Saving the Wild: Twenty-First Century Imperatives 9th World Wilderness Conference, Merida, Mexico Dr Jane Smart Director, ...
On behalf of IUCN President Ashok Khosla <ul><li>Greetings and best wishes to Wild9 </li></ul>
Today: <ul><li>Background on IUCN </li></ul><ul><li>Protected Area Categories -Wilderness </li></ul><ul><li>Threats to bio...
IUCN’s Vision:  <ul><li>A just world which values and conserves  nature </li></ul>
IUCN’s Mission: <ul><li>To influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve the integrity and di...
IUCN: A triple helix <ul><li>1,146 Members; 6 Commissions; 1,100 Secretariat staff work together to deliver One Programme ...
IUCN’s value proposition: <ul><li>Data – information – knowledge – policy relevance – policy influence – governance – acti...
IUCN develops global knowledge-based standards <ul><li>The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species  </li></ul>
IUCN Protected Area Management Categories <ul><li>The global standard for planning, establishment and management of Protec...
Six Protected Area Categories (adopted at WCC, Barcelona, October 2008) <ul><li>Ia: Strict nature reserve </li></ul><ul><l...
Category Ib: Wilderness Area <ul><li>Usually large unmodified or slightly modified areas, retaining their natural characte...
Wilderness Areas: Primary Objective <ul><li>To protect the long term ecological integrity of natural areas that are undist...
Wilderness Areas: Other objectives <ul><li>Provide public access of a type which maintains wilderness qualities </li></ul>...
<ul><li>1963:  103 protected areas covering 64,000 km 2 </li></ul><ul><li>2009:  1,945 protected areas covering 472,500 km...
IUCN:  Conserving biodiversity – for all the reasons <ul><li>Cultural: spiritual, aesthetic, existential, recreation, educ...
All the indicators show that biodiversity loss continues: <ul><li>60% of Earth’s ecosystems have been dramatically transfo...
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species  <ul><li>Threatened and at risk of extinction worldwide: </li></ul><ul><li>22% of ...
Biodiversity trends (IUCN Red List Index) Amphibians Mammals Corals
The threat of climate change <ul><li>Royal Society Meeting, London, 6 July 09 </li></ul><ul><li>At current carbon dioxide ...
Before
And after…. <ul><li>8% of the world’s population live within 100 km of a coral reef </li></ul><ul><li>A catastrophe which ...
What can we do? <ul><li>Locke and Mackey (2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Nature based solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation of...
But there is a but… <ul><li>UNFCCC and CBD emerged from the Earth Summit in 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>But UNFCCC does not ack...
IUCN’s position on climate change <ul><li>Recent recognition of mitigation value of reducing the rate of emissions from de...
Political pragmatism plus scary science <ul><li>Ensure that nature based solutions are clearly reflected in Copenhagen out...
Chair of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Dr Rajendra Pachauri  <ul><li>&quot;As chairman of the Intergovern...
2010 is here <ul><li>An inescapable conclusion:  </li></ul><ul><li>The international community has failed to meet the 2010...
Developing a post 2010 target  framework  <ul><li>A global challenge </li></ul><ul><li>IUCN is developing its position on ...
A post 2010 biodiversity target framework should: <ul><li>Ensure that targets set in other MEAs are complementary (e.g. co...
A new CBD Strategic Plan:  <ul><li>Harmonise links to / between the 25 CBD Programmes of Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global...
A new 2020 Target for Biodiversity UNEP Post 2010 Target meeting, Nairobi, 2-3 October 2009: <ul><li>Option 1 </li></ul><u...
In 2010: we must explain why we need to save nature for people
<ul><li>The world needs wild + pristine nature </li></ul><ul><li>Inspiration, research, education, awe, cultural values  <...
Ashok Khosla <ul><li>‘ We need a tipping point that begins the transformation in world public opinion that leads to a more...
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Saving the Wild - 21st Century Imperatives, by Dr. Jane Smart

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Dr. Jane Smart, Director of the Biodiversity Conservation Group and Head of the Species Program for the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), spoke during the Friday (6 November) WILD9 plenary on "Global Perspectives," specifically on "Saving the Wild - 21st Century Imperatives."

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  • DR Jane Smart has given very old position on saving the wild.21st century Imperatives and in 2014 I am waiting for an update. Loss of wild byword every day is happening at an alarming rate.send reply to @probio3 .Thanks Dr Promila Kapoor-Vijay
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  • Primary objective and other objectives
  • This information comes from the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) a joint project of UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre and IUCN. From 1872, when the first protected area was incorporated into the WDPA until 1963, the year before the Wilderness Act of 1964 was signed in the USA, there was a total of 103 areas which meet the definition of “wilderness area” according to IUCN’s and its World Commission on Protected Areas, the “keeper of international standards” on protected areas . [CLICK to bring in circles] And you can see that these few sites are in Canada, East Africa and in Europe . [CLICK to make circles dissolve] [CLICK] From 1964 to now, we can see nearly 2000 wilderness areas globally on every continent - so clearly this idea and this type of management has gained strength. Of course this is an underestimate as more than a third of the sites in the WDPA have yet to have categories applied to them so if that happened we would surely find more.
  • IUCN has recently strengthened its core business; many good reasons to save biodiversity
  • The RLI shows trends in overall extinction risk in sets of species. Based on number of species that move between Red List categories as a result of genuine improvements or genuine deterioration;
  • London Meeting, July 2009, Domino effects on other ecosystems
  • Nasty scan from my own paper copy
  • Sphagnum peat bog picture to add
  • In order not to rock the boat - To be discussed at Council 23-25 November
  • A new Vision for Biodiversity within a new Strategic Plan for the CBD – is assumed Stress the full consultation process
  • These recommendations are base d on addressing perceived weaknesses of the current framework e.g. improved status of ecosystems and ecosystem services, as well as species
  • And links between CC, BD and PAs
  • For all the reasons
  • The Patron saint of wilderness
  • Saving the Wild - 21st Century Imperatives, by Dr. Jane Smart

    1. 1. Saving the Wild: Twenty-First Century Imperatives 9th World Wilderness Conference, Merida, Mexico Dr Jane Smart Director, Biodiversity Conservation Group Head, Species Programme SSC Focal Point
    2. 2. On behalf of IUCN President Ashok Khosla <ul><li>Greetings and best wishes to Wild9 </li></ul>
    3. 3. Today: <ul><li>Background on IUCN </li></ul><ul><li>Protected Area Categories -Wilderness </li></ul><ul><li>Threats to biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change </li></ul><ul><li>2010 </li></ul>
    4. 4. IUCN’s Vision: <ul><li>A just world which values and conserves nature </li></ul>
    5. 5. IUCN’s Mission: <ul><li>To influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve the integrity and diversity of nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable </li></ul>
    6. 6. IUCN: A triple helix <ul><li>1,146 Members; 6 Commissions; 1,100 Secretariat staff work together to deliver One Programme </li></ul>Members Council Secretariat Commissions Steering Committees, Specialist Groups Regional & National Committees Strategy Programme
    7. 7. IUCN’s value proposition: <ul><li>Data – information – knowledge – policy relevance – policy influence – governance – action - IMPACT </li></ul>
    8. 8. IUCN develops global knowledge-based standards <ul><li>The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species </li></ul>
    9. 9. IUCN Protected Area Management Categories <ul><li>The global standard for planning, establishment and management of Protected Areas </li></ul><ul><li>Recognised by the UN and the CBD </li></ul><ul><li>For ‘speaking a common language’ for all involved in Protected Areas… </li></ul><ul><li>A framework for a coherent approach for conservation </li></ul><ul><li>But not a straightjacket </li></ul>
    10. 10. Six Protected Area Categories (adopted at WCC, Barcelona, October 2008) <ul><li>Ia: Strict nature reserve </li></ul><ul><li>Ib: Wilderness area </li></ul><ul><li>II: National park </li></ul><ul><li>III: Natural monument or feature </li></ul><ul><li>IV: Habitat/species management area </li></ul><ul><li>V: Protected area landscape/seascape </li></ul><ul><li>VI: Protected area with sustainable use of </li></ul><ul><li>natural resources </li></ul>
    11. 11. Category Ib: Wilderness Area <ul><li>Usually large unmodified or slightly modified areas, retaining their natural character and influence, without permanent or significant human habitation, which are protected and managed so as to preserve their natural condition </li></ul>forum.hyeclub.com
    12. 12. Wilderness Areas: Primary Objective <ul><li>To protect the long term ecological integrity of natural areas that are undisturbed by significant human activity, free of modern infrastructure and where natural forces and processes predominate, so that current and future generations have the opportunity to experience such areas </li></ul>
    13. 13. Wilderness Areas: Other objectives <ul><li>Provide public access of a type which maintains wilderness qualities </li></ul><ul><li>Enable indigenous communities to maintain traditional wilderness – based lifestyles and customs </li></ul><ul><li>Protect relevant cultural and spiritual values and non-material benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Allow low impact educational and scientific research </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>1963: 103 protected areas covering 64,000 km 2 </li></ul><ul><li>2009: 1,945 protected areas covering 472,500 km 2 + </li></ul>Global Wilderness Coverage IUCN Protected Area Management Category 1b (from UNEP WCMC / IUCN World Database of Protected Areas)
    15. 15. IUCN: Conserving biodiversity – for all the reasons <ul><li>Cultural: spiritual, aesthetic, existential, recreation, education, wellbeing </li></ul><ul><li>Provisioning: food, water, fibre, fuel, medicines </li></ul><ul><li>Regulating: climate regulation, water, disease </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting: primary production, soil formation </li></ul>
    16. 16. All the indicators show that biodiversity loss continues: <ul><li>60% of Earth’s ecosystems have been dramatically transformed </li></ul><ul><li>Collapse of fisheries worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Over the past 100 years, humans have increased species extinction rates up to 1000 x </li></ul>Hawksbill Turtle. Eretmochelys imbricata . Critically Endangered.
    17. 17. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species <ul><li>Threatened and at risk of extinction worldwide: </li></ul><ul><li>22% of the world’s mammals </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly one third of amphibians </li></ul><ul><li>One in eight birds </li></ul><ul><li>27% of reef building corals </li></ul><ul><li>28% of conifers </li></ul><ul><li>No single metric for measurement of biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>We know enough to know that species are in trouble </li></ul>
    18. 18. Biodiversity trends (IUCN Red List Index) Amphibians Mammals Corals
    19. 19. The threat of climate change <ul><li>Royal Society Meeting, London, 6 July 09 </li></ul><ul><li>At current carbon dioxide levels (387ppm) coral reefs are dying from warming and acidification </li></ul><ul><li>To stop this atmospheric carbon dioxide levels need to be reduced to below 350ppm </li></ul><ul><li>Current international negotiations to agree on stabilizing at 450ppm look pitiful </li></ul>
    20. 20. Before
    21. 21. And after…. <ul><li>8% of the world’s population live within 100 km of a coral reef </li></ul><ul><li>A catastrophe which could wipe out an entire marine ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Untold impacts on species extinctions, and human livelihoods </li></ul>
    22. 22. What can we do? <ul><li>Locke and Mackey (2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Nature based solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation of nature is the first order strategy for climate change mitigation (carbon storage and sequestration) and adaptation (connectivity conservation) - linking Protected Areas with un-Protected Areas </li></ul>
    23. 23. But there is a but… <ul><li>UNFCCC and CBD emerged from the Earth Summit in 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>But UNFCCC does not acknowledge primary forests and natural ecosystems - peatlands, wetlands, drylands and grasslands </li></ul><ul><li>No emphasis on mitigation value of intact carbon stocks in these ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Despite total carbon emissions from vegetation destruction and degradation now at 20% or more </li></ul>
    24. 24. IUCN’s position on climate change <ul><li>Recent recognition of mitigation value of reducing the rate of emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) </li></ul><ul><li>But REDD ignores carbon in boreal and temperate ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>IUCN is promoting nature based solutions including Ecosystem based adaptation and REDD and REDD+ </li></ul><ul><li>As a first step </li></ul>
    25. 25. Political pragmatism plus scary science <ul><li>Ensure that nature based solutions are clearly reflected in Copenhagen outputs   </li></ul><ul><li>We will not be silent on the implications of the latest science (dangerous climate change began at 350ppm) </li></ul><ul><li>The dilemma: if the implications of the science are articulated ineffectively our influence on the negotiations (450ppm) could be undermined </li></ul><ul><li>Need to communicate both positions – without jeopardising the other </li></ul><ul><li>More stringent targets needed after Copenhagen </li></ul>
    26. 26. Chair of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Dr Rajendra Pachauri <ul><li>&quot;As chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, I cannot take a position because we do not make recommendations. But as a human being I am fully supportive of [ 350ppm ]. What is happening, and what is likely to happen, convinces me that the world must be really ambitious and very determined at moving toward a 350 target.&quot; </li></ul>
    27. 27. 2010 is here <ul><li>An inescapable conclusion: </li></ul><ul><li>The international community has failed to meet the 2010 target – to slow significantly the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010 </li></ul>Dugong. Dugong dugon . Vulnerable.
    28. 28. Developing a post 2010 target framework <ul><li>A global challenge </li></ul><ul><li>IUCN is developing its position on a post 2010 target framework </li></ul><ul><li>The equivalent of a new 2010 target – for 2020 </li></ul><ul><li>Within the context of a revised strategic plan for the CBD </li></ul>
    29. 29. A post 2010 biodiversity target framework should: <ul><li>Ensure that targets set in other MEAs are complementary (e.g. cohesion between CBD + UNFCCC) </li></ul><ul><li>Be inspirational, ambitious but realistic and achievable, and communicate urgency </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise links between biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well being </li></ul>
    30. 30. A new CBD Strategic Plan: <ul><li>Harmonise links to / between the 25 CBD Programmes of Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Strategy for Plant Conservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programme of Work on Protected Areas (IUCN WCPA Review, Sept 09, Jeju, Korea) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate change and Biodiversity </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. A new 2020 Target for Biodiversity UNEP Post 2010 Target meeting, Nairobi, 2-3 October 2009: <ul><li>Option 1 </li></ul><ul><li>By 2020 we have taken the necessary urgent, concerted and effective actions to address the threats facing biodiversity so as to stop biodiversity loss and start to restore ecosystems, thus ensuring the delivery of essential benefits and avoiding dangerous or irreversible environmental change </li></ul><ul><li>Option 2 </li></ul><ul><li>By 2015, initiate the necessary urgent, concerted actions to effectively address the pressures on biodiversity, [aimed at halting] [to halt] biodiversity loss by 2020 and avoiding dangerous and / or irreversible environmental change, while ensuring the equitable delivery of essential benefits </li></ul>
    32. 32. In 2010: we must explain why we need to save nature for people
    33. 33. <ul><li>The world needs wild + pristine nature </li></ul><ul><li>Inspiration, research, education, awe, cultural values </li></ul><ul><li>Wild9: a coherent strategy for keeping green carbon where it is and also meeting emissions reduction goals </li></ul><ul><li>The world needs such a strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Pursue with daring, energy and courage! </li></ul>Including wilderness
    34. 34. Ashok Khosla <ul><li>‘ We need a tipping point that begins the transformation in world public opinion that leads to a more sustainable relationship between environment and development and moves us towards our Vision for a just world which values and conserves nature’ </li></ul>
    35. 35. Thank you

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