Chapter 6 takes a detailed look at learning processes. The division between Chapters 5 and 6 is arbitrary, and, as you read the chapters, you will find key issues revised from slightly different perspectives. The main concern of the chapter is to pick up on and elaborate some of the issues emerging from the research literature on learning styles and strategies.
Chapter 8 looks at speaking, and begins with a consideration of what it is that differentiates spoken from written language. It also looks at ways of encouraging and motivating the reluctant speaker. Course design and materials/task development issues are then explored. The chapter concludes with a sample of speaking lesson that is designed to illustrate some of the main points that are made in the chapter.
Chapter 9 on reading, also begins with a consideration of some of the key theoretical and empirical underpinnings of a reading program. In particular, the debate between product and process-oriented approaches to reading are dealt with. The focus then turns to task types in a reading program, and looks particularly at tasks that help learners master and apply a range of strategies to the reading process.
The bottom-up approach, views reading as a process of decoding written symbols into their aural equivalents.
Phonics approach, a method of teaching elementary readig and spelling based on the phonetic interpretation of ordinary spelling.
Miscue analysis, a technique of identifying reading problems by having the reader read a text aloud, recording the reading, and then documenting as well as analyzing the deviations, or miscues, from the text.
Types of Reading Reviewing Identifying genres Integrating information Inferring Evaluating Reading actively Identifying style and its purpose Predicting Using background knowledge Avoiding bad habits Identifying figurative language Clustering Inferring Scanning Noticing cohesive devices Skimming Identifying sentence structure Previewing Idendifying paragraph structure Having a purpose
READING Task types Designing Reading courses Reading in Another language Research into reading CONCEPT MAP OF CHAPTER 9
Chapter 10 on writing advocates a functional, discourse-based approach to writing pedagogy. A rationale for such an approach is presented which, builds on and extends the functional view of language set out in Chapter 4. Practical ways of using the principles in the design of teaching materials are then presented.
Training in writing includes: reinforcement, language development, and learning style.
Reinforcement: Write sentences using new language shortly after they have studied it.
Language development: Mental acivity in order to construct proper written texts.
Learning Style: Appropriate for learners whose production of a SL may take a little longer.
Writing as a skill: How to write letters, how to put written reports, how to reply to advertisements, how to write using electronic media. They need to know about punctuation, paragraph construction, etc.
WRITING A discourse-based approach to writing development Contrastive rethoric The nature of the writing process Functional grammar and writing CONCEPT MAP OF CHAPTER 10