Online Game And U&G Theory


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Online Game And U&G Theory

  1. 1. Motivations and U&G Theory Application in Online Games FWCY
  2. 2. Outlines <ul><li>What is the Purpose of Study </li></ul><ul><li>Background Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is Online Game </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is U&G Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Findings and Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the motivations for playing online game? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How individuals use online games to gratify their needs? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the impacts of online game playing toward individuals ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is the purpose of study <ul><li>Analyze motivations to identify the needs </li></ul><ul><li>Examines the relationships between usage patterns and motivations or needs fulfilled </li></ul><ul><li>Explores the impacts or consequences of playing online game </li></ul>
  4. 4. Background introduction <ul><li>1) What is online game </li></ul><ul><li>--Being played over some form of computer network </li></ul><ul><li>--Current-technology using </li></ul><ul><li>--Simple text, incorporating complex graphics, virtual worlds of community </li></ul><ul><li>2) What is U&G theory about </li></ul><ul><li>--Attempts to explain the uses and functions of the media for individuals, groups, and society </li></ul><ul><li>--To study the gratifications that attract and hold audiences to the kinds of media and the types of content that satisfy their social and psychological needs </li></ul>
  5. 5. Findings and Analysis What are the motivations for playing online game? <ul><li>The Bartle’s Player Types (1996) </li></ul><ul><li>The inter-relationship of two dimensions of playing style: action </li></ul><ul><li>versus interaction, and world-oriented VS. player-oriented: </li></ul><ul><li>i) Achievement within the game context </li></ul><ul><li>ii) Exploration of the game </li></ul><ul><li>iii) Socializing with others </li></ul><ul><li>iv) Imposition upon others </li></ul>
  6. 6. What are the motivations for playing online game? <ul><li>The inter-relationship of two </li></ul><ul><li>dimensions of playing style: </li></ul><ul><li>action versus interaction </li></ul><ul><li>world-oriented versus player oriented: </li></ul><ul><li>i) Achievement within the game context </li></ul><ul><li>ii) Exploration of the game </li></ul><ul><li>iii) Socializing with others </li></ul><ul><li>iv) Imposition upon others </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><li>not highly co-relationship </li></ul><ul><li>overlapping </li></ul><ul><li>No practical way to access </li></ul><ul><li>New 8 Types </li></ul><ul><li>Limitation remain </li></ul>
  7. 7. Motivations of Playing MMORPG <ul><li>Five factors (Yee, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship --the desire to interact , the willingness to form meaningful relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulation —the inclination to objectify and manipulate for gains and satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Immersion --whether users enjoy being in a fantasy world as well as being “someone else” and in which aspect the users enjoy </li></ul><ul><li>Escapism --how much a user is using the virtual world to temporarily avoid, forget about and escape from real-life stress and problems </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement --the desire to become powerful </li></ul>
  8. 8. Motivations of Playing MMORPG <ul><li>Achievement, Social, and Immersion </li></ul><ul><li>10 motivation subcomponents </li></ul>
  9. 9. The most important motivation <ul><li>The social aspects of the game were the most factor in playing. (Mard Griffiths D. 2004, 2006, 2007; Williams, D., Nicolas D., Li Xiong, Nick Y. Eric N.2006; Chen & Duh, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Social interaction includes: making friends (Mard Griffiths D. 2004), helping others,( C.C Wang and C.H. Wang, 2008) , etc. </li></ul>
  10. 10. How individuals use online games to gratify their needs? U&G Theory <ul><li>Active Audience (Rubin 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Different individuals tend to display different types and amounts of activity in different communication settings and at different times in the communication process </li></ul><ul><li>Dependency Theory (Ball-Rokeach,1985) </li></ul><ul><li>Media dependency is high when an individual’s goal satisfaction relies on information from the media system </li></ul><ul><li>Main Applications </li></ul><ul><li>TV viewing </li></ul><ul><li>-6 reasons </li></ul><ul><li>-2 types of users </li></ul><ul><li>-4 Lifestyle types </li></ul><ul><li>VCR </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment, displacement, and social utility </li></ul><ul><li>Internet use </li></ul><ul><li>Three interrelated components that place elevated demands on individual user interaction </li></ul>
  11. 11. Motivation and Usage Pattern <ul><li>4 categories of population: </li></ul><ul><li>- continuers of the game </li></ul><ul><li>- discontinue rs of the game </li></ul><ul><li>- potentials of the game </li></ul><ul><li>- resistors of the game </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptors: </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly male, more frequent users of video games and high-speed internet </li></ul><ul><li>- Early adaptors </li></ul><ul><li>- Late adaptors </li></ul>
  12. 12. Motivation and Usage Pattern <ul><li>Papacharissi and Rubin (2000) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Companionship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Substitution for friendship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passing time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solitude </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Schiffman and Kanuk (1978) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relative advantage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compatibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Triability (or divisibility) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observability (or communicability) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Blinka, L. (2008) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identification factor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immersion factor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship factor </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. What are the Impacts of Online Game Playing toward Individuals <ul><li>Game play leads to problematic usage, worse reported health and sleep , and possibly some problems in academic social life. </li></ul><ul><li>Griffith (2004) concluded that almost one-fifth of players sacrificed sleep in order to play the game. </li></ul><ul><li>Lo, S. K. et al. (2005) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some of college students in Taiwan spend more time in cyber cafés than they do in school. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some imitate the violent or destructive behaviors that they observe in online games; extreme examples include murder and suicide. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. What are the impacts of online game playing toward individuals <ul><li>The MMORPG play reported significantly worse overall health and poor work performance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utz (2000) concluded that college students can develop compulsions to play MMORPGs, leading to social isolation, poor academic performance, and sleep deprivation . The result is consist with what Griffiths (2001) found in his study. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The greater amount of time individuals spends playing World of Warcraft, the more likely they are to experience problems in their lives (Peters & Malesky, 2008). </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. What are the impacts of online game playing toward individuals <ul><ul><ul><li>Video games have been used in a wide variety of therapeutic and medical context, such as for training children with chronic illnesses, pain management, or even improving basic perceptual processes, reaction times, and well-being (Griffiths, 2003; Hunter, 2002; Lieberman, 2001; Steele et al., 2003). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Online gaming may, in particular, allow shy and socially inhibited individuals to build friendships more effectively (Utz, 2000). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Griffiths (2001) noted that most individuals appear to play without negative impact. People play can be enjoyable, and they may benefit from the development of additional relationships and social interactions . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complex games requiring a variety of skills to succeed may also contribute to academic success by promoting problem-solving skills, critical thinking, and creativity (Smyth, 2007). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Discussion <ul><li>Play motivations: not merely suppress each other Nor mainly for socializing and friendship. The motivations are multi facets and complicated. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the emergence of more complex behaviors and interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Further study in the online game usage patterns or in-game preferences or behaviors. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Discussion <ul><li>The current studies ignore the different degrees of each kind of motivations. </li></ul><ul><li>Although there are several researches about the usage patterns and behaviors of online gaming in gender difference(Elena Bertozzi, 2008; Hsiu-Yuan Wang and Yi-Shun Wang, 2008; Taylor, T. L., 2003) and in age differences(M.D. Griffiths, Mark N.O. Davies, and Darren Chappell, 2004; Blinka, L. 2008), the research of how the motivations affect the different groups of the online gamers is still in grey. </li></ul><ul><li>  The limit range of sampling is one of the major limitations of the current research. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Discussion <ul><li>Not reliable and not easy for validation </li></ul><ul><li>Supplementations to make it more objective (e.g. Multiple logistic regression analyses) </li></ul><ul><li>Video game and broadband internet can be taken as significant predictors of online game adoption. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Discussion <ul><li>The more research should be conducted in the future in order to examine the possible benefits of playing MMORPGs along with the potential risks and costs. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The MMORPG-like therapeutic or skill-building games can be developed for helping people in need. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Future studies should also consider the different social contexts of game playing. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At home, school, or workplace; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In cyber café or on a mobile phone; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With a few players, with a small group, or with several thousand others (i.e. MMORPGs). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whether other players are opponents or collaborators might also a factor which could even lead to opposite results. </li></ul></ul></ul>