This root word psych is defined as “soul” in Greek
Ology is the study of.
Psychology is both an applied and academic field that studies the human mind and behavior.
Psychology was evolved from both biology and philosophy
Known as the “Father of Psychology”
1879 established the first experimental psychology lab.
Used mental chronometry
“ We learn about our minds from casual, haphazard self-observation…It is essential that observations be made by trained observes under carefully specified conditions for the purpose of answering a well-defined questions” –Wundt, 1904
Psychological studies are highly structured, beginning with a hypothesis that is then empirically tested.
Cost the research
Internal validity/experimental control
minimizing the influence of extraneous variables
Population is not ALL people.
Positive correlation: variables are moving in the same direction
_Heavy people weighing more
Negative correlation: Opposite directions
_Higher G.P.A and Social Life
_Income and Family Time
He was known to be the “father of the psychoanalysis
Freud had strong feelings for many things such as:
- Unconscious wish fulfilling
- He took basic ideas and spun it into science.
- He believed we are all born primitive.
Id: primitive & unconscious
Ego: reality principle
Superego: moral ideal of society
Freud believed that the Id was the most dominant.
Sigmund Freud was the founder of the Psychodynamic School
Psychodynamics also known as “ dynamic psychology “is the study of the interrelationship of various parts of the mind , personality , or psyche as they relate to mental, emotional, or motivational forces especially at the unconscious level and based on the assumption that an individual's total personality and reactions at any given time are the product of the interaction between his genetic constitution and his environment . (Wikipedia.org)
Two of his students were Carl Jung & Karen Horney
Although Jung was one of Freud’s favorite student, Jung believed that Freud had something wrong with his theory, the unconscious.
He believed that the unconscious was capable of being controlled by inspiration, that the “collective unconscious” symbolizes a large emotional component.
Explanation to why people behave the way they do.
Became one of the most popular psychiatrist and was the first of her gender to present a paper regarding feminine psychiatry.
She takes Freud’s whole theory and admits he’s right except men develop womb envy
Psych comes from the mind and Sexual comes from creation
Libido: Psychic energy
Close energy system
Energy cannot be destroyed
Defense Mechanism: used to protest ego from harm caused by the Id’s wishes.
Freud example was repression; unconscious exclusion from memory.
Libido is focused (Body)
Oral stage (0-1 yrs old) Mouth
Anal stage (1-2 yrs) control
Phaulic stage (3-6yrs) Penis Power
Latency period (6-12yrs) Libido is latent (hidden)
Genital stage (12 yrs-up) Puberty
Oedipus complex Elektra complex
Soul & foot Penis envy
Boy longs for mom Girl longs for dad
Discovers the difference between men & women
Source of super-ego
Ivan Pavlov , a Russian physiologist studied digestions and dogs and discovered what is known to be “classical conditioning”
Classical condition is a technique used in behavioral training
A naturally occurring stimulus is paired with a response.
a previously neutral stimulus is paired with the naturally occurring stimulus.
Eventually, the previous neutral stimulus comes to evoke the response without the presence of naturally occurring stimulus.
James B. Watson
Father of Behaviorism
“ Little Albert”
Studied the adjustment of organisms to their environments, more specifically the particular stimuli leading organisms to make their responses.
Example on FEAR
Loud noise startle
White rat + loud noise startle
White rat startle
“ Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select -- doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors.” –Watson, 1930
Law of effects : behaviors that help an organism achieve its goal are strengthened.
Only the “fit” behavior survives.
Sometimes it is known as “instrumental conditioning”
A method that occurs through reward and punishment.
Through operant conditioning an association is made between a behavior and a consequence.
+ Apply as a desire stimulus
- remove or avoid an aversive stimulus (Ex: avoiding loud noises)
+apply an assertive stimulus
- removing or avoiding desire stimulus (Ex: taking away something important from you)
Punishment should be immediate
Punishment must be consistent
Punishment should be explained
+ Positive reinforcement Positive punishment
- Negative punishment Negative reinforcement
Schedule of reinforcement
Reward ratio (behavior) Interval (time)
Fixed FR FI (stable ready for respond)
Variable VR (reinforce on average; acting) VI (mail; respond)
Theodor and Simon Binet
Ask to develop a test to identify slow learners
Simple questions to complex questions
Convert Binet to a ratio
He takes mental age, he divides mental age to chronological age, and multiplies it by 100 to determine IQ
The study of mental processes including how people think, perceive, remember, and learn.
Well known for his work with children
Theory of “cognitive development”
“ The great pioneer of constructivist theory of knowing”
Was trained to give intelligence test
Believes process is the answer
Argues that intelligence is adaptation
Accommodation: either we adjust or create new SCHEMA
Assimilation- new information and force into the mind
Accommodation- cognitive development (discontinuous)