•Risk taker•Flexible•Energetic•Compassionate•Develop highly effective instructional repertoire•Scaffold frequently and support learners on their firstattempt to learn new concepts•Maintain high expectations•Provide clear purpose and directions•Believe that all can achieve•Know how and when to combinemethods/approaches/strategies that result in highlyeffective literary growth
Activating prior knowledge and Building BackgroundInformation ( anything that stimulates thinking)•BrainstormingPurpose : Brainstorming is primarily agroup of activities in which everyoneshares ideas as quickly and freely aspossible, making no judgments aboutwhich ones are good or bad, sensible orsilly. This is to come up with as manyideas as possible, not to judge them asserious or trivial question.“What would the universe be like if I perceived it from astreetcar going at the speed of light?”
Example 1. (Process Approach to Writing)Procedure :1.Read the job wanted specifications in the advertisement below.2.Pair off with your seatmate, then, brainstorm on how you aregoing to answer the advertisement . What will you state under eachof the following sections in your letter?* Reason for writing * Personal Data* Experience * References* Education * Closing
•Photography StudyPurpose : This is usually done by showing a number ofphotographs to the students to help them create a mental picture ofthe main character of a story.Procedure :1.Students are asked to observe the facial expression, physicalfeatures, manner of dressing, even the posture of the person in thephotographs.2.Students can be asked also to make inferences or judgmentsabout the character’s thoughts, motives, or desires.
Use visual images to study themood of charactersHow can we tell what kind of mood someone is in?* Facial expressions* Body Language* What they are saying; vocabulary* Behaviors
List as many moods as youcan think of about thesepictures.
•Preview and Predict –have students browse throughthe selection to get a sense of itsformat.Procedure :1. Invite students to preview the titleand illustrations to help them getready for the story by thinking what itmight be about.• Ask :• What do you think of the title“Roxanboxen”?•What are the children on the coverdoing?2. Have students discuss in groupswhat they see and make predictions.“ I think the story is about playinggames in the desert”
•Literary MapPurpose : This is afictional mapconstructed based ona literary text whichfeatures the setting asa significant elementin the text. This isused as a means torepresent :•the fictional setting ofa literary text• a real map using thelegend• a trail or path withimportant people•Street map
is a language teaching strategy which introduces new language througha series of commands to physically enact an event. Research on thisstrategy shows that more efficient learning with student involvementoccurs when students actually move than when they do not. (McCloskey,1988).Procedure :1.Setting up. The teacher sets up a situation in which student follow a setof commands using actions, generally with props, to act out a series ofevents.Suggestions for K-5 (building something with blocks or legos)Suggestions for 6-8 (Baking a pie)Suggestions for 9-12 (Shopping for groceries, Ordering food ina restaurant)2.Demonstration. The teacher or a student demonstrates the series ofactions.(Setting the context & Learning Activity Sequence)
Procedure :3. Group live action/Student Demonstration. The group acts out the series asthe teacher or a group leader gives command. This step is repeated severaltimes so that students internalize the series thoroughly before they produce itorally. Students may also work in pairs.4. Written copy. Students will write on a chart the series of actions.5. Oral repetition and questions. After the students have made a written copy,they read each line or points out some questions which will help themunderstand better the concepts/series of commands.Example :Watching Television1.It’s time to watch your favorite show. Turn on the television.2.This is a wrong show. You hate this show. Make a terrible face. Change thechannel.3.This show is great! Smile! Sit down in your favorite chair.4.This part is very funny. Laugh.5.Now there’s a commercial. Get up and get a snack and drink. Sit down again.6.The ending is very sad. Cry.7.The show is over. Turn off the television.8.Go to bed.
Dyad ActivitiesPurpose : Dyad activities help students practice some aspect of Englishstructure. The students work in pairs. Each student has the answers for the otherstudent, and can provide immediate correction. The teacher can prepare theexercises ahead of time, or the students can write exercises in pairs andexchange them. The teacher should check them for accuracy.Procedure :1.The exercises for student A and Student B are cut apart so that Student A seesonly the first four sentences and Student B sees only the last four sentence.2.They sit facing each other. Student A reads sentence 1, filling in the blank withthe correct form of the word in parentheses.3.Student B checks the answer and tells Student A whether the answer wasright or wrong.4.Then Student B reads sentence 2, filling in the blanks, and Student A checksthe answer.5.They continue until they have done all the sentences.
Student A1. My car is ______ than yours. (fast)2. My car is the same size as his.3. His car is ___ _______color___mine (different)4. His car is more expensive than hers.1. My car is faster than yours.2. My car is ___ _____ size ____ his.3. His car has a different color frommine.4. His car is _____ ________ than hers(expensive)Student B
Purpose : This is to deepen the understanding of the details about anarticle or a particular genre. (Dybdhal & Black)Procedure :1.After reading a selection or a literary piece, students will write theirinteraction /impression about the topic.RAINLooks like Feels like Sounds like Tastes likeShiny Cold Music ColdCrystals Soft Nothing WaterFallingsparklesWet Sloshingwith mybootsIce CreamTiny Droplets Drips orplopsPopsiclesRainShiny crystalsSoftly fallingSo wetSloshing, sloshingSparkling waterWaiting quietly
Purpose: The Word Square graphicorganizer (McCloskey & Stack, 1996) isa tool for multidimensional vocabularydevelopment. The learners use avariety of ways to study a new term,including writing a personal definition,writing a dictionary (or glossary)definition, and drawing picture of theword or action.Procedure :1.Draw a four square on the board.Label each of the squares : Definition(or meaning), Characteristics,Examples (or picture), Non- examplesCheck for Understanding a Topic/ Skill
TreeTreeDefinition CharacteristicsExamples Non- examples•A tree is something thatgrows outdoors.•It has leaves and branches.•It has roots that get nutrientsand water from the soil to live.• has bark made of wood.• has wooden branches.• grows leaves.• gives shade.• provides a home to birds andsome animals.•Acacia•Mahogany•Palm•Cedar•Rose•Horse•Dog•Ant2. Demonstrate by doing a Word Square with the whole class. Select a new word froma reading selection. Complete the square with the help of the class.3. If this strategy will be used to unlock difficult word in a selection, students may workin a group or by pairs on each assigned square.4. If this graphic organizer following the lesson, in the next chapter, words can be selfselected or assigned and students can create their own squares independently orin pairs. Circulate the squares and let other class members offer feedback andsuggestions.5. Remind students that they can use this tool on their own with words that challenge
Brace Map is used to teach students how to visuallyrepresent the thought process of the whole to partrelationship
The Frame of Reference (metacognitive frame)can be used with ANY map.
The Bubble Map is very effective for vocabulary development.The process of describing is closely linked to how we value andevaluate things.
Multi-flow Map* This is used for identifying the causes and effectsof an event, adding consequences, and predictchanges..
One-sidedMulti-flow Map•This is tofocus on justthe causes orjust the effectsof an event.•Ask students :- Doesbrushing yourteeth dailycause them tobe healthy?
Flow Map is used to teach students how to visuallyrepresent the thought process of sequencing.
•Reader’s TheaterPurpose: Learners read literature aloud dramatically in the form of aplay / dialogueProcedure :1.Introduce Reader’s Theater with a prepared script.2.Have the learners read the script aloud, taking the parts of variouscharacters.3.Adjust the assignment of characters to match student reading levels.4.Later, involve students in creating scripts from text – be sure to choosetext with lots of dialogue.5.Help learners revise and perfect script.6.Students perform the skit by reading it aloud and acting it out asappropriate.(Practice and Application)
• Jazz ChantsPurpose :This is simply bringingrhythm into theclassroom and thebrain loves rhythm.Students can work withclapping, stamping, andsimple bodymovements. (CarolynGraham ,email@example.com)
•Choose a topic – for example sportsFootballBasketballGolf•Say each word and notice how many sounds you hear•Turn the simple vocabulary chant into a Grammarchant by addingHe, She, They plus a verb that would make sense such as play. Thesample is using the Simple Present Tense .He plays football.She plays basketball.They play golf.•Next practice may be the Yes/No questions and short response.Does he play football?Yes, he does.Does she play basketball?Yes, she does.Do they play golf?Yes, they do.
•Inside / Outside CirclesPurpose : To provide authentic opportunitiesFor students to give and get informationProcedure :1.Students prepare questions and answers. These might be about acontent area they have studied.2.Students stand in two circles, one inside the other. The students inthe inside circle face out and the students in the outside circle face in.3.Students in the inside circle ask the students in the outside circle aquestion. Then the students in the outside circle answer the question.4.After asking and answering a question the students on the outsidecircle move to the right. They face a new partner and ask and answerquestions again. Students rotate after each question.5.Have each pair swap cards before moving around the circle.