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1
Report on
The role of NGO’s in Indian Economy
Submitted by
Mohammed Naseer Khan
(1226114117)
2
Summary:-
WORK Always keep in mind, “Never work without reward and never expect reward without
work”. This should be the motive of everybody's life. Then your efforts will prove icing and the
cake for the NGOs. Try to put life and soul in work and lay put all the best efforts for which the
social work has been started. Never acclaim politicians for grinding own axe, or just for the name
and fame of the NGOs, only then the NGOs can fetch success to attain its entity in the world and
surely turn over a new leaf. Eagerness in work is essential and one should not be aggression even
in crucial circumstances. Always try to finish the work that is being started and for this there is a
need to get wedded to the matter and also try to endorse the available commodities, either these
are financial help or products but the best utilization of other equipments is necessary. A work
should be done with dedication and never stop a work in the lurch until it has been completed.
Render services to others and these services require time, devotion resolution and dedication.
Any institute cannot go longer if people are not industrious and cordial. Selfless motives and
services lead to success. The concept of NGOs and Social welfare are not new phenomena as
India has a long glorious tradition of social service, social reform and the Voluntary
organizations are playing vital role in the socio economic development of this country since from
the ages of Jyothy Rao Poole and Sahu Maharaj in the pre-Independence India. In fact, India is a
land of villages with diversifying cultures, traditions, religions and wide societal divisions. Rural
Development which is concerned with economic growth and social justice, improvement in the
living standard of the rural people by providing adequate and quality social services and
minimum basic needs becomes essential. NGOs to achieve this objective owing to such a great
need the Government of India have been implementing numerous rural development
programmers for the development of rural Communities. Through this paper an attempt has been
made to analyze the contribution of NGOs for the rural poor in India.
Introduction:-
A Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) is any association having a definite cultural,
economic, educational, religious or social cause or any non-profit voluntary citizens group which
is organized around specific issues, such as education, environmental conservation, social
welfare, rural development sanitation, healthcare or human rights, on a local, national or
international level. The World Bank defines NGOs as "private organizations that pursue
activities to relieve suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect the environment, provides
basic social services, or undertake community development. NGOs include an array of groups
and institutions that are entirely or largely independent of government and characterized
primarily by humanitarian or cooperative, rather than commercial objectives". According to a
World Bank key document, the term NGO can be applied to any non-profit organization, which
is entirely or largely independent from government and exists to serve humanitaria1 social or
3
cultural interests either of their memberships or of social as a who1e. NGOs are typically value-
based organizations, which depend, wholly or in part, on charitable donations and voluntary
service. Although, the NGO sector has become increasingly professionalized over the last two
decades, principles of altruism and voluntarism remain key defining characteristics. The World
Health Organization first made the term NGO popular back in 1945. There are more than 50,000
international NGOs. Non-government organizations with their advantage of non- rigid, locality
specific, felt need based, beneficiary oriented and committed nature of service have established
multitude of roles which can effect rural development2 . In the cases in which NGOs are funded
totally or partially by governments, the NGO maintains its non-governmental status by excluding
government representatives from membership in the organization.
A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a legally constituted organization created by
natural or legal persons that operates independently from any form of government. The term
originated from the United Nations (UN), and is normally used to refer to organizations that are
not a part of the government and are not conventional for-profit business. In the cases in which
NGOs are funded totally or partially by governments, the NGO maintains its non-governmental
status by excluding government representatives from membership in the organization.
Major role seen for NGO’s in rural development:
As economic reform and liberalization saw the Government vacating several areas to let private
sector entrepreneurship flourish and contribute to the high growth rate of the economy in recent
years, a similar paradigm shift is needed to transform NGOs from their dependence on aid and
grants from within and outside for transforming the rural scenario in the country. This is sought
to be achieved for the NGOs through engaging them in micro-finance, micro insurance, and
micro-entrepreneurship activities for the overall development of the rural areas and to promote
the welfare of the people of rural India.
Better credibility:
As NGOs get finance generated through their own activities, their credibility vastly improves
and their service to rural people gets reinforced. CNRI is an apex body with over 2,000 member
NGOs engaged in multifarious activities ranging from self-help group formation, income
generation, marketing, agency work for insurance companies for life and non-life products and
4
for banks and financial institutions to environment protection, watershed management,
handicrafts, textiles, traditional medicinal plants and HR development. It is completing one year
of its existence. To mark the celebration of one year of its service to NGOs, CNRI is hosting a
three-day national meet - `Advantage Rural India' - from April 17.
Special sessions:
The meet will feature sessions on NGO/SHG products, finance and marketing, rural
connectivity, energy needs and new technologies, employment opportunities for rural youth, role
of NGOs in the field of rural education, experience sharing with the performing NGOs in the
field of organic farming, value-added agriculture, food processing, animal husbandry,
environment, forests and natural resource management. The Union Minister for Rural
Development, Dr Raghuvansh Prasad Singh, will inaugurate the meet; the Union Home Minister,
Mr Shirvraj Patil, will address the participants.
Role of Ngo’s in India:-
1. Optimal utilization and development of renewable source of energy, including forestry
through the formation of renewable energy association at the block level.
2. Family welfare, health and nutrition, education and relevant community programs in the field.
3. Health for all programs.
4. Water management and soil conservation.
5. Social welfare programs for weaker sections.
6. Implementation of minimum needs program.
7. Disaster preparedness and management (i.e. for floods, cyclones, etc).
8. Promotion of ecology and tribal development.
9. Environmental protection and education.
5
Rural Development Schemes of NGO:
The important schemes available from Government of India for Rural Development are:
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREG), Swarnjayanti Gram
Swarozgar Yojna (SGSY), Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojna (PMGSY), Indira Awaas Yojana
(IAY), National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP), Department of Land Resouces-DoLR
National Land Records Modernization Programme (NLRMP), Integrated Watershed
Management Programme (IWMP).
Ngo’s programs:-
1. Agricultural related programs:
Numerous activities can be undertaken under agriculture sector. The jobs/projects like
distributing planting materials, cattle, poultry, minor irrigation, free medical care for
cattle’s, safe drinking water for animals etc.
2. Health programs for human and non-human beings:
The works like pit drainage, housing, creation of smokeless environment, good drinking
water for animals and human beings, regular health checkup camps etc. will improve the
health conditions of the human and non human beings.
3. Community development programs:
The community development programs like adoption of villages for development, moral
support during flood and famine period, supply of food and drinking water during flood,
common well, training programs for the rural youths, housing projects, repair and
renovation of houses etc will satisfy the basic necessities. The important program like
training programs for the rural poor will hold the youths from rural exodus. Even this
type of training programs may also be extended for the rural women, so that we can
expect self sustenance among this community.
4. Human Resource Development programs:
The personality development programs, skill development programs, educational
programs, integrated development projects etc will enable the rural poor to earn bread
and butter.
6
5. Trade and industrial promotion:
The important problem in the present context is availability of the market for the products
of rural enterprises. Therefore, an NGO has a direct link with the government for
marketing of the goods. Apart from this, NGO can also go for training the rural youths in
fabrication works, wood works, beedi rolling, agarbathi manufacturing, printing press etc.
6. Government support:
The government (central, state or local) support at all level is inevitable for rural
development. NGOs alone cannot do miracles over night. Therefore, the government
should watch and ward the working of NGOs at phase wise manner. Thus, the fund or
whatever may be directly should move to beneficiaries. The NGOs should accountable
for the funds.
NGOs in the Five - Year Plans:
To achieve the above mentioned socio economic goals Five-Year Plans (FYPs) are
centralized and integrated national economic programs. The economy of India is based in
part on planning through its five-year plans, which are developed, executed and
monitored by the Planning Commission of India. Five-Year Plans (FYPs) are centralized
and integrated national economic programs. The economy of India is based in part on
planning through its five-year plans, which are developed, executed and monitored by the
Planning Commission of India. The eleventh plan completed its term in March 2012 and
the twelfth plan is currently underway. These NGOs have been constantly working to
solve various problems concerning children, women, senior citizens, environment,
agriculture etc. in rural development agricultural or resource based businesses Education
entrepreneurship.
This plan, nevertheless, was to become the first of a series. Under the Seventh Five Year
Plan (1985-1990) the Indian government envisioned a more active role for voluntary
organizations to aid in making communities as self-reliant as possible. These groups were
expected to show how village and indigenous resources could be used and how human
resources, rural skills and local knowledge, grossly underutilized at present could be used
for their own development. NGOs because of their situation and interaction with local
people can be very effective in bringing change since they are able to address issues that
governments are often not able to comprehend. That is, because these organizations work
7
at the grass roots level they are able to sense the urgency of issues and prioritize into the
problem solving mode at a quicker pace. This advantage has also been noticed by the
Indian government. In the Eight Five Year Plan the importance of NGOs is further
enhanced, paying particular attention to the role of these agencies as participants in rural
appraisal for drawing up development plans at a very low cost and involving the rural
community. The plan document states, "A nation-wide network of NGOs will be created.
In order to facilitate the working of this network, three schemes relating to the creation,
replication, multiplication and consultancy development have been worked out by the
Planning Commission.
The Planning Commission of India for its XII Plan invites all Voluntary Organizations
(VOs)/ Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) to Sign Up on this system. Prior to this
under the "Civil Society Window" series the govt. started for inviting civil society
representatives in Yojana Bhawan, to share grassroots realities and alternate views on
development with Members and Officials of the Planning Commission; Socio-Economic
Problems, Natural Resource Management - focusing on livelihoods, Sustainable
Livelihoods for National Development, Implementing Framework for Employment
Guarantee Scheme, Gender in 11th Plan, Women and Land Rights, Children's Right to
Education and Abolition of Child Labor, Bridging the Gaps between Goals of SHGs.
NGOs contribution in implementation of MNREGA:-
Economic stability is the key to stop the migration of labor from place to place and
thereby giving a chance to child education. Some successful NGOs in Rural
Development, through their hard work, dedication, commitment combined with
professional competency and integrity have made their mark in the field of Rural
Development during last three decades. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and
agencies will have a pivotal role in the conduct of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural
Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA).
Social Audit Facilitation:-
Each State Government shall identify or establish an independent organization, “Social
Audit Unit” (SAU) to facilitate conduct of the Social Audit of MGNREGS works. This
Social Audit Unit may be either a Society or a Directorate, independent of the
implementing departments/agencies. The Director/chief executive officer of the
8
society/directorate shall be a person who has worked in the social sector for the rights of
the people for at least 15 years. The work may also be outsourced to an outside agency
preferably an NGO.
Some observations on NGO’s:
1. A few NGOs have been operating without proper direction, organizational
development, good management practices and specific mission.
2. It is also observed from the existing literature that, some NGOs are very lack in the
areas like decision-making for right kind of developmental intervention, managing socio-
economic change and attaining sustainability,
3. There is a direct correlation between the donor funding and the continuation of the
projects undertaken by NGOs in rural areas.
Policy implications:
The following suggestions and policy implications have been made for the further
improvement in their working of NGOs.
1. A short term training programs for strengthening the managerial capabilities of NGOs
will go a long way in improving their performance and effectiveness significantly.
2. The overdependence of NGOs on funding agencies and the syndrome of dependency
should be reduced by involving the government directly in funding activities.
3. Donor agencies should also take active initiation in selecting the funding projects and
even selecting of NGOs too.
4. The donor agencies should go for surveying the viable projects for NGOs and the
needs of the people.
5. NGO should also accept the truth that, the funding agencies are no longer available for
the projects which are not viable.
6. Proper monitoring the activities of the NGOs and the enterprises run under the
umbrella is the need of the hour.
Therefore, the NGOs should also accountable for the funds on the one hand and the
beneficiaries on the other.
9
The Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP):
The Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) is a rural development program
of the Government of India launched in Financial Year 1978 and extended throughout
India by 1980. It is a self-employment program intended to raise the income-generation
capacity of target groups among the poor. The target group consists largely of small and
marginal farmers, agricultural laborers and rural artisans living below the poverty line.
The pattern of subsidy is 25 per cent for small farmers, 33-1/3 per cent for marginal
farmers, agricultural laborers and rural artisans and 50 per cent for Scheduled
Castes/Scheduled Tribes families and physically handicapped persons. The ceiling for
subsidy is Rs.6000/- for Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes families and the physically
handicapped; for others, it is Rs.4000/-in non-DPAP/non-DDP areas and Rs.5000/- in
DPAP and DDP areas. Within the target group, there is an assured coverage of 50 per
cent for Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes, 40 per cent for women and 3 per cent for the
physically handicapped. Priority in assistance is also given to the families belonging to
the assignees of ceiling surplus land; Green Card Holders covered under the Family
Welfare Programme and freed bonded laborers. RDP is a major self-employment
program for Poverty Alleviation. The objective of IRDP is to provide suitable income
generating assets through a mix of subsidy and credit to below poverty Line families with
a view to bring them above the Poverty Line. A family with an annual income of Rs.
20,000/- and below per annum is considered to be below the poverty line based on the
1998 below Poverty Line Census. The list of individual and family activities which are
eligible for assistance with the unit cost of each is placed in Annexure.
During the 7th five year plan, the total expenditure under the program was Rs 33.2
million, and Rs 53.7 million of term credit was mobilized. Some 13 million new families
participated, bringing total coverage under the program to more than 18 million families.
These development programs have played an important role in increased agricultural
production by educating farmers and providing them with financial and other inputs to
increase yields. The objective of IRDP is to enable identified rural poor families to cross
the poverty line by providing productive assets and inputs to the target groups. The assets
which could be in primary, secondary or tertiary sector are provided through financial
10
assistance in the form of subsidy by the government and term credit advanced by
financial institutions.
Role of Ngo’s in different sector:-
11
Conclusion:
Unless the NGOs are developed, prepared to face the new challenges like shortage of
funds, stoppage of funds, it would be difficult for them to sustain. Rural India continues
to suffer from lack of employment and self-employment opportunities owing to its
narrow economic base. In the recent past, considerable success has been achieved in
developing rural poor through entrepreneurship development approach which focuses on
selectively utilizing local talent, appropriately developing them through training
intervention and linking them with relevant business opportunities. EDI implemented
Rural Entrepreneurship Development (RED) Approach, in collaboration with NGOs by
training their development workers. One of the major hurdles faced in the process is non-
availability of required and timely financial support to trained entrepreneurs. It was
therefore felt that the desired success rate could not be achieved in REDPs despite best
possible training inputs, because of non-availability of funds from banks to trainees.
As such, general people themselves have to participate in their sustainable rural
development. Till our panchayats become capable and accountable to handle large sum
and certain technical programmes, there is nothing wrong in involving competent agency,
whether the Government department or NGO involved in Rural Development program,
under the supervision and monitoring of ultimate masters, the village community. The
distribution of huge funds has to be based on sound economic principles; otherwise, our
villages will not see tangible improvements in near future.
12
References:
1. Indu Bhaskar and Geethakutty, (2001)“Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in
rural development: A case study”, Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 39, pp.52-54.
2. Government of India website, www.ministryofruraldevelopment.gov.in
3. Jain (2006) “Rural development schemes: An overview,” The Chartered Accountant”,
pp.1197-1201.
4. International Journal of Applied Research and Studies (iJARS) ISSN: 2278-9480
Volume 3, Issue 1 (Jan - 2014) www.ijars.in (DR. H.RAMAKRISHNA)
5. Kandasami, M (2006), “Role of Chartered Accountants in India’s NGO Sector-An
Emerging Opportunity”, Journal of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, Vol.
55, No.12, June, pp.1700-1702.

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Role of NGOs in Indian economy

  • 1. 1 Report on The role of NGO’s in Indian Economy Submitted by Mohammed Naseer Khan (1226114117)
  • 2. 2 Summary:- WORK Always keep in mind, “Never work without reward and never expect reward without work”. This should be the motive of everybody's life. Then your efforts will prove icing and the cake for the NGOs. Try to put life and soul in work and lay put all the best efforts for which the social work has been started. Never acclaim politicians for grinding own axe, or just for the name and fame of the NGOs, only then the NGOs can fetch success to attain its entity in the world and surely turn over a new leaf. Eagerness in work is essential and one should not be aggression even in crucial circumstances. Always try to finish the work that is being started and for this there is a need to get wedded to the matter and also try to endorse the available commodities, either these are financial help or products but the best utilization of other equipments is necessary. A work should be done with dedication and never stop a work in the lurch until it has been completed. Render services to others and these services require time, devotion resolution and dedication. Any institute cannot go longer if people are not industrious and cordial. Selfless motives and services lead to success. The concept of NGOs and Social welfare are not new phenomena as India has a long glorious tradition of social service, social reform and the Voluntary organizations are playing vital role in the socio economic development of this country since from the ages of Jyothy Rao Poole and Sahu Maharaj in the pre-Independence India. In fact, India is a land of villages with diversifying cultures, traditions, religions and wide societal divisions. Rural Development which is concerned with economic growth and social justice, improvement in the living standard of the rural people by providing adequate and quality social services and minimum basic needs becomes essential. NGOs to achieve this objective owing to such a great need the Government of India have been implementing numerous rural development programmers for the development of rural Communities. Through this paper an attempt has been made to analyze the contribution of NGOs for the rural poor in India. Introduction:- A Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) is any association having a definite cultural, economic, educational, religious or social cause or any non-profit voluntary citizens group which is organized around specific issues, such as education, environmental conservation, social welfare, rural development sanitation, healthcare or human rights, on a local, national or international level. The World Bank defines NGOs as "private organizations that pursue activities to relieve suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect the environment, provides basic social services, or undertake community development. NGOs include an array of groups and institutions that are entirely or largely independent of government and characterized primarily by humanitarian or cooperative, rather than commercial objectives". According to a World Bank key document, the term NGO can be applied to any non-profit organization, which is entirely or largely independent from government and exists to serve humanitaria1 social or
  • 3. 3 cultural interests either of their memberships or of social as a who1e. NGOs are typically value- based organizations, which depend, wholly or in part, on charitable donations and voluntary service. Although, the NGO sector has become increasingly professionalized over the last two decades, principles of altruism and voluntarism remain key defining characteristics. The World Health Organization first made the term NGO popular back in 1945. There are more than 50,000 international NGOs. Non-government organizations with their advantage of non- rigid, locality specific, felt need based, beneficiary oriented and committed nature of service have established multitude of roles which can effect rural development2 . In the cases in which NGOs are funded totally or partially by governments, the NGO maintains its non-governmental status by excluding government representatives from membership in the organization. A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a legally constituted organization created by natural or legal persons that operates independently from any form of government. The term originated from the United Nations (UN), and is normally used to refer to organizations that are not a part of the government and are not conventional for-profit business. In the cases in which NGOs are funded totally or partially by governments, the NGO maintains its non-governmental status by excluding government representatives from membership in the organization. Major role seen for NGO’s in rural development: As economic reform and liberalization saw the Government vacating several areas to let private sector entrepreneurship flourish and contribute to the high growth rate of the economy in recent years, a similar paradigm shift is needed to transform NGOs from their dependence on aid and grants from within and outside for transforming the rural scenario in the country. This is sought to be achieved for the NGOs through engaging them in micro-finance, micro insurance, and micro-entrepreneurship activities for the overall development of the rural areas and to promote the welfare of the people of rural India. Better credibility: As NGOs get finance generated through their own activities, their credibility vastly improves and their service to rural people gets reinforced. CNRI is an apex body with over 2,000 member NGOs engaged in multifarious activities ranging from self-help group formation, income generation, marketing, agency work for insurance companies for life and non-life products and
  • 4. 4 for banks and financial institutions to environment protection, watershed management, handicrafts, textiles, traditional medicinal plants and HR development. It is completing one year of its existence. To mark the celebration of one year of its service to NGOs, CNRI is hosting a three-day national meet - `Advantage Rural India' - from April 17. Special sessions: The meet will feature sessions on NGO/SHG products, finance and marketing, rural connectivity, energy needs and new technologies, employment opportunities for rural youth, role of NGOs in the field of rural education, experience sharing with the performing NGOs in the field of organic farming, value-added agriculture, food processing, animal husbandry, environment, forests and natural resource management. The Union Minister for Rural Development, Dr Raghuvansh Prasad Singh, will inaugurate the meet; the Union Home Minister, Mr Shirvraj Patil, will address the participants. Role of Ngo’s in India:- 1. Optimal utilization and development of renewable source of energy, including forestry through the formation of renewable energy association at the block level. 2. Family welfare, health and nutrition, education and relevant community programs in the field. 3. Health for all programs. 4. Water management and soil conservation. 5. Social welfare programs for weaker sections. 6. Implementation of minimum needs program. 7. Disaster preparedness and management (i.e. for floods, cyclones, etc). 8. Promotion of ecology and tribal development. 9. Environmental protection and education.
  • 5. 5 Rural Development Schemes of NGO: The important schemes available from Government of India for Rural Development are: Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREG), Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojna (SGSY), Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojna (PMGSY), Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY), National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP), Department of Land Resouces-DoLR National Land Records Modernization Programme (NLRMP), Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP). Ngo’s programs:- 1. Agricultural related programs: Numerous activities can be undertaken under agriculture sector. The jobs/projects like distributing planting materials, cattle, poultry, minor irrigation, free medical care for cattle’s, safe drinking water for animals etc. 2. Health programs for human and non-human beings: The works like pit drainage, housing, creation of smokeless environment, good drinking water for animals and human beings, regular health checkup camps etc. will improve the health conditions of the human and non human beings. 3. Community development programs: The community development programs like adoption of villages for development, moral support during flood and famine period, supply of food and drinking water during flood, common well, training programs for the rural youths, housing projects, repair and renovation of houses etc will satisfy the basic necessities. The important program like training programs for the rural poor will hold the youths from rural exodus. Even this type of training programs may also be extended for the rural women, so that we can expect self sustenance among this community. 4. Human Resource Development programs: The personality development programs, skill development programs, educational programs, integrated development projects etc will enable the rural poor to earn bread and butter.
  • 6. 6 5. Trade and industrial promotion: The important problem in the present context is availability of the market for the products of rural enterprises. Therefore, an NGO has a direct link with the government for marketing of the goods. Apart from this, NGO can also go for training the rural youths in fabrication works, wood works, beedi rolling, agarbathi manufacturing, printing press etc. 6. Government support: The government (central, state or local) support at all level is inevitable for rural development. NGOs alone cannot do miracles over night. Therefore, the government should watch and ward the working of NGOs at phase wise manner. Thus, the fund or whatever may be directly should move to beneficiaries. The NGOs should accountable for the funds. NGOs in the Five - Year Plans: To achieve the above mentioned socio economic goals Five-Year Plans (FYPs) are centralized and integrated national economic programs. The economy of India is based in part on planning through its five-year plans, which are developed, executed and monitored by the Planning Commission of India. Five-Year Plans (FYPs) are centralized and integrated national economic programs. The economy of India is based in part on planning through its five-year plans, which are developed, executed and monitored by the Planning Commission of India. The eleventh plan completed its term in March 2012 and the twelfth plan is currently underway. These NGOs have been constantly working to solve various problems concerning children, women, senior citizens, environment, agriculture etc. in rural development agricultural or resource based businesses Education entrepreneurship. This plan, nevertheless, was to become the first of a series. Under the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-1990) the Indian government envisioned a more active role for voluntary organizations to aid in making communities as self-reliant as possible. These groups were expected to show how village and indigenous resources could be used and how human resources, rural skills and local knowledge, grossly underutilized at present could be used for their own development. NGOs because of their situation and interaction with local people can be very effective in bringing change since they are able to address issues that governments are often not able to comprehend. That is, because these organizations work
  • 7. 7 at the grass roots level they are able to sense the urgency of issues and prioritize into the problem solving mode at a quicker pace. This advantage has also been noticed by the Indian government. In the Eight Five Year Plan the importance of NGOs is further enhanced, paying particular attention to the role of these agencies as participants in rural appraisal for drawing up development plans at a very low cost and involving the rural community. The plan document states, "A nation-wide network of NGOs will be created. In order to facilitate the working of this network, three schemes relating to the creation, replication, multiplication and consultancy development have been worked out by the Planning Commission. The Planning Commission of India for its XII Plan invites all Voluntary Organizations (VOs)/ Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) to Sign Up on this system. Prior to this under the "Civil Society Window" series the govt. started for inviting civil society representatives in Yojana Bhawan, to share grassroots realities and alternate views on development with Members and Officials of the Planning Commission; Socio-Economic Problems, Natural Resource Management - focusing on livelihoods, Sustainable Livelihoods for National Development, Implementing Framework for Employment Guarantee Scheme, Gender in 11th Plan, Women and Land Rights, Children's Right to Education and Abolition of Child Labor, Bridging the Gaps between Goals of SHGs. NGOs contribution in implementation of MNREGA:- Economic stability is the key to stop the migration of labor from place to place and thereby giving a chance to child education. Some successful NGOs in Rural Development, through their hard work, dedication, commitment combined with professional competency and integrity have made their mark in the field of Rural Development during last three decades. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and agencies will have a pivotal role in the conduct of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA). Social Audit Facilitation:- Each State Government shall identify or establish an independent organization, “Social Audit Unit” (SAU) to facilitate conduct of the Social Audit of MGNREGS works. This Social Audit Unit may be either a Society or a Directorate, independent of the implementing departments/agencies. The Director/chief executive officer of the
  • 8. 8 society/directorate shall be a person who has worked in the social sector for the rights of the people for at least 15 years. The work may also be outsourced to an outside agency preferably an NGO. Some observations on NGO’s: 1. A few NGOs have been operating without proper direction, organizational development, good management practices and specific mission. 2. It is also observed from the existing literature that, some NGOs are very lack in the areas like decision-making for right kind of developmental intervention, managing socio- economic change and attaining sustainability, 3. There is a direct correlation between the donor funding and the continuation of the projects undertaken by NGOs in rural areas. Policy implications: The following suggestions and policy implications have been made for the further improvement in their working of NGOs. 1. A short term training programs for strengthening the managerial capabilities of NGOs will go a long way in improving their performance and effectiveness significantly. 2. The overdependence of NGOs on funding agencies and the syndrome of dependency should be reduced by involving the government directly in funding activities. 3. Donor agencies should also take active initiation in selecting the funding projects and even selecting of NGOs too. 4. The donor agencies should go for surveying the viable projects for NGOs and the needs of the people. 5. NGO should also accept the truth that, the funding agencies are no longer available for the projects which are not viable. 6. Proper monitoring the activities of the NGOs and the enterprises run under the umbrella is the need of the hour. Therefore, the NGOs should also accountable for the funds on the one hand and the beneficiaries on the other.
  • 9. 9 The Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP): The Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) is a rural development program of the Government of India launched in Financial Year 1978 and extended throughout India by 1980. It is a self-employment program intended to raise the income-generation capacity of target groups among the poor. The target group consists largely of small and marginal farmers, agricultural laborers and rural artisans living below the poverty line. The pattern of subsidy is 25 per cent for small farmers, 33-1/3 per cent for marginal farmers, agricultural laborers and rural artisans and 50 per cent for Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes families and physically handicapped persons. The ceiling for subsidy is Rs.6000/- for Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes families and the physically handicapped; for others, it is Rs.4000/-in non-DPAP/non-DDP areas and Rs.5000/- in DPAP and DDP areas. Within the target group, there is an assured coverage of 50 per cent for Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes, 40 per cent for women and 3 per cent for the physically handicapped. Priority in assistance is also given to the families belonging to the assignees of ceiling surplus land; Green Card Holders covered under the Family Welfare Programme and freed bonded laborers. RDP is a major self-employment program for Poverty Alleviation. The objective of IRDP is to provide suitable income generating assets through a mix of subsidy and credit to below poverty Line families with a view to bring them above the Poverty Line. A family with an annual income of Rs. 20,000/- and below per annum is considered to be below the poverty line based on the 1998 below Poverty Line Census. The list of individual and family activities which are eligible for assistance with the unit cost of each is placed in Annexure. During the 7th five year plan, the total expenditure under the program was Rs 33.2 million, and Rs 53.7 million of term credit was mobilized. Some 13 million new families participated, bringing total coverage under the program to more than 18 million families. These development programs have played an important role in increased agricultural production by educating farmers and providing them with financial and other inputs to increase yields. The objective of IRDP is to enable identified rural poor families to cross the poverty line by providing productive assets and inputs to the target groups. The assets which could be in primary, secondary or tertiary sector are provided through financial
  • 10. 10 assistance in the form of subsidy by the government and term credit advanced by financial institutions. Role of Ngo’s in different sector:-
  • 11. 11 Conclusion: Unless the NGOs are developed, prepared to face the new challenges like shortage of funds, stoppage of funds, it would be difficult for them to sustain. Rural India continues to suffer from lack of employment and self-employment opportunities owing to its narrow economic base. In the recent past, considerable success has been achieved in developing rural poor through entrepreneurship development approach which focuses on selectively utilizing local talent, appropriately developing them through training intervention and linking them with relevant business opportunities. EDI implemented Rural Entrepreneurship Development (RED) Approach, in collaboration with NGOs by training their development workers. One of the major hurdles faced in the process is non- availability of required and timely financial support to trained entrepreneurs. It was therefore felt that the desired success rate could not be achieved in REDPs despite best possible training inputs, because of non-availability of funds from banks to trainees. As such, general people themselves have to participate in their sustainable rural development. Till our panchayats become capable and accountable to handle large sum and certain technical programmes, there is nothing wrong in involving competent agency, whether the Government department or NGO involved in Rural Development program, under the supervision and monitoring of ultimate masters, the village community. The distribution of huge funds has to be based on sound economic principles; otherwise, our villages will not see tangible improvements in near future.
  • 12. 12 References: 1. Indu Bhaskar and Geethakutty, (2001)“Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in rural development: A case study”, Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 39, pp.52-54. 2. Government of India website, www.ministryofruraldevelopment.gov.in 3. Jain (2006) “Rural development schemes: An overview,” The Chartered Accountant”, pp.1197-1201. 4. International Journal of Applied Research and Studies (iJARS) ISSN: 2278-9480 Volume 3, Issue 1 (Jan - 2014) www.ijars.in (DR. H.RAMAKRISHNA) 5. Kandasami, M (2006), “Role of Chartered Accountants in India’s NGO Sector-An Emerging Opportunity”, Journal of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, Vol. 55, No.12, June, pp.1700-1702.