Units 20+21


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Units 20+21

  1. 1. Memory
  2. 2. Memory <ul><li>Amount of previously learned material that has been retained </li></ul><ul><li>Involves (1) encoding, (2) storage, and (3)retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Memory is a net, not a bucket </li></ul><ul><li>Memory = retention </li></ul>
  3. 5. Memory <ul><li>Redintegration </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assembling a complete memory based on partial cues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Essay exam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Recall </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat what has been previously learned without cues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short-answer tests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Original content presented and subject identifies whether or not it is correct </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple choice and/or true-false tests </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 6. Standard Model of Memory
  5. 7. Memory <ul><li>Sensory registers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encoding of information retrieved through senses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holds information about a stimulus only a few seconds at best </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iconic (visual) memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Echoic (auditory) memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Haptic (cutaneous) memory </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 8. Memory <ul><li>Short-term memory (STM) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>STM takes over when information in sensory memory transferred to consciousness/awareness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited capacity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>STM memories easy to access and retrieve </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance rehearsal (repetition) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elaborative rehearsal (add meaning) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Memory <ul><li>Short-term memory (con’t) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Displacement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short term memory becomes full as other bits of information enter STM </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New information will push out older information </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>1 4 9 1 6 2 5 3 6 4 9 6 4 8 1 </li></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>How is information stored in STM? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Primacy effect – information occurring first is remembered better than information occurring later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Recency effect – information presented last is sometimes remembered better because not as much time has passed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) Serial position effect – information most likely to be remembered is what comes first and and last, while what is most likely to be forgotten is whatever is crowded in the middle </li></ul></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>How is information stored in STM? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4) Frequency effect – rehearsal, rehearsal, rehearsal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5) Distinctiveness – any distinctive information stands out from other information around it and is remembered better  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6) Associations – associating/attaching information to other information </li></ul></ul>
  12. 15. Memory <ul><li>Long-term memory (LTM) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enduring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May last a lifetime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unlimited capacity? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LTM memories harder to access/retrieve </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 16. Memory <ul><li>Subcategories of LTM </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Declarative memory = Memories for facts, life events, information about environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic memory = Factual knowledge about world (names, dates, #s) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Episodic memory = Tied to specific events, situations (“flashbulb memories”) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 17. Memory <ul><li>Subcategories of LTM (con’t) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implicit memory = Memories expressed in behavior but do not require conscious recollection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural memory = “How to” knowledge of procedures or skills (ride a bike, tie a shoe, drive a car) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prospective memory = Remembering things that need to be done in the future (“remembering to remember”) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 18. Forgetting <ul><li>Passive decay </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memory loss associated with lack of use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can occur in LTM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Encoding failure </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information never consolidated beyond initial sensory register stage </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 19. Forgetting <ul><li>Retrieval failure </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty accessing LTM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Tip of the tongue” phenomenon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Repression </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unconscious motive to forget an emotionally traumatic memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pain/trauma of some experience creates a mental block preventing retrieval of that memory </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 20. Forgetting <ul><li>Retrograde amnesia </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to recall memories of the past ( The Bourne Identity) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can form new LTM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Anterograde amnesia </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to form new LTM ( Memento ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New events contained in STM are not transferred to LTM memory </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 21. Forgetting <ul><li>Causes of amnesia </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Damage to hippocampus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acute stress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neurodegenerative causes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dementia, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 22. Forgetting
  20. 23. Memory <ul><li>Improving memory </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mnemonics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adding additional cues for retrieval </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acronyms = PEMDAS, GRE, Roy G. Bv </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Geography” = G eorge E agle’s O ld G randmother R ode A P ig H ome Y esterday </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eidetic images </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pairing semantic memories w/visual cues </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Method of loci </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 24. <ul><li>Best practices for improving memory? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spaced practice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sleeping right after learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mood congruence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental restructuring </li></ul></ul></ul>Memory