<ul><li>Makes 2 claims: </li></ul><ul><li>Human and non-human activity occurs as a consequence of our evolutionary history...
The interaction of physical characteristics with environment can influence psychological characteristics… … thus genes may...
Darwin (1859)  Theory of Natural Selection <ul><li>Surviving organisms have a genetic or physical trait allowing them to a...
From a physiological point of view, emotions are understood from studying physical structures and processes in our cerebra...
The Nervous System Brain, spinal cord and nerve fibres communicating with sense organs, muscles, glands and internal organs
Neurons <ul><li>The nervous system consists of 100 billion nerve cells (neurons) </li></ul><ul><li>80% of these are found ...
Sensory neurons Carry information from sense organs to CNS Motor neurons Carry information from CNS to muscles and glands ...
Cell Body with nucleus Cell Body (Soma):  Controlling centre Dendrites Dendrites:  Branch from cell body, make electrochem...
<ul><li>Neurons do not touch each other. The gap between is known as the SYNAPSE. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical messengers (n...
Electrical signal moves down  axon to terminal button Synapse Dendrite or cell body of next neuron has receptor sites for ...
<ul><li>In the spinal cord a neuron may have an axon of 2-3 feet long (tip of spine to big toe) </li></ul><ul><li>In the b...
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) The brain and the spinal cord Integrate and co-ordinate all bodily  functions and behaviour
The Brain <ul><li>Divided into two halves- cerebral hemispheres </li></ul><ul><li>Outer layer called cerebral cortex (1cm ...
The Brain Parietal lobe Occipital Lobe Temporal Lobe Cerebellum
Find out the function of each of the four lobes of the brain using class resources
Cerebral cortex Corpus callosum Midbrain Cerebellum Spinal cord Medulla Pons Pituitary Thallamus Hypo-thallamus
Use the class text books to complete the brain part and function worksheet Familiarise yourself with the structure of the ...
Branches of Peripheral Nervous System SNS: Voluntary actions of the skeletal muscles (running, writing). Receives info. fr...
ANS: Regulation of internal organs (e.g heart and glands). Functions performed without conscious voluntary control (except...
Sympathetic: -Takes over in emergencies (fight or flight syndrome) -Uses energy Parasympathetic: -Dominant when body is at...
Sympathetic Parasympathetic Dilates pupils Constricts pupils Inhibits salivation Stimulates salivation Accelerates  breath...
These effects are produced in two ways: -direct neural stimulation by body organs -stimulating the release of hormones fro...
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1. Physiology

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1. Physiology

  1. 1. <ul><li>Makes 2 claims: </li></ul><ul><li>Human and non-human activity occurs as a consequence of our evolutionary history </li></ul><ul><li>(Evolutionary psychology) </li></ul><ul><li>All thoughts, emotions and behaviours can be traced to physical events in the nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>(Physiological Psychology) </li></ul>Physiological Psychology ‘ Physiology and genetics cause us to think, feel and behave as we do’
  2. 2. The interaction of physical characteristics with environment can influence psychological characteristics… … thus genes may indirectly affect all human behaviour EVOLUTION Biological process through which species emerge as a consequence of gradual alterations to genetics of existing species
  3. 3. Darwin (1859) Theory of Natural Selection <ul><li>Surviving organisms have a genetic or physical trait allowing them to adapt to a changed environment </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals with the adaptation more likely to reproduce successfully </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptions (variations) are passed on over time until new adapted species is so different that a new species has evolved </li></ul><ul><li>The surviving individuals have genetically adapted a physical characteristic/ behaviour to fit changed environment </li></ul>
  4. 4. From a physiological point of view, emotions are understood from studying physical structures and processes in our cerebral cortex and nervous system, which cause physiological arousal, and in turn, move us to action! Darwin (1872) Expressions of Emotions in Man and Animals ‘ Emotions are innate, unlearned responses. Expression of emotions is a result of genetics which construct our physiology’
  5. 5. The Nervous System Brain, spinal cord and nerve fibres communicating with sense organs, muscles, glands and internal organs
  6. 6. Neurons <ul><li>The nervous system consists of 100 billion nerve cells (neurons) </li></ul><ul><li>80% of these are found in the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Information is passed from neurone to neurone by electrochemical impulses </li></ul><ul><li>Neurons come in various shapes and sizes but have a similar overall structure </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sensory neurons Carry information from sense organs to CNS Motor neurons Carry information from CNS to muscles and glands Interneurons Connect neurones. Receive info from sensory neurones and transmit to motor neutrones
  8. 8. Cell Body with nucleus Cell Body (Soma): Controlling centre Dendrites Dendrites: Branch from cell body, make electrochemical contact with other neurons, carry info to cell body Axon Axon: Thin cylinder projecting away from cell body, carrying received signals to other neurons Myelin Sheath Myelin Sheath: Fatty substance, insulates axon from interference from other neurons. Speeds up rate of signal conduction Terminal buttons Terminal Buttons: Contain neurotransmitters
  9. 9. <ul><li>Neurons do not touch each other. The gap between is known as the SYNAPSE. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical messengers (neurotransmitters) released from the terminal buttons transfer the electrical impulse from one cell to the next. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of neurotransmitters are: </li></ul><ul><li>Serotonin, acetylcholine and dopamine </li></ul><ul><li>Serotonin affects emotional arousal and sleep patterns. Deficiencies have been linked to mood disorders e.g. depression. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Electrical signal moves down axon to terminal button Synapse Dendrite or cell body of next neuron has receptor sites for the neurotransmitter Electrical signal causes vesicles to release neurotransmitters
  11. 11. <ul><li>In the spinal cord a neuron may have an axon of 2-3 feet long (tip of spine to big toe) </li></ul><ul><li>In the brain it may only be one thousandth of an inch long </li></ul><ul><li>A bundle of elongated axons from hundreds/ thousands of neurons forms a nerve </li></ul><ul><li>Nerves spread to every part of the body and connect with sense receptors, skin, muscle and internal organs </li></ul><ul><li>This is collectively called the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) </li></ul>
  12. 12. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) The brain and the spinal cord Integrate and co-ordinate all bodily functions and behaviour
  13. 13. The Brain <ul><li>Divided into two halves- cerebral hemispheres </li></ul><ul><li>Outer layer called cerebral cortex (1cm thick at it’s deepest and grey in colour) </li></ul><ul><li>Has many folds to increase surface area and fit into skull </li></ul><ul><li>Underneath the cortex is the cerebrum (white tissue) made of axons (the cortex is cell bodies) </li></ul><ul><li>The cortex is divided into lobes according to their functions </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Brain Parietal lobe Occipital Lobe Temporal Lobe Cerebellum
  15. 15. Find out the function of each of the four lobes of the brain using class resources
  16. 16. Cerebral cortex Corpus callosum Midbrain Cerebellum Spinal cord Medulla Pons Pituitary Thallamus Hypo-thallamus
  17. 17. Use the class text books to complete the brain part and function worksheet Familiarise yourself with the structure of the brain
  18. 18. Branches of Peripheral Nervous System SNS: Voluntary actions of the skeletal muscles (running, writing). Receives info. from the outside world via the sense organs. SNS- Somatic Nervous System ANA- Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic Parasympathetic
  19. 19. ANS: Regulation of internal organs (e.g heart and glands). Functions performed without conscious voluntary control (except bladder and bowel) Controlled by two branches: Sympathetic Parasympathetic
  20. 20. Sympathetic: -Takes over in emergencies (fight or flight syndrome) -Uses energy Parasympathetic: -Dominant when body is at rest and energy is being built up The two branches work oppositely, but both are necessary for balance (homeostasis).
  21. 21. Sympathetic Parasympathetic Dilates pupils Constricts pupils Inhibits salivation Stimulates salivation Accelerates breathing Slows breathing Increases heartbeat Slows heartbeat Inhibits digestion Stimulates digestion Inhibits bladder contraction Contracts bladder
  22. 22. These effects are produced in two ways: -direct neural stimulation by body organs -stimulating the release of hormones from endocrine glands In both cases the hypothalamus is the orchestrator

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