaning arise from social interaction  People use interpretive processes toNursing Research Methodologies handle and change meanings in dealing with their situations. - Fundamental characteristic of grounded theory research is that data collection, data Quantitative Research analysis and sampling of participants A formal, objective, systematic process in which occur at the same time. numerical data are used to obtain information about - In depth interview and observation are the the world. most common data source. This method is used to describe variables, examine relationships among variables and determine cause  Ethnographic Research and effect interactions between variables. - A tool for studying cultures - It has been associated with studies of Rigor in Quantitative primitive, foreign or remote cultures Rigor is the striving for excellence in research which allows the researcher to acquire and it requires discipline, adherence to detail new perspectives beyond his/her own and strict accuracy. ethnocentric perspective. Control in Quantitative Involves the imposing of rules by the researcher to decrease the possibility of error.Introduction to Nursing Research Abejo
  4. 4. Lecture Notes on Nursing ResearchPrepared By: Mark Fredderick R Abejo R.N, MAN  Narrative Research - Focus on story as the object of inquiry, to COMPARISON OF QUANTITATIVE AND determine how individuals make sense of QUALITATIVE RESEARCH events in their lives. - The data can be collected as a story or Quantitative Qualitative filed notes. - It may be used for comparison among General Seek to confirm Seek to explore groups, to learn about a social Framework hypotheses about phenomena phenomenon or historical period or to phenomenon explore a personality Instrument use more Instrument use more  Case Study rigid style of flexible, repetitious - Involves an in-depth description of eliciting and style of eliciting and essential dimension and processes of the categorizing categorizing phenomenon being studied. response to question responses to - Are means of providing in depth, evidence questions base discussion of clinical topics along Use highly with practical information structured methods Use semi structured such as methods such as in questionnaires, depth interviews, survey and focus groups and COMPARISON ON PHASES OF COMPARISON OF structured participant QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH observation observation Quantitative Qualitative Analytical To quantify To describe variationConceptual Formulating problem Topic identification Objectives variationPhase Review related lit. Situation appraisal To describe and Defining framework Develop To predict causal explain relationship Formulating hypotheses relationship hypotheses Framework To describe development To describe individual Objective characteristics of a experiences formulation populationDesign / Selecting research Research plan To describe groupPlanning design formulation normsPhase Develop protocol for Question Close - ended Open – ended intervention Format Design sampling Data Format Numerical Textual plan Flexibility in Study design is Some aspects of the Develop methods to Design stable from study are flexible. safeguard rights beginning to endEmpirical Collecting data Data gathering and Preparing data collection Participant Participant responses analysis responses do not affect how and whichAnalytical Analyze the data Data analysis and influence or questions researchersPhase Interpreting the interpretation determine how and ask next results Conclusion which questionsDissemination Communicating Communicating researchers ask next Study design isPhase findings and utilizing the repetitious, that is, Utilizing findings in findings Study design is data collection and practice subject to statistical research question are assumptions and adjusted according to conditions. what is learned.Introduction to Nursing Research Abejo
  5. 5. Lecture Notes on Nursing ResearchPrepared By: Mark Fredderick R Abejo R.N, MANCONTRAST OF QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE Links Relationships Patterns RESEARCH APPROACHES between (causal,functional) concepts Element Quantitative Qualitative Logical Deductive Inductive reasoningView of reality Reality is Reality is constructed reasoning reasoning objective and can by the individual processes be seen and Quality of Reliability, Trustworthiness measured evidence validity,View of time Reality is Reality is generalization relatively constant continuously Parts/phases Statement of the Aim of the study constructed of research problemsContext Reality can be Reality is embedded output Results Findings separated from in its context Literature review Reconnaissance context Sampling SelectionResearcher Objective, Personally involved Study framework Study simulacrumApproach detached Main problem Central questionPopulation Samples that Individual cases, Specific problem IssuesStudied represent overall represented as Interview guide Aide memoir populations, as informants. Data analysis Mode of analysis subjects Method DesignMeasures Human behavior Study the meaning or other that individuals create observable phenomena  Outcome ResearchObservations Analyze reality as Make holistic This method examines the results of care and definable variables observations of the measures the change in health status of clients. total context The following are areas that require investigationDesign Preconceived and Emergent and fluid, through outcome research: highly controlled adaptable to  Clinical client response to medical and nursing informant’s views interventions.Analysis Descriptive and Analytic induction to  Functional maintenance or improvement of inferential determine meaning physical functioning statistics  Financial outcomes achieved with mostGeneralization Use inference to Transfer knowledge efficient use of resources. generalize from a from case analysis to  Perceptual client’s satisfaction with outcomes, sample to a similar cases care received and providers. defined populationReports Objective, Interpretative reports  Intervention Research impersonal reports that reflect the Involves the investigation of the effectiveness of a in which researcher’s nursing intervention in achieving the desired researcher’s reconstruction of the outcome or outcomes in natural setting. opinions are meaning of the data Intervention research should be theory driven, which undetectable means that the theory determines the nature of the intervention, the health professionals to deliver the intervention, the setting where the intervention is to be provided, the type of client to receive the JARGONS QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE intervention and the selection and measurement of RESEARCH APPROACHES outcome variables. Concepts Quantitative Qualitative Components of Scientific ResearchPerson Study participant Study participant  Order and systemcontributing  Controlinformation Respondents Informant, Key  Empiricism informant  GeneralizationPerson Researcher, Researcher,undertaking investigator investigatorthe study Characteristics of ResearchThat which is Concepts Phenomenabeing studied Variables Concepts  It involves the gathering of new data from new sources or Variables first-hand information.  It is directed towards the solution of a problemInformation Data (numeric Data (narrative  It is characterized by carefully designed proceduresgathered value) descriptions) applying rigorous analysisIntroduction to Nursing Research Abejo
  6. 6. Lecture Notes on Nursing ResearchPrepared By: Mark Fredderick R Abejo R.N, MAN It emphasizes the development of generalizations, Qualities of a Good principles hypotheses and theories that may be helpful in Researcher predicting future occurrences. It requires expertise R - Research Oriented It demands accurate observation and description of what E - Efficient is being studied. S - Scientific It strives to be logical, applying every possible test to E - Effective validate the procedures being employed. A - Active It is characterized by patient and unhurried activities. R - Resourceful It requires innovative approaches and determination to C - Creative succeed. H - Honest It is carefully and accurately recorded and reported. E - Economical R - ReligousLimitations of Research Result of faulty planning and implementation of the The Consumer-Producer Continuum in Nursing Research project. The individual researcher The scope of knowledge or information available about Consumer of Producer of the topic and the problem under study also must be Research Research considered. Sources of data The tools of measurement may be inadequate or entirely  The consumers of research are nurses at one end of the lacking. continuum whose involvement in research is indirect. These nurses:Reasons for Lack of Clinical Research Identify clinical problems in nursing practice1. Nurses tend to feel that they are “too busy to care for Use library and information technology resources. patients”. Read research reports to develop new skills and2. Unless the nurse has had academic training in theoretical search for relevant findings that affect practice. conceptualizations, research may not seem important. Participates in journal clubs3. Unless the importance of research is felt and recognized, Use research to solve clinical problems nurses may not be able to identify researchable problems. Use research in clinical decisions4. Many nurse do not have the academic training needed to Collaborate in developing an idea for a research feel confident in doing clinical research. project.5. The ethics or research tends to researchers. Fear of Reviews a research proposal for feasibility and offer harming a patient is also a hindrance to some researchers. suggestion to improve the plan.6. Unless administrators are research-oriented, the nursing Assist in data collection staff feels the futility of support for nursing research, hence, there is no motivation to pursue this. Participate in research study or survey7. Research takes time, time costs money which must be Lead a journal club or ground discussion. budgeted. Participate in unit or service based research councils.  The producers of research at the other end of theCharacteristics of the Good Nurse Researcher continuum are the nurses who actively participate in:  Honest and Credible Designing and implementing studies  Intellectual Curiosity Conducting studies  Accurate in his/her data Disseminating research findings  Organized and Systematic Appraising the clinical relevance of research  Prudence findings.  Logic Provides leadership for integrating findings in  Self- Awareness clinical practice.  Healthy Criticism  Intellectual Honestly Nursing Research Guidelines for the Investigative  Good Relationship with his/her respondents Function of Nurses 1. Associate Degree in Nursing Demonstrates awareness of the value or relevance of research in nursing Assists in identifying problem areas in nursing practice. Assists in collection of data within an established structured format.Introduction to Nursing Research Abejo
  7. 7. Lecture Notes on Nursing ResearchPrepared By: Mark Fredderick R Abejo R.N, MAN2. Baccalaureate Degree in Nursing Reads, interprets and evaluates research for Ethics in research requires honesty and accuracy of applicability to nursing practice. data. The researcher must guarantee factual and Identifies nursing problems that need to be evidenced based data. There should be no investigated and participates in the implementation “plagiarism” such as presenting the ideas or words of of scientific studies. another as one’s own, nor distort or fabricate data for Uses nursing practice as a means of gathering data purposes of completing the research on time. and refining and extending practice. The Philippine Copyright Law (R.A No. 8293 ) Applies established findings of nursing and other protects the intellectual property rights of authors and health related research to nursing practice. artist . Shares research findings with colleagues.3. Master’s Degree in Nursing Analyzes and reformulates nursing practice problems so that scientific knowledge and scientific methods can be used to find solutions. Provides expertise in clinical problems by providing knowledge about the way clinical services are delivered which enhances quality and clinical relevance of nursing. Facilitates investigation of problems in clinical settings by contributing to a climate of supportive investigative activities, collaborating with others in investigations and enhancing nurse’s access to clients and data. Investigates for the purpose of monitoring the quality of nursing practice in a clinical setting. Assists others in applying scientific knowledge in nursing practice.4. Doctorate Degree in Nursing or Related Discipline Provides leadership for the integration of scientific knowledge with others types of knowledge for the advancement of practice. Conducts investigations to evaluate the contributions of nursing activities to the well-being of clients. Develops methods to monitor the quality of nursing practice in a clinical setting and to evaluate contributions of nursing activities to the well-being of clients.Role of Nurses in Research As Principal Investigators _________________________________________ As Member of a Research Team As Evaluator of Research Findings References: As Consumers of Research Findings 1. Venzon. 2004. Introduction to Nursing Research: Quest for Quality As Client Advocate in a Research Study Nursing, 1st ed. Philippines: C&E Publishing Inc. As Subject of Research 2. Barrientos-Tan. 2006. A Research Guide in Nursing Education, 3rd ed. Philippines: Visual Print Enterprises. 3. Reyes & Layug. 2009. Comprehensive Reviewer for the NurseEthics in Research Licensure Exam, Philippines: East West Educational Specialists, C&E Publishing Inc. Informed Consent 4. Brink & Wood. 2001. Basic Steps in Planning Nursing Research, Beneficence and Non-maleficence 5th ed. Philippines: Jones and Bartlett Publisher Inc. 5. Burns & Grove. 2007. Understanding Nursing Research : Building - Freedom from any Physical and Psychological Harm an Evidence-Based Practice, 4th ed. China; Elsevier, Health - Freedom from Exploitation Sciences. Respect for Human Dignity 6. LoBiondo-Wood & Haber. 2006. Nursing Research: Methods and - The right to self determination Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice, 6th ed. USA: Mosby Inc. - The right to full disclosure 7. Polit & Beck. 2008. Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing - Anonymity and Confidentiality Evidence for Nursing Practice, 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Justice and Fairness Williams & Wilkins.Introduction to Nursing Research Abejo