Cognition and Intelligence
Cognition   <ul><li>Mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, and remembering   </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas, though...
Cognition <ul><li>Categorization </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural groupings based on common properties ( Jeopardy ) </li>...
 
NAGAMAR SLEVO STINGIH UNOSB KITNH MIECOVHH
 
 
Problem Solving <ul><li>Heuristics </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive shortcuts for selecting among  alternatives without...
Problem Solving <ul><li>Confirmation Bias </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tendency to search/recall information that supports pr...
Intelligence <ul><li>Achievement tests </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measure what you’ve already learned  </li></ul></ul></ul>...
 
Intelligence <ul><li>Autistic-savant  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scoring extremely low on IQ tests but demonstrate extraord...
Intelligence <ul><li>Multiple Intelligences </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a)  Musical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b)  ...
Creativity <ul><li>Defined as “divergent problem solving” </li></ul><ul><li>How do we operationalize creativity? </li></ul...
Creativity <ul><li>Moderately correlated with intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Not all highly-intelligent people are creativ...
Intelligence <ul><li>What is the operational definition for intelligence?  </li></ul><ul><li>What two factors influence IQ...
 
Intelligence <ul><li>Are IQ tests reliable?  Valid? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do IQ tests get a bad rap? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul...
Intelligence <ul><li>Fluid knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to draw analogies, recognize patterns, solve novel ...
Action <ul><li>Options in the decision-making process </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Routine behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><...
Action <ul><li>Decision making can produce conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Approach-approach decisions </li></ul></ul><...
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Units 22+24

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Units 22+24

  1. 1. Cognition and Intelligence
  2. 2. Cognition <ul><li>Mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, and remembering </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas, thoughts, concept formation, logic and reasoning, problem solving, decision making </li></ul><ul><li>“ Meta-cognition” – thinking about thinking; thought control </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cognition <ul><li>Categorization </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural groupings based on common properties ( Jeopardy ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Animals” is a category with many concepts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Concept </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A mental representation of a category (“prototypes”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Chicken” = farm animal, small, feathers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 5. NAGAMAR SLEVO STINGIH UNOSB KITNH MIECOVHH
  5. 8. Problem Solving <ul><li>Heuristics </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive shortcuts for selecting among alternatives without carefully considering each one </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for rapid and efficient (but sometimes) misleading judgments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Representative heuristic, availability heuristic </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 9. Problem Solving <ul><li>Confirmation Bias </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tendency to search/recall information that supports preconceived (biased) beliefs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to interpretation of ambiguous evidence to supporting existing opinions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The more emotionally involved you are with a belief, the more likely you will ignore facts/arguments that tend to undermine it </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: “Remember the hits and forget the misses”, psychic readings, Hussein/WMD </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 10. Intelligence <ul><li>Achievement tests </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measure what you’ve already learned </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading recognition, spelling, arithmetic, computation (scholastic exam) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Aptitude tests </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goal is to test how you will do in the future (prediction) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measures how you apply existing information into a new scenario (career placement exam, IQ tests) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 12. Intelligence <ul><li>Autistic-savant </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scoring extremely low on IQ tests but demonstrate extraordinary mental abilities in a specific area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not all individuals with autism are savants ( Rain Man ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estimated prevalence of savant abilities in autism ~10% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not all individuals with low IQ are savants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estimated prevalence ~1% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 13. Intelligence <ul><li>Multiple Intelligences </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a) Musical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b) Kinesthetic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c) Spatial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>d) Verbal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e) Logical/Mathematical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>f) Intra-personal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>g) Interpersonal </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 14. Creativity <ul><li>Defined as “divergent problem solving” </li></ul><ul><li>How do we operationalize creativity? </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing creativity? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persistence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 15. Creativity <ul><li>Moderately correlated with intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Not all highly-intelligent people are creative! </li></ul><ul><li>Impediments </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Functional fixedness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Habitual set </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 16. Intelligence <ul><li>What is the operational definition for intelligence? </li></ul><ul><li>What two factors influence IQ? </li></ul><ul><li>History of the IQ test </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1904: Binet developed first IQ test in France to rate child intelligence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1916: IQ test later modified at Stanford University </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IQ = (mental age/chronological age) x 100 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 18. Intelligence <ul><li>Are IQ tests reliable? Valid? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do IQ tests get a bad rap? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of theoretical basis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural bias </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only measures certain types of intelligence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Merely tests your test-taking abilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How can we test life intelligence? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is intelligence? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 19. Intelligence <ul><li>Fluid knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to draw analogies, recognize patterns, solve novel problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As age increases, this type of intelligence decreases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Crystallized knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is your knowledge base </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary, geography, general world knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 20. Action <ul><li>Options in the decision-making process </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Routine behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>External referral </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intentional randomization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affect (emotional) referral </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lexicographic approach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conjunctive (elimination-by-aspects) approach </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 21. Action <ul><li>Decision making can produce conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Approach-approach decisions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidant-avoidant decisions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Approach-avoidant decisions </li></ul></ul></ul>

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