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Online Game And U&G Theory
 

Online Game And U&G Theory

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    Online Game And U&G Theory Online Game And U&G Theory Presentation Transcript

    • Motivations and U&G Theory Application in Online Games FWCY
    • Outlines
      • What is the Purpose of Study
      • Background Introduction
        • What is Online Game
        • What is U&G Theory
      • Findings and Analysis
        • What are the motivations for playing online game?
        • How individuals use online games to gratify their needs?
        • What are the impacts of online game playing toward individuals ?
      • Discussion
    • What is the purpose of study
      • Analyze motivations to identify the needs
      • Examines the relationships between usage patterns and motivations or needs fulfilled
      • Explores the impacts or consequences of playing online game
    • Background introduction
      • 1) What is online game
      • --Being played over some form of computer network
      • --Current-technology using
      • --Simple text, incorporating complex graphics, virtual worlds of community
      • 2) What is U&G theory about
      • --Attempts to explain the uses and functions of the media for individuals, groups, and society
      • --To study the gratifications that attract and hold audiences to the kinds of media and the types of content that satisfy their social and psychological needs
    • Findings and Analysis What are the motivations for playing online game?
      • The Bartle’s Player Types (1996)
      • The inter-relationship of two dimensions of playing style: action
      • versus interaction, and world-oriented VS. player-oriented:
      • i) Achievement within the game context
      • ii) Exploration of the game
      • iii) Socializing with others
      • iv) Imposition upon others
    • What are the motivations for playing online game?
      • The inter-relationship of two
      • dimensions of playing style:
      • action versus interaction
      • world-oriented versus player oriented:
      • i) Achievement within the game context
      • ii) Exploration of the game
      • iii) Socializing with others
      • iv) Imposition upon others
      • Weakness
      • not highly co-relationship
      • overlapping
      • No practical way to access
      • New 8 Types
      • Limitation remain
    • Motivations of Playing MMORPG
      • Five factors (Yee, 2005)
      • Relationship --the desire to interact , the willingness to form meaningful relationships
      • Manipulation —the inclination to objectify and manipulate for gains and satisfaction
      • Immersion --whether users enjoy being in a fantasy world as well as being “someone else” and in which aspect the users enjoy
      • Escapism --how much a user is using the virtual world to temporarily avoid, forget about and escape from real-life stress and problems
      • Achievement --the desire to become powerful
    • Motivations of Playing MMORPG
      • Achievement, Social, and Immersion
      • 10 motivation subcomponents
    • The most important motivation
      • The social aspects of the game were the most factor in playing. (Mard Griffiths D. 2004, 2006, 2007; Williams, D., Nicolas D., Li Xiong, Nick Y. Eric N.2006; Chen & Duh, 2007)
      • Social interaction includes: making friends (Mard Griffiths D. 2004), helping others,( C.C Wang and C.H. Wang, 2008) , etc.
    • How individuals use online games to gratify their needs? U&G Theory
      • Active Audience (Rubin 1994)
      • Different individuals tend to display different types and amounts of activity in different communication settings and at different times in the communication process
      • Dependency Theory (Ball-Rokeach,1985)
      • Media dependency is high when an individual’s goal satisfaction relies on information from the media system
      • Main Applications
      • TV viewing
      • -6 reasons
      • -2 types of users
      • -4 Lifestyle types
      • VCR
      • Entertainment, displacement, and social utility
      • Internet use
      • Three interrelated components that place elevated demands on individual user interaction
    • Motivation and Usage Pattern
      • 4 categories of population:
      • - continuers of the game
      • - discontinue rs of the game
      • - potentials of the game
      • - resistors of the game
      • Adaptors:
      • Mainly male, more frequent users of video games and high-speed internet
      • - Early adaptors
      • - Late adaptors
    • Motivation and Usage Pattern
      • Papacharissi and Rubin (2000)
          • Companionship
          • Action
          • Substitution for friendship
          • Passing time
          • Solitude
      • Schiffman and Kanuk (1978)
          • Relative advantage
          • Compatibility
          • Complexity
          • Triability (or divisibility)
          • Observability (or communicability)
      • Blinka, L. (2008)
          • Identification factor
          • Immersion factor
          • Relationship factor
    • What are the Impacts of Online Game Playing toward Individuals
      • Game play leads to problematic usage, worse reported health and sleep , and possibly some problems in academic social life.
      • Griffith (2004) concluded that almost one-fifth of players sacrificed sleep in order to play the game.
      • Lo, S. K. et al. (2005)
        • some of college students in Taiwan spend more time in cyber cafés than they do in school.
        • some imitate the violent or destructive behaviors that they observe in online games; extreme examples include murder and suicide.
    • What are the impacts of online game playing toward individuals
      • The MMORPG play reported significantly worse overall health and poor work performance.
        • Utz (2000) concluded that college students can develop compulsions to play MMORPGs, leading to social isolation, poor academic performance, and sleep deprivation . The result is consist with what Griffiths (2001) found in his study.
        • The greater amount of time individuals spends playing World of Warcraft, the more likely they are to experience problems in their lives (Peters & Malesky, 2008).
    • What are the impacts of online game playing toward individuals
          • Video games have been used in a wide variety of therapeutic and medical context, such as for training children with chronic illnesses, pain management, or even improving basic perceptual processes, reaction times, and well-being (Griffiths, 2003; Hunter, 2002; Lieberman, 2001; Steele et al., 2003).
          • Online gaming may, in particular, allow shy and socially inhibited individuals to build friendships more effectively (Utz, 2000).
          • Griffiths (2001) noted that most individuals appear to play without negative impact. People play can be enjoyable, and they may benefit from the development of additional relationships and social interactions .
          • Complex games requiring a variety of skills to succeed may also contribute to academic success by promoting problem-solving skills, critical thinking, and creativity (Smyth, 2007).
    • Discussion
      • Play motivations: not merely suppress each other Nor mainly for socializing and friendship. The motivations are multi facets and complicated.
      • Explain the emergence of more complex behaviors and interactions
      • Further study in the online game usage patterns or in-game preferences or behaviors.
    • Discussion
      • The current studies ignore the different degrees of each kind of motivations.
      • Although there are several researches about the usage patterns and behaviors of online gaming in gender difference(Elena Bertozzi, 2008; Hsiu-Yuan Wang and Yi-Shun Wang, 2008; Taylor, T. L., 2003) and in age differences(M.D. Griffiths, Mark N.O. Davies, and Darren Chappell, 2004; Blinka, L. 2008), the research of how the motivations affect the different groups of the online gamers is still in grey.
      •   The limit range of sampling is one of the major limitations of the current research.
    • Discussion
      • Not reliable and not easy for validation
      • Supplementations to make it more objective (e.g. Multiple logistic regression analyses)
      • Video game and broadband internet can be taken as significant predictors of online game adoption.
    • Discussion
      • The more research should be conducted in the future in order to examine the possible benefits of playing MMORPGs along with the potential risks and costs.
          • The MMORPG-like therapeutic or skill-building games can be developed for helping people in need.
      • Future studies should also consider the different social contexts of game playing.
          • At home, school, or workplace;
          • In cyber café or on a mobile phone;
          • With a few players, with a small group, or with several thousand others (i.e. MMORPGs).
          • Whether other players are opponents or collaborators might also a factor which could even lead to opposite results.