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Dr. Hafiz Kosar
• Research
• Designing and Conducting
Quantitative Research
• Selecting and Defining
Research Problem
Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze
information to increase our understanding of a topic or
issue.
At a general level, research consists of three steps:
Pose a
question.
Collect data to
answer the
question.
Present an answer
to the question
• This should be a familiar process. You engage in solving problems
every day and you start with a question, collect some information,
and then form an answer.
• Although there are a few more steps in research than these three,
this is the overall framework for research.
• When you examine a published study, or conduct your own study,
you will find these three parts as the core elements.
• Not all educators have an understanding and appreciation of
research.
Quantitative research is a methodological approach used in the
social sciences and other fields to collect, analyze, and interpret
numerical data. Here are some salient features of quantitative
research:
1.Objective and Empirical: Quantitative research is focused on
gathering objective, measurable data that can be analyzed
statistically. It relies on empirical evidence rather than subjective
opinions or interpretations.
2.Numerical Data: This research method involves the collection of
numerical data, often in the form of statistics, percentages, or
numerical measurements. The data can be subjected to statistical
analysis for patterns and trends.
.
3. Structured Research Design: Quantitative studies typically
have a structured and predetermined research design. The research
process is planned in advance, and the data collection instruments,
such as surveys or experiments, are carefully designed.
4. Large Sample Size: Quantitative research often requires a large
sample size to ensure statistical reliability and generalizability of
findings to a broader population. The goal is to make inferences
about the population based on the data collected from the sample.
5. Statistical Analysis: Statistical methods and techniques, such
as descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, and correlation
analysis, are commonly used in quantitative research. These
analyses help researchers draw conclusions and make predictions
about the population under study.
6.Replicable and Generalizable Results: The aim of quantitative
research is to produce results that are replicable and can be
generalized to a larger population. This contributes to the scientific
rigor and validity of the findings.
7. Closed-Ended Questions: Data collection instruments, such as
surveys or questionnaires, often use closed-ended questions with
predefined response options. This facilitates the quantification of
responses and simplifies the analysis process.
8.Controlled Environment: In experimental quantitative
research, efforts are made to control and manipulate variables to
isolate cause-and-effect relationships. This allows researchers to
make more precise statements about the impact of independent
variables on dependent variables.
9.Objective Measurement: Quantitative research relies on
objective measurements and standardized data collection methods
to ensure consistency and reduce bias in the data.
10.Cross-Sectional or Longitudinal Design: Quantitative studies
can be cross-sectional, examining data at a single point in time, or
longitudinal, collecting data over an extended period to observe
changes and trends over time.
These features collectively contribute to the systematic and rigorous
nature of quantitative research, allowing researchers to draw
meaningful conclusions based on numerical evidence.
The process of designing and conducting a quantitative research study involves a
comprehensive and systematic approach to ensure the validity and reliability of
the findings. This process can be broken down into several key stages, combining
the elements from both the design and conduct aspects:
3. Formulate
Hypotheses
Develop clear, specific, and testable hypotheses based
on the refined research question.
2. Review the
Literature
Conduct an extensive review of existing literature to
identify gaps and refine the research question.
Understand the current state of knowledge on the
topic to inform the stu
1. Define the
Research Problem
Clearly articulate the research problem or question,
ensuring specificity and measurability. Formulate a
hypothesis or hypotheses that align with the research
question.
5. Choose a
Research Design
7. Develop Research
Instruments
Create valid and reliable tools for data collection (surveys,
questionnaires, experimental tasks). Ensure that the
instruments align with the operationalized variables.
Select an appropriate research design (experimental,
quasi-experimental, or non-experimental) based on the
research question and nature of variables.
6. Select the
Sampling Method
Determine the target population and choose a suitable
sampling method (random, convenience, purposive.
Consider sample size calculations to ensure statistical
power.
4.Operationalize
Variables
Clearly define and operationalize the variables,
specifying how they will be measured or manipulated.
9.Collect Data
11.Interpret Results Interpret the results in the context of research questions and
hypotheses Discuss the broader implications and
significance of findings.
Implement the research plan and collect data according to
the chosen research design. Maintain consistency and
accuracy in data collection procedures.
10. Data Analysis Choose appropriate statistical methods for analyzing data
(descriptive and inferential). Use statistical software for
accurate and efficient analysis.
8. Pilot Test
Conduct a pilot test to identify and address any issues
with research instruments or procedures. Ensure the
reliability and validity of measures before full-scale
implementation.
.
.12.Draw Conclusions: Based on interpretation, draw conclusions regarding
the support or refutation of hypotheses. Discuss implications for theory,
practice, or future research.
13.Write the Research Report: Document the research process, findings,
and conclusions in a comprehensive report. Follow the guidelines of the
chosen citation style for proper formatting.
14.Peer Review: Seek feedback from peers or experts in the field to improve
the quality of the research. Address any overlooked issues before finalizing the
report.
15. Publish and Disseminate: Share research findings through academic
journals, conferences, or other relevant channels. Contribute to the academic
community and knowledge base.
16.Ethical Considerations: Ensure the welfare of participants and maintain
the integrity of the research. Obtain informed consent, protect privacy, and
adhere to ethical standards.
You begin a research study by
identifying a topic to study—typically
an issue or problem in education that
needs to be resolved
Identifying a research problem consists of
specifying an issue to study, developing
a justification for studying it, and suggesting
the importance of the study for
select audiences that will read the report.
Teens are not learning how
to connect to others in their
communities.
Teenage smoking will
lead to many premature
deaths.
These needs, issues, or controversies arise out of an educational need expressed by
teachers, schools, policy makers, or researchers, and we refer to them as research
problems.
• You will state them in introductory sections of a research report
and provide a rationale for their importance.
• In a formal sense, these problems are part of a larger written
section called the “statement of the problem,” and this section
includes the topic, the problem, a justification for the problem,
and the importance of studying it for specific audiences such as
teachers, administrators, or researchers.
• Here's a suggestion for a quantitative research problem in
education:
The Impact of Flipped Classroom Instruction
on Academic Performance in High School
Mathematics.
BACKGROUND:
The flipped classroom model involves students learning new content outside of
class through pre-recorded lectures or readings, and using class time for
interactive and collaborative activities. This approach has gained popularity,
but its effectiveness in improving academic performance in specific subjects,
such as high school mathematics, needs further investigation.
• How does the implementation of a flipped classroom model in high school mathematics
impact students' academic performance compared to traditional instructional methods?
2. Are there differences in academic performance among various demographic groups (e.g.,
gender, socio-economic status) when exposed to flipped classroom instruction in high
school mathematics?
3.What is the relationship between students' engagement with pre-class materials in a flipped
classroom and their subsequent performance in high school mathematics assessments?
4. How do teachers' perceptions and implementation strategies of the flipped classroom
model correlate with students' academic outcomes in high school mathematics?
RESEARCH QUESTIONS:
• A quantitative research design could involve collecting
academic performance data (such as exam scores and
grades) from high school students who have experienced
both traditional and flipped classroom instruction in
mathematics.
• Surveys or interviews could be conducted to gather
information on students' engagement with pre-class
materials and teachers' perceptions and strategies related to
the flipped classroom model.
METHODOLOGY:
This research could provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of
the flipped classroom model in high school mathematics education,
helping educators and policymakers make informed decisions about
instructional methods.
Additionally, understanding the potential impact on different
demographic groups could contribute to efforts aimed at reducing
educational disparities.
Remember to tailor the research problem to your specific interests,
available resources, and the context of the educational system you are
studying.
EXPECTED CONTRIBUTION:

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Designing and Planning a Research.pptx

  • 2. • Research • Designing and Conducting Quantitative Research • Selecting and Defining Research Problem
  • 3. Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue. At a general level, research consists of three steps: Pose a question. Collect data to answer the question. Present an answer to the question
  • 4. • This should be a familiar process. You engage in solving problems every day and you start with a question, collect some information, and then form an answer. • Although there are a few more steps in research than these three, this is the overall framework for research. • When you examine a published study, or conduct your own study, you will find these three parts as the core elements. • Not all educators have an understanding and appreciation of research.
  • 5.
  • 6. Quantitative research is a methodological approach used in the social sciences and other fields to collect, analyze, and interpret numerical data. Here are some salient features of quantitative research: 1.Objective and Empirical: Quantitative research is focused on gathering objective, measurable data that can be analyzed statistically. It relies on empirical evidence rather than subjective opinions or interpretations. 2.Numerical Data: This research method involves the collection of numerical data, often in the form of statistics, percentages, or numerical measurements. The data can be subjected to statistical analysis for patterns and trends. .
  • 7. 3. Structured Research Design: Quantitative studies typically have a structured and predetermined research design. The research process is planned in advance, and the data collection instruments, such as surveys or experiments, are carefully designed. 4. Large Sample Size: Quantitative research often requires a large sample size to ensure statistical reliability and generalizability of findings to a broader population. The goal is to make inferences about the population based on the data collected from the sample. 5. Statistical Analysis: Statistical methods and techniques, such as descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, and correlation analysis, are commonly used in quantitative research. These analyses help researchers draw conclusions and make predictions about the population under study.
  • 8. 6.Replicable and Generalizable Results: The aim of quantitative research is to produce results that are replicable and can be generalized to a larger population. This contributes to the scientific rigor and validity of the findings. 7. Closed-Ended Questions: Data collection instruments, such as surveys or questionnaires, often use closed-ended questions with predefined response options. This facilitates the quantification of responses and simplifies the analysis process. 8.Controlled Environment: In experimental quantitative research, efforts are made to control and manipulate variables to isolate cause-and-effect relationships. This allows researchers to make more precise statements about the impact of independent variables on dependent variables.
  • 9. 9.Objective Measurement: Quantitative research relies on objective measurements and standardized data collection methods to ensure consistency and reduce bias in the data. 10.Cross-Sectional or Longitudinal Design: Quantitative studies can be cross-sectional, examining data at a single point in time, or longitudinal, collecting data over an extended period to observe changes and trends over time. These features collectively contribute to the systematic and rigorous nature of quantitative research, allowing researchers to draw meaningful conclusions based on numerical evidence.
  • 10.
  • 11. The process of designing and conducting a quantitative research study involves a comprehensive and systematic approach to ensure the validity and reliability of the findings. This process can be broken down into several key stages, combining the elements from both the design and conduct aspects: 3. Formulate Hypotheses Develop clear, specific, and testable hypotheses based on the refined research question. 2. Review the Literature Conduct an extensive review of existing literature to identify gaps and refine the research question. Understand the current state of knowledge on the topic to inform the stu 1. Define the Research Problem Clearly articulate the research problem or question, ensuring specificity and measurability. Formulate a hypothesis or hypotheses that align with the research question.
  • 12. 5. Choose a Research Design 7. Develop Research Instruments Create valid and reliable tools for data collection (surveys, questionnaires, experimental tasks). Ensure that the instruments align with the operationalized variables. Select an appropriate research design (experimental, quasi-experimental, or non-experimental) based on the research question and nature of variables. 6. Select the Sampling Method Determine the target population and choose a suitable sampling method (random, convenience, purposive. Consider sample size calculations to ensure statistical power. 4.Operationalize Variables Clearly define and operationalize the variables, specifying how they will be measured or manipulated.
  • 13. 9.Collect Data 11.Interpret Results Interpret the results in the context of research questions and hypotheses Discuss the broader implications and significance of findings. Implement the research plan and collect data according to the chosen research design. Maintain consistency and accuracy in data collection procedures. 10. Data Analysis Choose appropriate statistical methods for analyzing data (descriptive and inferential). Use statistical software for accurate and efficient analysis. 8. Pilot Test Conduct a pilot test to identify and address any issues with research instruments or procedures. Ensure the reliability and validity of measures before full-scale implementation. .
  • 14. .12.Draw Conclusions: Based on interpretation, draw conclusions regarding the support or refutation of hypotheses. Discuss implications for theory, practice, or future research. 13.Write the Research Report: Document the research process, findings, and conclusions in a comprehensive report. Follow the guidelines of the chosen citation style for proper formatting. 14.Peer Review: Seek feedback from peers or experts in the field to improve the quality of the research. Address any overlooked issues before finalizing the report. 15. Publish and Disseminate: Share research findings through academic journals, conferences, or other relevant channels. Contribute to the academic community and knowledge base. 16.Ethical Considerations: Ensure the welfare of participants and maintain the integrity of the research. Obtain informed consent, protect privacy, and adhere to ethical standards.
  • 15.
  • 16. You begin a research study by identifying a topic to study—typically an issue or problem in education that needs to be resolved Identifying a research problem consists of specifying an issue to study, developing a justification for studying it, and suggesting the importance of the study for select audiences that will read the report.
  • 17. Teens are not learning how to connect to others in their communities. Teenage smoking will lead to many premature deaths. These needs, issues, or controversies arise out of an educational need expressed by teachers, schools, policy makers, or researchers, and we refer to them as research problems.
  • 18. • You will state them in introductory sections of a research report and provide a rationale for their importance. • In a formal sense, these problems are part of a larger written section called the “statement of the problem,” and this section includes the topic, the problem, a justification for the problem, and the importance of studying it for specific audiences such as teachers, administrators, or researchers. • Here's a suggestion for a quantitative research problem in education:
  • 19. The Impact of Flipped Classroom Instruction on Academic Performance in High School Mathematics. BACKGROUND: The flipped classroom model involves students learning new content outside of class through pre-recorded lectures or readings, and using class time for interactive and collaborative activities. This approach has gained popularity, but its effectiveness in improving academic performance in specific subjects, such as high school mathematics, needs further investigation.
  • 20. • How does the implementation of a flipped classroom model in high school mathematics impact students' academic performance compared to traditional instructional methods? 2. Are there differences in academic performance among various demographic groups (e.g., gender, socio-economic status) when exposed to flipped classroom instruction in high school mathematics? 3.What is the relationship between students' engagement with pre-class materials in a flipped classroom and their subsequent performance in high school mathematics assessments? 4. How do teachers' perceptions and implementation strategies of the flipped classroom model correlate with students' academic outcomes in high school mathematics? RESEARCH QUESTIONS:
  • 21. • A quantitative research design could involve collecting academic performance data (such as exam scores and grades) from high school students who have experienced both traditional and flipped classroom instruction in mathematics. • Surveys or interviews could be conducted to gather information on students' engagement with pre-class materials and teachers' perceptions and strategies related to the flipped classroom model. METHODOLOGY:
  • 22. This research could provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of the flipped classroom model in high school mathematics education, helping educators and policymakers make informed decisions about instructional methods. Additionally, understanding the potential impact on different demographic groups could contribute to efforts aimed at reducing educational disparities. Remember to tailor the research problem to your specific interests, available resources, and the context of the educational system you are studying. EXPECTED CONTRIBUTION: