Teaching english as a foreign language language skills
TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE Language Skills ICPNA-Santyna july 2010 SPEAKER: SANTY REQUEJO SALDAÑA ICPNA email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org
ICPNA-Santyna july 2010Are we really repeating ourselves year after year? Or Is what we are doing new and different? NOWHervast’s steps 1.Motivation CALLA Cognitive Academic Language (1800) Learning Approach 2.Basic 1.Preparation1. Preparation 2.Presentation 3.Practice 3.Practice2. Presentation 4.Evaluation 4.Evaluation 5.Expansion3. Association 5.Extension4. Systematization
ICPNA-Santyna july 2010 PRINCIPLES OF LANGUAGE LEARNING• Speech before writing• Basic sentences• Patterns as habits• Sound system for use• Vocabulary control• Language practice• Practice• Authentic language standards• Immediate reinforment• Content• Attitude toward the language.
ICPNA-Santyna july 2010METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHESAPPROACH.-is something that reflects a certain theory and beliefs about language and language learning.METHOD.-is a set of procedures, a system that spells out exactly how to teach a language(what particular skills and content to teach)TECHNIQUE.-is a classroom device , activity, stratagem used to accomplish an immediate objective. (dictation, imitation, repetition)STRATEGY.-a detailed plan or the skill (grammar, vocabulary and usage) of planning for achieving success in class. *taking notes *asking *imagery *paraphrasing *predicting *
GRAMMAR THETRANSLATION DIRECT METHODTHE AUDIO LINGUAL THE AUDIO VISUALTOTAL PHYSICALRESPONSE THE SILENT WAYCOMMUNITY LANGUAGELEARNING NATURAL APPROACHCOMMUNICATIVEAPPROACHjuly 2010 ICPNA-Santyna
Audio- Grammar- Direct Lingual Silent Way Suggestopedia Translation Method ICPNA-Santyna july 2010 Method1. Goals Read literature Communication. Communication Self-expression Everyday Comm. in L2. Develop Think in L2. Direct . Automaticity of Ss; Tap Ss mental mind. Learn association in L2 by independence powers by grammar, without learning new from T. desuggesting vocabulary, and translation. habits. barriers to learning. culture.2. Role of the Traditional. T is T-centered. T-centered. T T as facilitator, S must trust andteacher/studen the authority. Ss T directs. provides model resource, respect T ast learn from the of L2 for provides what Ss authority. Ss adopt T. imitation. need. childlike roles once they feel secure.3. Teaching/ Translation. Associate L2 and New grammar Ss guided to RelaxingLearning Deductive study meaning directly in and vocabulary discover the atmosphere, music,Process? of grammar. real context. through structure of L2. activate whole brain Memorize Use L2 only. dialogues. Initial focus on + peripheral vocabulary. Inductive Drills. accurate learning. Reception grammar. Syllabus Inductive pronunciation. then activation based on topics/ grammar. phase. situations. Learning is habit formation.4. Nature of T to S. Both initiate T-directed. T active, but T/S and S/Sstudent/teache interaction. Some S/S in drills. mostly silent. interaction fromr interaction S/S interaction. S/S interaction beginning. encouraged.
5. How are N.A. N.A. N.A. Positive feelings Focus onstudents’ encouraged, also confidence andfeelings dealt S/S cooperation. ICPNA-Santyna july 2010 sense of securitywith? via suggestions.6. View of Literary Spoken Language as Language Communication aslanguage/ language over language over system of expresses the a 2-phase process:culture? spoken written. patterns/units. spirit of a culture. language + extra- language. Simple to linguistic factors. complex.7. What Vocabulary/ Vocabulary over Structure Pronunciation & Vocabulary.language grammar. grammar. important. intonation. Explicit butskills are Reading/writin Focus on Listen-speak- Structure. minimal grammar.emphasized? g. communication. read- Oral before Language use over write. written. linguistic form.8. Role of the L1 in Not used. L1 habits Used to form L1 used innative classroom. interfere sounds in L2 and translation oflanguage? Two-way with L2. Avoid for feedback. dialogues. As translation. L1. Otherwise not course proceeds, used. L1 reduced.9. How does Written Use of language Discrete point Continuous In-classevaluation translations. (interview). testing for observation. Ss performance.occur? Apply grammar accuracy. develop their rules. own criteria.10. Treatment of T supplies Self-correction. Avoid errors by Self-correction; No overterrors? correct answer. overlearning. peer correction. correction Modelled correctly.
Community Communicative Total Physical Language Natural Approach Language Response ICPNA-Santyna july 2010 Learning Teaching1. Goals Communication. Communication. Communicative Communication in Promote nondefensive Learning L1= competence. Facilitate social context. learning. learning L2. acquisition by providing Appropriacy. comprehensible input Functional competence. (i+1).2. Role of the Counselor/client. As S Director. T provides T as facilitator. Primary Facilitator. Manager ofteacher/student? assumes more model of L2 for responsibility is with S. learning activities. responsibility, imitation. Later role Promotes becomes independent reversal. communication among of T. Ss.3. Teaching/ Security, aggression, Comprehension Comprehension before Ss learn toLearning attention, reflection, before production. production. Developing communicate byProcess retention, Modelling by T model approximates L2 negotiating meaning in discrimination. Ss followed by (L1, . . . L2). Gradual real context. Activities initiate speech in L1, T performance. emergence of speech. include information supplies L2. Task oriented. gap, choice, feedback.4. Nature of Changes over time. T speaks, Ss respond S-centered. Both initiate T arranges tasks forstudent/teacher Importance placed on nonverbally. Later, interaction. S/S communication. S/Sinteraction? cooperative Ss verbalize. interaction in pair and interaction. relationship between small group activities. T/S and S/S.5. How are S viewed as whole Ss have fun in a Affective factors over Ss are motivated tostudents’ feelings person, no separation nonstressful cognitive factors. learn thru usefulness ofdealt with? of intellect and situation. Optimal learner has low language functions. feelings. T affective filter.
6. View of Language for Spoken over Language as a tool for Language in social ICPNA-Santyna july 2010language/ developing critical written. communication. context, forculture? thinking. Culture Language function over communication. integrated with linguistic form. language.7. What skills Ss determine syllabus Grammar and Vocabulary over Function over form.are emphasized? by what they what to vocabulary (initially grammar. Function over Discourse and say. via imperatives). form. Comprehension–e sociolinguistic Comprehension earlyproduction–s competence + all 4 precedes production. speech emergence. skills.8. Role of L1? Used in the Not used. L1 can be used in Generally not used. beginning, less in preproduction later stages. (comprehension) activities.9. How does Integrative tests. Self- By observation. Communicative Communicative tests.evaluation evaluation. effectiveness. Fluency Fluency and accuracy.occur? over accuracy. Task oriented.10. Treatment of Nonthreatening. Unobtrusive No error correction No error correctionerrors? Correction by correction. unless errors interfere unless errors interfere modelling. with communication. with communication.
ICPNA-Santyna july 2010 SKILLSRECEPTIVE PRODUCTIVELISTENING SPEAKINGREADING WRITING
LISTENING SKILL *Speaking does not itself constitute communication unless what is said is comprehended by another person *july 2010 ICPNA-Santyna
ICPNA-Santyna july 2010Why don`t we understand spokenEnglish? Linking sounds reductions stress rhythm Too many new words
ICPNA-Santyna july 2010 Language systemHow words are put How words are said inin order connected streams syntax phonology How words are strung together in texts discourse
ICPNA-Santyna july 2010TIPS TO KEEP IN MIND WHENTEACHING LISTENING1. CONTRACTIONS2. REPETITIONS3. HESITATIONS Learners need to know how to deal with these4. INTERRUPTIONS problems so listening5. ASSIMILATION would not frigthen them.6. ELISION7. LINKING8. STRESS
HESITATIONS ICPNA-Santyna july 2010 • Er-.-the sound that people frequently make when they pause in the middle of what they are saying or pauseWell before they speak, often because they are decidingWow what to say:YeahYea • ah / aah.-used to express understanding, pleasure,Hey pain, surprise. • Why.-used to express surprise or annoyance • uh .-a written representation of the sound that people sometimes make when they are thinking what to say next: • uh-huh .-a written representation of the sound that people sometimes make in order to give certainty to, agree with or show understanding of something that has just been said. • uh-oh .-a written representation of the sound that people make when they discover that they have made a mistake or done something wrong: • Um .- a written representation of a sound that people make when they are pausing or deciding what to say next.
ICPNA-Santyna july 2010Activity:this is a conversation and find in it examples of repetitions,hesitations and interruptions. Marco: What would you like your life to be in 20 years`time? Kathy: I`d like to be…I want to have a family…you know,a husband,three children,my… Marco: Would you be happy? Kathy: I`d be…I mean,yes.Yeah,sure,sure,of course.What about you? Marco: Erm,me,well,erm,er…MaybeI`d like to have a good…you know,to do a really interesting job…with lots of pay,of ocurse!
ICPNA-Santyna july 2010 ASSIMILATION.-when sounds influence thepronunciation of adjacent sounds.• bus-shelter / `bʌʃ ʃeltə /,• dress shop /`dreʃ ʃɒp/,• ice-show /`aɪʃ ʃəʊ/,• Miss Jones /mɪʃ `ʤəʊnz/,• S-shaped /`eʃ ʃeɪpt/ and• has she / `hæʒ ʃi
ICPNA-Santyna july 2010 ELISION.-when sounds are dropped (disappear) infast speech. • Blackguard • Christmas • Cupboard • Could Doug • take care • Ask Bob • Tell him
ICPNA-Santyna july 2010LINKING.-join sounds together.• Four eagles• I need you• help us.• Can you• take apples• like English• Solve each• To run a story
ICPNA-Santyna july 2010Assimilation,elision or linking? A A L L A A A E A L E E A E A
ICPNA-Santyna july 2010Spoken text typesCONVERSATIONS STORIES ANNOUNCEMENTS SONGS ADVERTISEMENTS INSTRUCTIONS LECTURES
ICPNA-Santyna july 2010 PROCESSES FOR A GOOD LISTENING ACTIVITY• BOTTOM-UP PROCESS.- to know how the sounds work , how English changes when it`s strung together in sentences.• TOP-DOWN PROCESS.-how our knowledge of social convention helps us understand meaning.
What involves ICPNA-Santyna july 2010active listening?
PROCEDURES ICPNA-Santyna july 2010• Pre-listening• While-listening• Post-listening
ICPNA-Santyna july 2010 HOW TO TEACH LISTENING TO ESL LEARNERS1. Choose something you think your students will like.2. Before bringing it to class.listen and ask yourself if there are any words that you`ll need to pre-teach.3. Activate your students`schemata with pictures related to the listening or ask questions about the content4. Once students are prepared,it is recommended to put the audio three times: a) students listen without a worksheet and figure out the global idea. b) students listen with handout in their hands and do the task. c)finally they listen again and check their ansers.5. Make sure the activities provide not only comprehension but also controlled to free ones.
ICPNA-Santyna july 2010PRACTICE TASK 2 a.Watch the video to see how the woman looks.How do you think 1. Listening for gist she feels? 2. Understanding 3 b.Listen to each pair of body language words.Say if they are the same 3. Listening for or different individual sounds 7 c.What town does Jim live in? 4. Listening for detail Listen and find out. 5. Listening for 4 d.Listen to the description of the sentence stress boy and the girl and draw them. 6. Extensive listening 5 e.Listen and underline the word 7. Listening for in the sentence that the speaker specific says most strongly. information 1 f.Listen to the story and decide what is the best title for it.
ICPNA-Santyna july 2010DIFFERENT TYPES OF LISTENING ACTIVITIES &
ICPNA-Santyna july 2010Many thanks to…• Relo Andes• ICPNA Chiclayo• University of Oregon• REFERENCES:• BRUMFIT, C & JOHNSON, K (1979): The Communicative Approach to Language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.• Harmer, Jeremy. How to teach English. Editorial Pearson