Units 5+7

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Units 5+7

  1. 1. Consciousness and Drugs
  2. 2. Consciousness <ul><li>Selective Attention </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focusing/conscious awareness on a particular stimulus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Cocktail party phenomenon” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Selective Inattention </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Inattentional blindness” (or, ‘gorillas in the midst’) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We also divert our attention from information that (while relevant) might be emotionally upsetting </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Sleep <ul><li>Circadian rhythm </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cyclical biological process revolving around daily cycles of light and dark </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During periods of darkness, pineal gland produces sleep-inducing hormones (melatonin) that diminish during the day </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Sleep Stages
  5. 5. Sleep <ul><li>Sleep patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infants sleep 2/3 of every day; Adults sleep about 1/3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sleep deprivation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces functioning of immune system and concentration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases production of stress hormones (cortisol) which create body fat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rats deprived of sleep die after two weeks </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Sleep <ul><li>Common sleep disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Narcolepsy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sleep apnea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Night terrors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sleepwalking, sleepeating </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teeth grinding </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Sleep <ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic inability to fall asleep, stay asleep, or feel fully rested </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affects ~6% of men and ~15% of women </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Treatments” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many sleeping pills significantly disrupts sleep patterns </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modify sleep schedule so that you get up and go to sleep at roughly the same times each day </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain exercise regime, relax half an hour before bed, avoid bright lights          </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Sleep <ul><li>Narcolepsy </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive daytime sleepiness and/or sudden, uncontrollable lapses into sleep during the day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sudden loss of muscle tone, can lead to collapse, and REM sleep </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Currently no known cure </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Sleep <ul><li>Sleep apnea </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repeatedly choking and gasping during sleep </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can occur 300-500 times per night, often with no recollection of waking up </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soft tissue in the back of the throat relaxes, causing airway blockage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disrupts sleep rhythms, less time in deep, restorative sleep (lack of REM sleep), leads to diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, weight gain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treatments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surgery to remove sagging or excess tissue in throat </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pressurized oxygen mask (CPAP) to keep airway open </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Sleep <ul><li>Lifestyle changes that can help sleep apnea </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lose weight. Even a small amount of weight loss can open up throat and improve apnea symptoms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quit smoking. Smoking increases inflammation and fluid retention in throat and upper airway </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid alcohol, sleeping pills, and sedatives as they relax muscles in the throat and interfere with breathing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain regular sleep hours.   Apnea episodes decrease with plenty of sleep. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Sleep <ul><li>Night terrors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sit up in bed with terrified screams and thrashing around </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ends abruptly and individual returns to sleep often with no recollection of what happened </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually occurs during Stage 4 sleep </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Note: nightmares occur during REM sleep </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typically affects children </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As we grow older and spend less time in Stage 4 sleep, night terrors diminish </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Sleep <ul><li>Sleepeating </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual is unaware of their behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roaming the house, particularly the kitchen, eating large quantities of food (as well as non-food items) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food consumed tend to be high in sugar/fat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Odd combinations (potato chips with peanut butter, butter and hot dogs) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affects ~1-3% of population </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 15. Sleep <ul><li>Sleepeating </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often a symptom of a larger underlying issue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High correlation with eating disorders and other anxiety disorders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treatments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stress management </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Therapy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limit caffeine and alcohol consumption </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benzodiazapines (to reduce motor function at night) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Altered States <ul><li>More altered states of consciousness </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meditation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypnosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drug-induced states </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Drugs <ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dependence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical and psychological </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawal </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Drugs <ul><li>Depressants </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol, barbiturates/tranquilizers, morphine/heroin (opiates) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creates disinhibition, slows neural processing, interferes processing of STM to LTM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Stimulants </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methamphetamine, caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, ecstasy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temporarily excite neural activity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hallucinogens </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LSD, marijuana </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distort perceptions and evoke sensory images </li></ul></ul></ul>

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