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  • 1. The Biology of Mind
  • 2.  
  • 3. Nervous System
    • Relays electrical signals through the body, directs behavior and movement and controls physiological processes
    • The nervous system can be broken down into two parts:
        • Central nervous system (CNS)
            • Brain and spinal cord
        • Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
            • Touch, taste, smell nerve cells
  • 4.  
  • 5. Peripheral Nervous System
    • Somatic Nervous System
        • Branch of the PNS that transmits sensory information to the CNS and carries out its motor commands
        • Afferent (sensory) neurons carry messages to the CNS
        • Efferent (motor) neurons carry messages from the CNS to the muscles of the body
    • Autonomic Nervous System
        • Branch of the PNS that carries messages between the CNS and internal organs (digestion, glucose release, respiration)
            • Sympathetic nervous system
            • Parasympathetic nervous system
  • 6.
    • 1) Sympathetic nervous system
        • Activates body’s “fight or flight” responses
        • Increased heart rate, dilated pupils, sweating, dry mouth, stops digestion
    • 2 ) Parasympathetic nervous system
        • Supports more mundane bodily functions
        • Regulates blood sugar levels, saliva production, waste management
    Autonomic Nervous System
  • 7.  
  • 8. Neural Communication
    • Neurons
      • Nerve cells found throughout the nervous system
      • Specialize in electrical and chemical communication
    • Neurotransmitters
      • Chemical messengers that “transmit” electrons/information across synaptic gaps of neurons then caught by receptor proteins on the next neuron/nerve cell
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  • 13. The Brain SECTION OF BRAIN FUNCTION Brain stem Receives information from the brain to control basic functions (heart rate, respiration, blood pressure, swallowing, coughing, sneezing, vomiting, etc) Thalamus Main information pathway between the brain and the spinal cord (like the phone jack in the back of your computer) Hypothalamus Control center for our body's homeostasis (regulates body temperature, appetite, thirst for water, desire for salt, etc). Cerebellum Keeps movements smooth and coordinated, helps maintain posture, muscle tone, and equilibrium/balance Cerebrum Intellect, speech, and memory
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  • 17. The Brain
    • Occipital Lobe
        • Specialized for vision
    • Parietal Lobe
        • Sense of touch, spatial orientation, awareness
    • Temporal Lobe
        • Hearing and language functions, visual pattern recognition
    • Frontal lobe
        • Movement, attention, planning, abstract thinking
  • 18. The Brain
    • Hemispheric specialization
        • Each hemisphere control the opposite side of the body
        • Right hemisphere = excels at spatial function
        • Left hemisphere = speaking, language, math
  • 19. Limbic System
    • Area of the brain that involves emotion and motivation
    • Fully developed only in mammals
    • Consists of:
        • Amygdala - emotional processes; attaches emotional significance to emotional events)
        • Hypothalamus - regulates the autonomic system
        • Hippocampus - memory, storing new information
  • 20.  
  • 21. Endocrine System
    • Collection of glands throughout the body that secrete chemicals (called hormones) directly into bloodstream
    • Guide metabolism, growth, and sexual development
    • Hypothalamus links brain to pituitary gland which in turn activates other glands in endocrine system
    • Hormones such as adrenaline/noradrenalin trigger physiological arousal (re: danger)
        • Hormones (adrenaline) are similar to neurotransmitters (norepinephrine) related to anxiety/fear
        • Endocrine system uses hormone secretion to “broadcast” via bloodstream (highway) vs. neurotransmitters which “talk” to one neuron then another in rapid succession
  • 22. Brain Technology
    • ESB
        • Electronic stimulation of the brain (in animals)
        • Electrode planted in an area of the brain to stimulate that region (IV) to determine any changes in behavior (DV)
    • EEG
        • Used to study electrical activity of the brain
        • Electrodes placed on scalp and brain becomes “mapped” as areas “light up”
    • CAT
        • Computerized axial tomography (MRI, PET)
        • Assembles three dimensional picture of brain from x-rays
        • Detection of abnormalities of mass (tumors)
  • 23. Brain Disorders
    • Delirium
        • Disturbance of brain metabolic function
        • Symptoms include disorientation, hallucinating, disturbed sleep, incoherent speech
        • Treatment entails removing the underlying cause, detoxification, rehydration, etc.
        • Common in dying patients as organs shut down
  • 24.
    • Dementia
        • Loss of mental capacity in adulthood
        • “ Senile dementia” = 10 - 20% of people > 65 years
        • Causes include Alzheimer’s disease, vascular problems, alcoholism, paresis
        • Symptoms include poor awareness of time, depression, paranoia, parts of the brain maintaining everyday functions shut down (incontinence)
    Brain Disorders
  • 25.
    • Alzheimer’s Disease
        • Progressive and incurable
        • Cause by tangled neurons that disrupt functioning of the cortex
        • Low level of neurotransmitters (ACH) which plays a role in memory function
        • Neurons in the brain are destroyed, severely impairing memory, reasoning, perception, language, behavior, etc.
        • Genetic causes (chromosome 21)?
    Brain Disorders