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Psychology and languaje learning (II Bimestre)


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Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja …

Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja
Psychology and languaje learning
II Bimestre
Abril-Agosto 2007
Ponente: Lic. Gina Camacho

Published in: Business

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  • 2. Specific Objectives:
    • Analyze some learning styles and strategies.
    • Get some cues and strategies for listening in another language.
    • Distinguish between spoken and written language, cues to speak a second language.
    • Help learners master and apply strategies to the reading process.
    • Identify approaches to second language writing instruction.
  • 3. Contents:
    • PART II Language, Learners and the Learning Process
    • Chapter Six: The Learning Process
    • PART III Language Skills in Action
    • Chapter Seven: Listening
    • Chapter Eight: Speaking
    • Chapter Nine: Reading
    • Chapter Ten: Writing
  • 4.
    • Chapter 6 takes a detailed look at learning processes. The division between Chapters 5 and 6 is arbitrary, and, as you read the chapters, you will find key issues revised from slightly different perspectives. The main concern of the chapter is to pick up on and elaborate some of the issues emerging from the research literature on learning styles and strategies.
  • 5. Learning Strategies
    • The mental and communicative procedures learners use in order to learn and use language.
    • Strategies are tools for active, self-directed involvement, essential for developing communicative competence.
    • Learners have greater self-confidence and learn more effectively.
    • Direct strategies: Include memorizing, analyzing/ reasoning, and guessing intelligently.
    • Indirect strategies: Include things such as evaluating one’s learning, and cooperating with others.
  • 6. Types of Learning Strategies Linguistic Conversational Patterns Practicing Using Context Summarizing Selective Listening Skimming Affective Personalizing Self-Evaluating Reflecting Cognitive Classifying Predicting Inducing Taking Notes Concept Mapping Inferencing Discriminating Diagramming Interpersonal Cooperating Role-Playing Creative Brainstorming
  • 7. CONCEPT MAP OF CHAPTER 6 LEARNING STRATEGIES Learner independence The nature of strategies Introducing strategies In the classroom
  • 8.
    • Chapter 7 deals with listening. The first part of the chapter reviews conceptual and empirical issues before setting key considerations in the development, sequencing, and grading of listening tasks.
  • 9. Listening
    • Krashen (1982), it is the gasoline that fuels the acquisition process.
    • Helgesen (2003), listening is very active, since while listening people process not only what they hear but also connect it to other information they already know.
    • Bottom-up processing involves making sense of individual sounds and words. Words form phrases, phrases form utterances, and utterances form complete meaningful texts.
  • 10.
    • Top-down processing, involves using what we already know to make sense of aural input. The listener reconstructs the original meaning of the speaker using incoming sounds as clues.
    • Bartlett, mental schemas of situations and events that help us make sense of situations.
  • 11. Factors affecting the difficulty of Listening
    • Brown and Yule (1983) suggest four sets of factors:
    • Speaker factors: how many, speed, and accents.
    • Listener factors: role, the required response, and interest.
    • The content: complexity of grammar and vocabulary.
    • Support: pictures, diagrams, or other visual aids.
  • 12. Listening Strategies
    • Listening for gist, listening for different purposes, predicting, progressive structuring, inferencing, and personalizing.
    • Segmental Features: deal with isolated, individual sounds in the language, such as phonemes and phonemic distinctions, as well as how these signal semantic distinctions.
    • Suprasegmental features: Focus on the way that stress, rhythm, and intonation function to signal differences of attitude, information focus, and so on.
  • 13. LISTENING Learner roles Task types Listening in another language The data base Listening research CONCEPT MAP OF CHAPTER 7
  • 14.
    • Chapter 8 looks at speaking, and begins with a consideration of what it is that differentiates spoken from written language. It also looks at ways of encouraging and motivating the reluctant speaker. Course design and materials/task development issues are then explored. The chapter concludes with a sample of speaking lesson that is designed to illustrate some of the main points that are made in the chapter.
  • 15. Communicative Competence
    • Knowledge of the grammar and vocabulary of the language.
    • Knowledge of rules of speaking.
    • Knowing how to use and respond to different types of speech acts such as: requests, apologies, thanks, and invitations.
    • Knowing how to use language appropriately.
    • Speaking is “the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of contexts”.
  • 16.
    • Transactional language is produced in order to get something, or to get something done.
    • Interactional language is produced for social purposes.
    • Reluctance may be due to three factors: cultural, linguistic, and psychological affective factors.
    • To make Ss speak teachers should be dynamic.
    • Motivation is a key consideration in determining the preparedness of learners to communication.
    • Teachers should create a classroom environment where students have real-life communication, authentic activities, and meaningful tasks that promote oral languages.
  • 17. Find the Difference Picture Describing Picture Narrating Playing cards Reporting Story Completion Interviews Storytelling Brainstormin g Information gap Simulations Role Play Discussions Speaking
  • 18. CONCEPT MAP OF CHAPTER 8 SPEAKING Course design issues Pedagogical tasks The nature of speaking Task difficulty The reluctant speaker
  • 19.
    • Chapter 9 on reading, also begins with a consideration of some of the key theoretical and empirical underpinnings of a reading program. In particular, the debate between product and process-oriented approaches to reading are dealt with. The focus then turns to task types in a reading program, and looks particularly at tasks that help learners master and apply a range of strategies to the reading process.
  • 20. Types of Reading
    • Receptive Reading; is a rapid reading.
    • Effective reading, in which we pause often and reflect on what we have read.
    • Skim reading, in which we read rapidly to establish in a general way what a text is about.
    • Scanning, when we search for specific information.
  • 21.
    • The bottom-up approach, views reading as a process of decoding written symbols into their aural equivalents.
    • Phonics approach, a method of teaching elementary readig and spelling based on the phonetic interpretation of ordinary spelling.
    • Miscue analysis, a technique of identifying reading problems by having the reader read a text aloud, recording the reading, and then documenting as well as analyzing the deviations, or miscues, from the text.
  • 22. Types of Reading Reviewing Identifying genres Integrating information Inferring Evaluating Reading actively Identifying style and its purpose Predicting Using background knowledge Avoiding bad habits Identifying figurative language Clustering Inferring Scanning Noticing cohesive devices Skimming Identifying sentence structure Previewing Idendifying paragraph structure Having a purpose
  • 23. READING Task types Designing Reading courses Reading in Another language Research into reading CONCEPT MAP OF CHAPTER 9
  • 24.
    • Chapter 10 on writing advocates a functional, discourse-based approach to writing pedagogy. A rationale for such an approach is presented which, builds on and extends the functional view of language set out in Chapter 4. Practical ways of using the principles in the design of teaching materials are then presented.
  • 25. Purposes of Written language
    • Halliday (1985) suggests written language is used for:
    • Action: Public signs, product labels, menus, computer manuals, television guides, etc.
    • Information: Newspapers, advertisements, political pamphlets.
    • Entertainment: Comic strips, fiction books, poetry, film subtitles.
  • 26. How to Teach Writing
    • Training in writing includes: reinforcement, language development, and learning style.
    • Reinforcement: Write sentences using new language shortly after they have studied it.
    • Language development: Mental acivity in order to construct proper written texts.
    • Learning Style: Appropriate for learners whose production of a SL may take a little longer.
    • Writing as a skill: How to write letters, how to put written reports, how to reply to advertisements, how to write using electronic media. They need to know about punctuation, paragraph construction, etc.
  • 27. WRITING A discourse-based approach to writing development Contrastive rethoric The nature of the writing process Functional grammar and writing CONCEPT MAP OF CHAPTER 10
  • 28.