Developments in educational resources


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September 2008, Gothenburg (Sweden). ECER anual conference.

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  • Subject matter and target group analysis: see Smith & Ragan
  • Developments in educational resources

    1. 1. Developments in educational resources Wim de Boer ECER - Annual Conference september 2008, Gotenborg
    2. 2. <ul><li>educational resources developments & curriculum in the Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>research model & methodology </li></ul><ul><li>results </li></ul><ul><li>conclusions, interpretation and future research </li></ul><ul><li>questions </li></ul>
    3. 3. Learning materials “on the move” <ul><li>School make use of curricular space: </li></ul><ul><li>more emphasis on independent learning, competences, authentic learning, new environments, school profiles/themes </li></ul><ul><li>New providers of learning materials: new publishers, new roles publishers, new partnerships between school, teachers publishing </li></ul><ul><li>The role of ICT: digital learning resources, VLEs, repositories </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of teachers </li></ul><ul><li>New ways of funding the learning resources </li></ul><ul><li>Experiments: the teacher as a arranger and designer of learning materials </li></ul>new demands new offer, new possibilities new political situation
    4. 4. Curriculum <ul><li>A plan for learning... </li></ul><ul><li>Levels: macro --- meso ---- micro </li></ul><ul><li>Educational resources: the &quot;carriers&quot; of the curriculum </li></ul>Decentralized educational policy Centralized educational policy Netherlands
    5. 5. Appearance of educational resources digital paper-based textbooks non-textbooks
    6. 6. Textbooks: a plan for learning on micro level? <ul><li>coherent packages of learning resources </li></ul><ul><li>subject-related </li></ul><ul><li>for different levels </li></ul><ul><li>mainly developed by educational publishers </li></ul><ul><li>textbooks and workbooks for one course of one publisher are used for several school years </li></ul>
    7. 7. Model teacher charasteristics school curriculum } digital paper- based textbooks non-textbooks
    8. 8. School curriculum: curricular spider web Rationale Content Teacher role Materials & Resources Grouping Location Time Assessment Aims & Objectives Learning activities
    9. 9. Questions & method <ul><li>What kind of learning materials are used in primary and secondary education? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of school and teacher characteristics have a relation with the types of learning materials used? </li></ul><ul><li>How and with what demands do teachers select the learning materials? How do they use them? </li></ul><ul><li>Method: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>small group discussions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>digital questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>set-out in nov/dec 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>900 respondents </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Textbooks: <ul><li>All teachers use text books </li></ul><ul><li>Schools find new text books when they are dated (content or didactics) </li></ul><ul><li>They use the books for 5,6 years (secondary) and 8,9 years (primary) </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers decide </li></ul>just textbooks combination only flexible learning materials Teaching time with textbooks and flexible learning materials digital paper- based textbooks non- textbooks
    11. 11. Non-textbooks <ul><li>are more fun </li></ul><ul><li>connect beter to the interest of students </li></ul><ul><li>are more “in depth” </li></ul><ul><li>are used in projects </li></ul><ul><li>are often digital </li></ul><ul><li>and then availability and adaptebility is of importance </li></ul>Primairy teachers use materials of others, secondary teachers like to make it themselves 20% 47% made by others 36% 30% made with colleaguas 44% 23% self made 2-y 1-y digital paper- based textbooks non- textbooks
    12. 12. More use of textbooks when... <ul><li>you are a man </li></ul><ul><li>experienced </li></ul><ul><li>work with students in the age 10-12 </li></ul><ul><li>you teach sciences, languages or humananities subjects </li></ul><ul><li>the teaching is not much focussed on self directed learning </li></ul>
    13. 13. Paper and digital learning materials <ul><li>Teachers work most of the time with paper learning materials </li></ul><ul><li>No correlation with gender, 1y/2y, experience </li></ul><ul><li>But: creative and vocational subjects use more digital learning materials </li></ul><ul><li>And the relation with the school curriculum... </li></ul>paper combination digital Teaching time used with digital or paper-based learning materials digital paper- based textbooks non- textbooks
    14. 14. More self directed learning = more use of digital materials low high focus on self directed learning and time spend with different learning materials paper combination digital digital paper- based textbooks non- textbooks
    15. 15. More focus on integrating courses = more use of digital learning materials level of integrating courses and time spend with different learning materials low high paper combination digital digital paper- based textbooks non- textbooks
    16. 16. Conclusions, discussion and next steps <ul><li>Teachers are still using paper-based textbooks most of the time </li></ul><ul><li>Schools striving towards more “21st learning” use more flexible and digital materials </li></ul><ul><li>There are differences between teachers: gender, subject and experience </li></ul><ul><li>New monitor: </li></ul><ul><li>Available, perceived and utilized curricular space </li></ul><ul><li>How determinative are textbooks? How can teachers make their own curricula in relation to these textbooks? </li></ul><ul><li>SLO: </li></ul><ul><li>what are important curricular variations </li></ul><ul><li>what kind of curricular framework will help schools/teachers best </li></ul><ul><li>to what extent can teachers create their own curricula & learning materials </li></ul>digital paper-based textbooks non-textbooks
    17. 17. Questions? More information: [email_address]
    18. 19. Main findings <ul><li>The texbooks are still widely used </li></ul><ul><li>There are interesting differences between sectors, gender, experience and topics on the use </li></ul><ul><li>Most teachers still use paper </li></ul><ul><li>Digital is more flexible and more used in &quot;newer&quot; education </li></ul><ul><li>Searching for resources goes by Google, it costs a lot of time </li></ul>
    19. 20. Looking for learning materials How often do teachers search? How much time it takes them? Google is most used as a starting point 0% 0% 0% never 16% 16% 16% almost never 48% 45% 55% monthly 31% 33% 27% weekly 5% 6% 3% daily PO/VO VO PO 27% 29% 20% > 30 min 38% 39% 37% 15-30 min 27% 24% 35% 5-15 min 9% 9% 8% < 5 min PO/VO VO PO
    20. 21. What do teachers find important when searching for flexible learning materials? <ul><li>Most important: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>options for independent work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>options for differentiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coverage of (relation to) curriculum goals (examination requirements) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>instruction and didactics (pedagogy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>visual impression of the material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>target group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Important: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>role of ICT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tests (evaluation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>user experiences of colleagues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>short description of the contents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>long description of the contents (2 a4) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not (so) important: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>required educational time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>studies to comparisons between methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>table of contents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bibliographic information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reviews of third parties (such as journals) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>market share of the method </li></ul></ul>
    21. 22. Of most importance when selecting flexible learning materials 25% 23% 32% look and feel 36% 32% 46% costs 68% 69% 64% availability 77% 79% 73% adaptebility PO/VO VO PO