What are people doing to try and reduce disparities in development?
Let’s look at:
NON GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS (NGOs)
Why are these groups helping?
Tanzania has more NGO’s than any other country in East Africa (over 2000)… Why?
Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world.
Tanzania is stable – no civil wars, little corruption, friendly and welcoming.
Recent government policies encourage external or overseas input and they are perceived to be trying to help themselves.
(e.g. recent law changes for women rights)
So what NGO’s are found in Tanzania? Various NGO organisations around Tanzania
And what about the United Nations? Signs found in Kigoma – all these agencies work with poor rural communities
Working to improve Health…
The Red Cross in Tanzania have…
Vaccinated over 14 million children, saving an estimated 15,000 lives.
Trained 1000’s of health care workers to run health programmes in villages.
Created Malaria education and prevention programmes – distributed 100,000 mosquito nets.
Source: http://www.alertnet.org/thefacts/reliefresources How does immunising children help reduce the disparities between Tanzania and USA? What indicators will it effect? Boy getting immunised against Measles
Working to improve education…
UNICEF = United Nations Children Fund.
Helps communities improve their school facilities.
The top photo is a sign at a primary school with 3 new classrooms, built to help educate refugees that live in the area. The bottom photo shows a sign at a school where a water tank has been constructed and piped water is now available for the 1000 students.
Other projects include training teachers, providing materials, organising educational events
Water tank and taps built at Bubango Primary School
NGO’s working to improve food production…
Enterprise Works is a global NGO implementing a 5 year project to help improve irrigation systems in rural communities.
Instead of spending time collecting water, farmers can spend time tending to their crops.
$500,000 has been spent to date.
Small low cost pumps are being provided and a company is being taught how to produce them.
Output has increased in the area by 22% and in the dry season farmers are earning twice the price for their crop.
This water pump will ensure the entire plot is irrigated in the dry season. Source:http://www.enterpriseworks.org/prog_profile_irrig_tz.asp
Working to improve infrastructure…
The EU (European Union) donates funds for projects in Tanzania every year. This year they have donated US$40 million to upgrade the road from Mwanza – Dar Es Salaam (see map). Currently buses/trucks must travel from Dar Es Salaam into Kenya and then back to Mwanza as the roads are so bad This funding will ensure economic benefits for all local people.
New major roading is a big help to a country dependent on getting its crops to market – Source:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/afric
Working to improve access to water…
In Kigoma many NGO’s have helped turn water from springs into piped water.
Bubungo Village now has this water tank and 15 taps all over the village.
Spring water availability reduces in the dry season. Tanks can help store water between rains.
How is tank and tap water better than an open spring? How will this reduce the disparities between USA and Tanzania? Water tank built with EU finance Taps in the village make a huge difference to the work load of women.
And then there are VSO’s (Volunteer Service Overseas)
Currently there are 70 VSO’s in Tanzania…
Their skills or jobs include:
Teach in poor rural areas.
Training nurses and clinical advisers.
Educating villagers about HIV/AIDS and STD’s.
Advisers in farming such as agro-forestry.
Business development advisers working with small businesses.
A local New Zealand teacher gives students a lesson on her home country.
WHAT IS THE UNDP?
In Tanzania since 1961.
Focus in Tanzania includes:
- Poverty reduction
- Democratic governance
Gave $20 million this year to development schemes.
Helps co-ordinate 20 other UN organisations in Tanzania.
Goal to lift 7.5 million out of poverty by 2015.
An example of a UNDP project…
The UNDP implemented the
HASDI Soil Conservation
Project in Shinyanga
Re introduced the traditional
fencing system to keep cattle
in confined areas –Ngitili system.
Restored land areas now grow pasture for cattle.
350,000 trees have been planted in the region and wildlife has returned to many areas.
DOES THE WORLD BANK HELP?
In theory YES.
The World Bank loans and credits countries with money for development projects at a relatively low interest rates.
However , countries like Tanzania are still struggling to pay back this debt. 25% of Tanzania’s GNP goes to Debt repayments every year. More money than it receives in aid… Does that make sense?
Here are some examples of World Bank helping recently…
In 2002 the World Bank loaned Tanzania $136 million to help improve the secondary school attendance rate
The interest rate is 1.25%
In 2004 $122 million was loaned to Tanzania for a major roading project - building roads between Dar Es Salaam and towns in the interior.
For both these projects the Tanzanian government also had to contribute funds.
This road was built with World Bank funding. How would better roads help people in Tanzania?
What are micro-loan (enterprise) schemes?
Many NGO’s offer people the chance to borrow a small amount of money with only minimal interest rates to start a business.
In Kigoma $200,000 has been lent to mostly rural women.
They must save a small % of the money needed themselves, then the money they pay back is used for other loans.
Businesses that have started include: Shop owners, hair dressers, furniture makers, selling handi-crafts, growing mushrooms, etc.
These businesses provide jobs for others as they develop – reducing the reliance on agriculture.
This small shop started with a micro enterprise loan. It means that Mama Sania does not have to rely on her crops for income.
ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH AID IN TANZANIA:
Some aid given to Tanzania has strings attached – including economic conditions.
Many projects are not sustainable, when the funding runs out (which it usually does) the project falls down.
Some communities start to rely on aid, and don’t help themselves.
Often men are consulted, but not women.
Projects approached from a western perspective – not looking at how the community feels.
Who should run development projects? Local people or skilled workers from the donor country? Why?
Aid in Tanzania is reducing disparities slowly
Aid in Tanzania comes in a wide range of forms – money, capital, skills, IT, knowledge, etc.
Rural areas and women are the focus for many projects.
Community Development is the new ‘buzz’ for aid and the people are driving the projects themselves.
Projects must be sustainable if they are going to make a difference in the future…
“ Give a person a fish and they’ll eat for a day, teach a person to fish and they’ll eat for a lifetime….. Well, if they fish is a sustainable way!”