Intro to-psychology


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Intro to-psychology

  1. 1. PSYCHOLOGY - Introduction<br /><br />
  2. 2. What is Psychology?<br />The scientific study of human and animal behavior<br />
  3. 3. What is Behavior?<br />Pretty much ANYTHING that you do, think or feel.<br />
  4. 4. Types of Psychology<br />Research: <br />Studies why things happen.<br />Deals with theories and lab experiments<br />“Lab tests show people’s anxiety level increases when surrounded by the color red.”<br />Applied: <br />Figures out how to USE information found by researchers<br />“NASA scientists study which colors to paint the inside of the International Space Station”<br />
  5. 5. Fields of PsychologyWhere Psychologists work<br />
  6. 6. Example fields (p21-22)<br />Clinical Psychology – therapists etc<br />Educational Psychology – therapists for kids, help ID and aid learning styles and issues<br />Child Psych – how the brain grows and learns to learn. Also – how to parent<br />Environmental Psych – coping with disasters, crowding, workplace environment<br />
  7. 7. Example Fields continued<br />Industrial Psych – marketing, public relations, efficiency<br />Engineering Psych – human / machine interaction, design casinos<br />Experimental Psych – usually research people. Lab experiments. Colleges<br />Teaching – this class for instance<br />
  8. 8. History of Psychology<br />The founders<br />
  9. 9. Charles Darwin<br />Not a psychologist<br />Developed theory of evolution<br />Believed we can study animals to understand ourselves<br />
  10. 10. William Wundt (“Vundt”)<br />Germany 1880s<br />Laboratory of Psychology<br />“Father of Psychology”<br />First to try to scientifically study the workings of the mind<br />Introspection<br />Record your thought<br />Map out the thought process<br />Did not work out well – but inspired others<br />
  11. 11. William James<br />First American Psychologist<br />1880s – 1900s<br />All activities of the mind (thinking, feeling learning, remembering) serve to help us survive<br />
  12. 12. Sigmund Freud<br />Austrian late 1800s – 1930s<br />Psychoanalysis<br /><ul><li>Conscious mind is only the tip of the iceberg
  13. 13. Concentration on the unconscious mind
  14. 14. “learn through dream analysis”</li></li></ul><li>Francis Galton (1880s, England)<br />Is Behavior / Intelligence hereditary or learned?<br />“nature vs nurture idea<br />Based his ideas on biographies of “intellectual” families<br />Has some serious flaws<br />Developed the first “personality tests” and “intelligence tests”<br />
  15. 15. Ivan Pavlov<br />                      <br />Russia early 1900s<br />Experiments with his dog<br />Conditioned response<br />Behavior is result of past experience<br />
  16. 16. John Watson (early 1900s)<br />ALL behavior is the result of learning (or conditioning) – even what we think is instinct<br />Similar experiments as Pavlov – but Watson used children<br />Has some serious <br />impact on the kids<br />Albert and the rat<br />
  17. 17. B.F. Skinner<br />Mid – late 1900s. American<br />Conditioning can be applied to entire societies<br />Reward for behavior results in that behavior being done again in the future<br />Though he did not feel the opposite worked (punishment does not change behavior – just covers it up)<br />Entire basis for “Walden II” – a utopian society based on rewarding good behavior<br />(Class participation points work the same way <br />
  18. 18. Approaches to Psychology<br />Neurobiological<br />Behavioral<br />Psychoanalytic<br />Cognitive<br />Sociocultural<br />
  19. 19. Neurobiological<br />Concentrates on the Chemical / Physical reasons for behavior<br />What chemical reactions occur in our brains and bodies as a result of stimulations and what reactions do they cause?<br />In some ways, our behavior is hard wired into us<br />
  20. 20. Just for laughs<br />
  21. 21. Outdoor GrillingArea<br />
  22. 22. Behavioral<br />We adapt our behavior based on rewards<br />We learn through experience<br />Behavior can be changed<br />B.F. Skinner was a behavioralist<br />
  23. 23. Humanistic<br />Interested in what it means to be human<br />Everyone has the chance to grow to greatness. The only thing holding us back is ourselves.<br />We continually strive to achieve greatness<br />Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs<br />
  24. 24. Psychoanalytical Approach<br />We all have suppressed desires<br />We unconsciously do things to alleviate these desires<br />Analyze what we do subconsciously in order to understand our REAL selves.<br />Freud: father of psychoanalysis<br />
  25. 25. Cognitive Approach<br />Studies how we process information through<br />perception, attention, language, memory, and thinking<br />How they influence our thoughts, feelings, behaviors and ability to operate in our world. <br />Past experiences make the difference between one person's perception and another's <br />Can you give an example to illustrate this?<br />
  26. 26. Sociocultural Approach<br />Impact society has on behavior<br />economics, race, ethnic group, climate, religion, language, traditions, cultures, gender, location, politics, etc<br />
  27. 27. Knowing your self and make the better place in this world<br />