Research Design and Proposal Writing

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After this session you will be able to

Understand what is meant by research design
What is a proposal
Why to write a proposal
How to write a proposal

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Research Design and Proposal Writing

  1. 1. 9-Jul-13 Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore
  2. 2. 9-Jul-13 Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore
  3. 3. Session Objectives  After this session you will be able to ◦ Understand what is meant by research design ◦ What is a proposal ◦ Why to write a proposal ◦ How to write a proposal Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore9-Jul-13
  4. 4. Session Outline Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore  Research design  Introduction  Purpose statement  Objectives of the research  Significance of the study  Methodology and Methods  Research questions and hypothesis  limitations and delimitation  Ethical consideration Proposal  why proposal  Structure of proposal 9-Jul-13
  5. 5. RESEARCH DESIGN A plan of what data to gather, from whom, how and when to collect the data, and how to analyze the data obtained  Components of Research Design 1. Introduction 2. Purpose statement 3. Objectives of the research 4. Significance of the study 5. Methodology and Methods 6. Research questions and hypothesis 7. Limitations and delimitation
  6. 6. 1. The Introduction 9-Jul-13 Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore  Components of introduction ◦ Background of the study ◦ The research problem ◦ Studies that have addressed the problem ◦ Deficiencies in the studies ◦ The significance of the study Introduction is the opening part of the proposal that justifies the problem to be researched and clarifies the significance of the proposed study in order to establish a base for research.
  7. 7. 2. Purpose Statement Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore The purpose statement indicates “why you want to do the study and what you intend to accomplish”(Locke et al, 2000) Why Purpose Statement It is the most important statement in an entire research study. • It conveys the overall intention of a proposed study. • It establishes the direction for the research. Qualitative Research In qualitative research we use the worlds like explore, understand, or discover and we have focus on single phenomena. Quantitative Research In quantitative research we use words like determine, identify, or compare and we have focus on comparing and relating two or more variables. Mixed Methods Research In Mixed methods research we focus on both qualitative and quantitative research and mention the design with rationale9-Jul-13
  8. 8. 3.Objectives of the study 9-Jul-13 Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore Objectives can be  Main objectives  Sub objectives Objectives are the steps you are going to take to answer your research questions to fulfill the purpose of the research study
  9. 9. Significance of the study 9-Jul-13 Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore  A significance sections elaborates on the importance and implication of a study for researcher, practitioners, and policy maker. In designing the section one might include ◦ 3 or 4 ways in which the study adds to scholarly research and literature in the field ◦ 3 or 4 ways in which the study helps improve practice ◦ 3 or 4 reasons why the study will improve policy
  10. 10. Methodology and Methods The methodology includes the methods, procedures, and techniques used to collect and analyze information. It should generally include statements about: ◦ Site and sample ◦ Methods of data collection ◦ Data analysis procedures Why Methodology ◦ it clarifies the procedures and methods of data collection and analysis ◦ It increases the efficiency and authenticity of the research Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore9-Jul-13
  11. 11. Theory 9-Jul-13 Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore Theory is the standard principle that defines the relationship of two or more variables Qualitative Research: In case of qualitative research theory is an outcome of the whole research process by finding the answers to the research questions Quantitative Research In case of quantitative research theory is used as bases to be verified through the acceptance or rejection of hypothesis using statistical results. Mixed Methods Research in case of Mixed Methods Research theory is both developed and also verified.
  12. 12. Research Questions and Hypothesis  Research questions are interrogative statements or questions that the researcher seeks to answer  Hypothesis are predictive statements that the researcher holds about the relationship among variables to be tested 9-Jul-13 Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore
  13. 13. Limitations and Delimitations  Limitations: possible weaknesses of the study that were not / could not be controlled.  Delimitations: boundaries set by the researcher that limit the generalizability of findings. 9-Jul-13 Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore
  14. 14. Ethical Considerations 9-Jul-13 Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore Ethics are the standards of behavior to be adopted while interacting to other people during research in a way that  People must be respected and seen not as passive sources of data but as people whose rights and welfare must be protected.  Physical risk, psychological harm must be minimized.  Risks and benefits from studies should be distributed fairly and evenly in populations.Why Ethical Considerations The aim of discussing research ethics is to encourage integrity in the conduct of business Research and practices among of scientists, scholars, and professionals
  15. 15. 9-Jul-13 Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore
  16. 16. Course Objectives  To introduce the basic philosophical and methodological approaches currently used as a foundation for research in Business, Management and Social Sciences.  To discuss critically the conventional distinction between “quantitative and qualitative” research and its usefulness in planning and evaluating research.  To develop the skills of literature review and critical analysis of research reports by giving practical exposure to locating literature and reviewing critically by argumentation, reading analysis and mapping.  To provide a comprehensive knowledge about the research design including introduction, purpose statement, research questions, hypothesis, use of theory limitations and significance for the development of rationale in research.  To provide a comprehensive understanding about quantitative research and develop their skills in different areas like operationalization, quantitative methods and ensure the reliability 9-Jul-13 Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore
  17. 17. Cont….  To make a clear understanding for the use of SPSS (which is related to their previous course “Quantitative Techniques”).  To provide a comprehensive understanding about qualitative research and develop their skills in using valid and reliable qualitative methods.  To discuss various ways of designing research which focuses on the purpose of research, the use of theory and the research significance, its limitations and delimitations.  To present a range of ethical issues relevant to the conduct and publication of research.  To give an introduction of Nvivo (for qualitative data analysis). 9-Jul-13 Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore
  18. 18. Classification Topics Knowledge and Comprehension At the end of this module, successful students will be able to demonstrate the knowledge of: A range of methodological approaches and philosophical assumptions to organizational and professional research. Ways of formulating and defining business and management research problems, significance or limitations. Understanding of Literature Review and critical Analysis Issues in, and methods of, research design. The importance of ethics and values in business research. The requirements for effective analysis and interpretation of quantitative, qualitative data and mixed methods. Application and Skills At the end of this module, the successful students will be able to: Make informed decisions about different research approaches, strategies, design and methods which are relevant to different purposes To write a literature review related to business research problems. To conduct interviews and interpret them to develop results. To conduct surveys and develop analysis & interpretation of them. Write a successful research proposal which outlines and evaluates the research process and method(s) most appropriate to investigate the student’s own research questions/subject. Analysis and Synthesis At the end of this module successful students will be able to: Critically evaluate the range of qualitative and quantitative data and information collection strategies in a meaningful manner to solve problems. To analyze the research and findings of other people. Analyze the quantitative & Qualitative data for interpretation of results. 9-Jul-13 Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore
  19. 19. Final Assignment TO DEVELOP A RESEARCH PROPOSAL FOR AN APPROVED RESEARCH PROBLEM Guidelines and Assessment Criteria: Write a research proposal for a specific project of research, addressing in an analytical way, the following issues: (a) Abstract (b) Aims of the investigation: Including the need for / value of the research (c) Problem formulation: Relevant social / business context Main research questions / hypotheses Brief summary of theoretical / conceptual bases of the project Target population of interest (d) Selective literature review: Brief summary (max. 3000 words) of the areas to be addressed, and of illustrative resources, including selective bibliography in recognized format (e) Initial choice of methodological approach * and research strategy (ies) (f) Fieldwork: An outline (only) of plans for methods of data production / sources, and for negotiating access (g) Research design: Outline of plans for indicators / descriptors for key concepts Methods for ruling out alternative explanations (or descriptions) Sampling procedures / selection of cases (organizations or individuals) (h) Discussion of issues of validity and reliability – or alternative criteria for research quality (to be clearly specified) (i) Ethical and other commitments: Brief discussion of any major ethical or legal dilemma and political or organizational constraints etc. 9-Jul-13 Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore
  20. 20. Presentation  The aim of the presentation is to allow students to gain constructive feedback from their peers regarding their comparative reports as well as allowing them to demonstrate their presentation skills. The structure of the presentation will largely mirror the structure of the report and thus contain the comparison on the basis of three basic research approaches i.e. qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods.  Points to consider when marking presentations are: ◦ Timing of presentation. ◦ Clarity of concepts. ◦ Structure of the presentation. ◦ Quality of overheads, handouts etc. ◦ Application of theory to practice. ◦ Ability to answer questions effectively. ◦ Use of sources of information. Criteria of Assessment  Clarity and conciseness of your specification of various aspects of the proposal.  The relation of details of your research design specifically to the aims of your particular study (That is, credit will not be given for the production of generalities about research design that are unrelated to any particular study).  Justification of key decisions made.  Completeness of coverage of guidelines. 9-Jul-13 Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore
  21. 21. Weighting: 20 Marks ◦ Guidelines (a,b,c) (5% + 5% + 15%) 25% ◦ Guidelines (d,e) 15% ◦ Guidelines (f,g) 40% ◦ Guideline (h) 10% ◦ Presentation (including bibliography in a recognized format) 10% Length:  Maximum 6000 words, plus references (at most 10) in selective bibliography (based on selective literature review). Weightage: 30% (project: 20%, presentation: 10%) Due dates: 13th Week Short Working Draft: 11th Week  (This draft only: max. 2000 words, submitted electronically to module tutor by the time announced; any draft submitted after that would not be given any feedback). Final Draft: To be announced later. 9. Reference Material 9-Jul-13 Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore
  22. 22. 9-Jul-13 22 Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore
  23. 23. Proposal Proposal is the written document that describes the topic, Problem, design, and methodologies to be adopted to conduct the proposed research. Why Proposal The development of proposal for any research study is essential because • It allows the researcher to plan and review the steps of the project. • It serves as a guide throughout the investigation. • It forces time and budget estimates 9-Jul-13 23 Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore
  24. 24. Outline of the structure of a proposal 1. Title 2. Introduction • Background of the study (Sectoral Brief) • The research problem • Studies that have addressed the problem • Deficiencies in the studies • The significance of the study • The purpose statement 3. Purpose • The purpose or study, aim of the project and reasons for the research design • The research questions and hypotheses 4. Philosophical Foundations worldview and philosophical assumptions for using specific research approach. 5. Literature Review 9-Jul-13 24 Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore
  25. 25. Outline of the structure of a proposal 6. Methodology and Methods • Site and sample • Data collection procedures • Data analysis procedures 7. Potential Ethical issues 8. Reference and appendixes 9-Jul-13 25 Azra Naheed Center for Research and Development Superior University Lahore

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