Developments in educational resources
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Developments in educational resources

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September 2008, Gothenburg (Sweden). ECER anual conference.

September 2008, Gothenburg (Sweden). ECER anual conference.

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  • Subject matter and target group analysis: see Smith & Ragan


  • 1. Developments in educational resources Wim de Boer ECER - Annual Conference september 2008, Gotenborg
  • 2.
    • educational resources developments & curriculum in the Netherlands
    • research model & methodology
    • results
    • conclusions, interpretation and future research
    • questions
  • 3. Learning materials “on the move”
    • School make use of curricular space:
    • more emphasis on independent learning, competences, authentic learning, new environments, school profiles/themes
    • New providers of learning materials: new publishers, new roles publishers, new partnerships between school, teachers publishing
    • The role of ICT: digital learning resources, VLEs, repositories
    • Shortage of teachers
    • New ways of funding the learning resources
    • Experiments: the teacher as a arranger and designer of learning materials
    new demands new offer, new possibilities new political situation
  • 4. Curriculum
    • A plan for learning...
    • Levels: macro --- meso ---- micro
    • Educational resources: the "carriers" of the curriculum
    Decentralized educational policy Centralized educational policy Netherlands
  • 5. Appearance of educational resources digital paper-based textbooks non-textbooks
  • 6. Textbooks: a plan for learning on micro level?
    • coherent packages of learning resources
    • subject-related
    • for different levels
    • mainly developed by educational publishers
    • textbooks and workbooks for one course of one publisher are used for several school years
  • 7. Model teacher charasteristics school curriculum } digital paper- based textbooks non-textbooks
  • 8. School curriculum: curricular spider web Rationale Content Teacher role Materials & Resources Grouping Location Time Assessment Aims & Objectives Learning activities
  • 9. Questions & method
    • What kind of learning materials are used in primary and secondary education?
    • What kind of school and teacher characteristics have a relation with the types of learning materials used?
    • How and with what demands do teachers select the learning materials? How do they use them?
    • Method:
      • small group discussions
      • digital questionnaire
      • set-out in nov/dec 2007
      • 900 respondents
  • 10. Textbooks:
    • All teachers use text books
    • Schools find new text books when they are dated (content or didactics)
    • They use the books for 5,6 years (secondary) and 8,9 years (primary)
    • Teachers decide
    just textbooks combination only flexible learning materials Teaching time with textbooks and flexible learning materials digital paper- based textbooks non- textbooks
  • 11. Non-textbooks
    • are more fun
    • connect beter to the interest of students
    • are more “in depth”
    • are used in projects
    • are often digital
    • and then availability and adaptebility is of importance
    Primairy teachers use materials of others, secondary teachers like to make it themselves 20% 47% made by others 36% 30% made with colleaguas 44% 23% self made 2-y 1-y digital paper- based textbooks non- textbooks
  • 12. More use of textbooks when...
    • you are a man
    • experienced
    • work with students in the age 10-12
    • you teach sciences, languages or humananities subjects
    • the teaching is not much focussed on self directed learning
  • 13. Paper and digital learning materials
    • Teachers work most of the time with paper learning materials
    • No correlation with gender, 1y/2y, experience
    • But: creative and vocational subjects use more digital learning materials
    • And the relation with the school curriculum...
    paper combination digital Teaching time used with digital or paper-based learning materials digital paper- based textbooks non- textbooks
  • 14. More self directed learning = more use of digital materials low high focus on self directed learning and time spend with different learning materials paper combination digital digital paper- based textbooks non- textbooks
  • 15. More focus on integrating courses = more use of digital learning materials level of integrating courses and time spend with different learning materials low high paper combination digital digital paper- based textbooks non- textbooks
  • 16. Conclusions, discussion and next steps
    • Teachers are still using paper-based textbooks most of the time
    • Schools striving towards more “21st learning” use more flexible and digital materials
    • There are differences between teachers: gender, subject and experience
    • New monitor:
    • Available, perceived and utilized curricular space
    • How determinative are textbooks? How can teachers make their own curricula in relation to these textbooks?
    • SLO:
    • what are important curricular variations
    • what kind of curricular framework will help schools/teachers best
    • to what extent can teachers create their own curricula & learning materials
    digital paper-based textbooks non-textbooks
  • 17. Questions? More information: [email_address]
  • 18.  
  • 19. Main findings
    • The texbooks are still widely used
    • There are interesting differences between sectors, gender, experience and topics on the use
    • Most teachers still use paper
    • Digital is more flexible and more used in "newer" education
    • Searching for resources goes by Google, it costs a lot of time
  • 20. Looking for learning materials How often do teachers search? How much time it takes them? Google is most used as a starting point 0% 0% 0% never 16% 16% 16% almost never 48% 45% 55% monthly 31% 33% 27% weekly 5% 6% 3% daily PO/VO VO PO 27% 29% 20% > 30 min 38% 39% 37% 15-30 min 27% 24% 35% 5-15 min 9% 9% 8% < 5 min PO/VO VO PO
  • 21. What do teachers find important when searching for flexible learning materials?
    • Most important:
      • options for independent work
      • options for differentiation
      • coverage of (relation to) curriculum goals (examination requirements)
      • instruction and didactics (pedagogy)
      • costs
      • visual impression of the material
      • target group
    • Important:
      • role of ICT
      • tests (evaluation)
      • user experiences of colleagues
      • short description of the contents
      • long description of the contents (2 a4)
    • Not (so) important:
      • availability
      • required educational time
      • studies to comparisons between methods
      • table of contents
      • bibliographic information
      • reviews of third parties (such as journals)
      • market share of the method
  • 22. Of most importance when selecting flexible learning materials 25% 23% 32% look and feel 36% 32% 46% costs 68% 69% 64% availability 77% 79% 73% adaptebility PO/VO VO PO