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Berger ca8e lecch2


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Berger ca8e lecch2

  1. 1. Part I Theories of Development Chapter Two <ul><li>Grand Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Emergent Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Useful Application of Theories </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>In the first half of the 20th century, two opposing theories— psychoanalytic and behaviorism— began as general theories. </li></ul><ul><li>By mind-century, cognitive theory had emerged and these three theories are “grand” in that they are comprehensive, enduring, and widely applied. </li></ul>Grand Theories
  3. 3. Psychoanalytic Theory <ul><li>A grand theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlies human behavior. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Freud’s Ideas <ul><li>The Psychoanalytic theory originated with Sigmund Freud (1856-1936). </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Birth to 1 year – the mouth – the oral stage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1-3 years – the anus – the anal stage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3-6 years – the penis – the phallic stage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6-11 years –“quite time”-latency stage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adolescence and beyond – genital stage </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Erikson’s Ideas <ul><li>Erik Erikson – 1902-1994 </li></ul><ul><li>Was a follower of Freud who emphasized: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>culture diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>psychological crises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Family and culture, not sexual urges </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Behaviorism Theory <ul><li>A grand theory of human development that studies observable behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>John Watson 1878 – 1958 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>all behavior is learned </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>specific laws of learning apply </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to conditioning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strongly believed in verifiable data with controlled experiments. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>study what a person does, not what they think/feel </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>all behavior is learned step by step </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>conditioning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the processes by which responses become linked to particular stimuli </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ conditioning” = repeated practice </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>classical conditioning – (respondent conditioning) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a person or animal is conditioned to associate a neutral stimulus with a meaningful stimulus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Law of Behavior
  8. 9. <ul><ul><ul><li>operant conditioning - (instrumental conditioning) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>learning process by which a particular action is followed by something desired. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the person will likely repeat the action </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reinforcement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A technique for conditioning behavior where behavior is followed by something desired </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. A VIEW FROM SCIENCE <ul><li>What’s a Mother For? </li></ul><ul><li>According to Harlow, All primates are comforted by something soft, warm, and familiar to touch. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Social Learning Theory <ul><li>extension of behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person’s behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling- a person observes the actions of others and then copies them </li></ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy- belief of some people that they are able to change themselves and effectively alter the social context </li></ul>
  11. 12. Cognitive Theory <ul><li>Third grand theory </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on changes in how people think over time. </li></ul><ul><li>According to this theory, our thoughts shape our attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Jean Piaget 1896-1980 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>patriarch of cognitive theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swiss scientist trained in biology </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Focuses of the Grand Theories
  13. 15. <ul><li>Multicultural and Multidisciplinary </li></ul><ul><li>sociocultural theory – drawing on research in education, anthropology, and history </li></ul><ul><li>epigenetic theory – arising from biology, genetics, and neuroscience </li></ul>Emergent Theories
  14. 16. Sociocultural Theory: <ul><li>development results from the dynamic interaction between each person and the surrounding social and cultural forces. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Cultural Variations <ul><li>guided participation: </li></ul><ul><li>a technique in which skilled mentors help novices learn not only by providing instruction but also by allowing direct, shared involvement in the activity. Also called apprenticeship in thinking. </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>Lev Vygotsky , 1896-1934 </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneer of the sociocultural perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Psychologist from the former Soviet Union who studied cognitive competency among the diverse peoples of his huge nation, as well as among children who were mentally retarded. </li></ul><ul><li>Concluded that each person learns from the more skilled members of the community. </li></ul>
  17. 19. The Zone of Proximal Development <ul><li>In sociocultural theory, a metaphorical area or “zone,” surrounding a learner that includes all skills, knowledge, and concepts that the person is close to acquiring but cannot master without help. </li></ul>
  18. 20. Zone of Proximal Development
  19. 21. Epigenetic Theory: <ul><li>considers both the genetic origins of behavior and the direct, systematic influences that environmental forces have over time on genes. </li></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><li>With, On, and Around the Genes </li></ul><ul><li>epigenetic is formed from the root word genetic and the prefix epi... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>genetic refers to the entire genome including: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>genes that make each person genetically unique (except monozygotic twins) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>genes that distinguish our species as human </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>genes that all animals share </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>epi- means “with”, “around”, “before”, “after”, “on” or “near”. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Genetic Adaptation <ul><li>Selective Adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>humans and other organisms gradually adjust to their environment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This process is based on the frequency with which a particular genetic trait in a population increases or decreases over generations; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that frequency depends on whether or not the trait contributes to survival and reproductive ability of members of that population </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Useful Application of Theories <ul><li>Each major theory discussed has contributed a great deal to the understanding of human development. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychoanalytic theory has made us aware </li></ul></ul><ul><li>of the importance of early childhood experiences. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviorism has shown effect of the </li></ul></ul><ul><li>immediate environment on learning. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Useful Application of Theories <ul><li>Cognitive theory shows how intellectual </li></ul><ul><li>process and thinking affect actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Sociocultural theory has reminded us of the importance of culture in learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Epigenetic theory reminds us of the power </li></ul><ul><li>of genes and their interaction with the </li></ul><ul><li>environment. </li></ul>
  24. 27. Useful Application of Theories <ul><li>A Developmental theory is a statement of principles that provide a coherent framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older. </li></ul><ul><li>An eclectic perspective is the approach taken by most developmentalists, in which they apply aspects of each of the various theories of development. </li></ul>
  25. 28. The Nature-Nurture Controversy and ADHA <ul><li>Nature - the genes that people inherit </li></ul><ul><li>Nurture - all the environmental influences </li></ul><ul><li> Nature and Nurture Always interact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heredity vs. Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How much of any characteristic, </li></ul><ul><li>behavior, or pattern of development is </li></ul><ul><li>the result of genes and how much is </li></ul><ul><li>the result of experience? </li></ul>