Emotion, Arousal, Attention and Flow: Chaining Emotional States to Improve Human Computer Interaction

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An overview of how designing for emotion relates to UX and flow, how the appearance and interaction of products communicate a personality to the user, and how emotions can be "chained" to enhance …

An overview of how designing for emotion relates to UX and flow, how the appearance and interaction of products communicate a personality to the user, and how emotions can be "chained" to enhance persuasion and influence behaviour.

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  • 1. Emotion, Arousal, Attention and Flow: Chaining Emotional States to Improve Human-Computer Interaction by Trevor van Gorp Dr. Ron Wardell Faculty of Environmental Design University of Calgary Edie Adams Microsoft Research © Trevor van Gorp, 2006 March 26th, 2006 Trevor van Gorp, BFA (Hon.), M.E.Des (Industrial Design) User Experience Consultant nForm User Experience Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 2. Why is Emotion Important to UX? “ Let's not forget that the little emotions are the great captains of our lives and we obey them without realizing it.“ Vincent Van Gogh, 1889
  • 3. Why is Emotion Important to UX?
    • • Emotion is the “experience” in “User Experience”
    • Would you let layout, interaction, or information architecture occur randomly? • Our lives are chains of emotional states
  • 4. Introduction and Overview
    • • Unanswered questions:
    ?
      • What differentiates one emotion from another?
      • What emotional states should be our goal?
      • What specific product properties elicit changes in emotions?
      • In what sequence should we elicit emotions?
  • 5. What differentiates one emotion from another?
  • 6. Differentiating by Dimensions
    • Differentiating by levels of:
    Emotional States (van Gorp 2006 - adapted from Desmet 2002) • Value (Pleasant vs. Unpleasant) • Physiological arousal (Anxiety vs. Boredom)
  • 7. Differentiating by Expressions
    • • Internal, private expressions:
      • changes in breathing patterns
      • behaviour
    • External, public expressions:
      • feelings
      • changes in body posture
      • vocalizations
      • facial expressions
  • 8. What emotional states should be our goal?
  • 9. Emotions and Cognition
    • • Emotions affect cognition
        • strength of attention
      • Positive affect
      • Negative affect
      • Arousal
        • relaxed body
        • open, creative thinking
        • tense body
        • detail-oriented thinking
    (Norman 2004)
  • 10. Emotions and Cognition
    • • Yerkes-Dodson law
    (van Gorp 2006 from Yerkes-Dodson, 1908)
  • 11. Arousal, Attention, and Flow
    • • Flow:
      • task has clear goals and immediate feedback
    • Attention - selects relevant information • Focus of attention - is what enters consciousness (Csikszentmahalyi 1990)
      • focused attention
      • few interruptions
      • challenge matches skills
  • 12. Anxiety, Boredom and Flow (Csikszentmihalyi 1990 - Dots and text added: van Gorp 2006) Level of Physiological Arousal
  • 13. Emotional States (van Gorp 2006 - adapted from Desmet 2002, Russell 1980) Flow (adapted from Csikszentmahalyi 1990)
  • 14. What specific product properties elicit changes in emotions?
  • 15. Products as Personalities
    • • People attribute personality to products based on their appearance and how they interact (Reeves and Nass 1989)
  • 16. Interaction as Conversation http://www.amp88.plus.com/file%20open%20error.JPG
  • 17. Interaction as Conversation Omni Graffle 4
  • 18. Interaction as Conversation
  • 19. Personalities and Conversations • What visual characteristics are associated with personality type? Submissive • smaller • lighter in colour • lighter in weight • rounded • feminine Dominant • larger • darker • heavier • angular • masculine www.sitesdesignedbysites.com www1.folha.uol.com.br
  • 20. In what sequence should we elicit emotions?
  • 21. State Chaining Emotional States (van Gorp 2006 - adapted from Desmet 2002) Flow (adapted from Csikszentmahalyi 1990)
  • 22. State Chaining Pacing, Rapport and Leading: Interaction, Personality and Behaviour (van Gorp 2006)
  • 23. State Chaining
    • • Connecting related emotional states
    State Chaining: From Problem State to Desired State (van Gorp 2006 - adapted from Dilts and De Lozier 2000)
  • 24. The Affect Circumplex (van Gorp 2006) adapted from (Desmet 2002)
  • 25. State Chaining Example - New User (van Gorp 2006)
  • 26. Design Process
  • 27. Existing Application Interaction
  • 28. Interface Wireframes
  • 29. Interface Wireframes
  • 30. Interface Wireframes
  • 31. Interface Wireframes
  • 32. Interface Wireframes
  • 33. Interface Wireframes
  • 34. Interface Wireframes
  • 35. Interface Wireframes
  • 36. Interface Wireframes
  • 37. Interface Wireframes
  • 38. Visual Design
  • 39. © Trevor van Gorp, 2006
  • 40. © Trevor van Gorp, 2006
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  • 65. www.nform.ca [email_address]
  • 66. References
    • Cacioppo, J. T., Larsen, J. T., Smith, N. K., & Berntson, G. G. (2004). “The affect system: What lurks below the surface of feelings?” In A. S. R. Manstead, N. H. Frijda, & A. H. Fischer (Eds.), Feelings and emotions: The Amsterdam conference (pp. 221-240). New York: Cambridge University Press.
    • Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly and Eugene Rochberg-Halton. (1981). The Meaning of Things - Domestic Symbols and the Self. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. (1990). Flow - the Psychology of Optimal Experience . New York: Harper Perennial.
    • Desmet, Pieter, R. (2002). Designing Emotions . Pieter Desmet. Delft.
  • 67. References
    • Dilts, Robert and Judith De Lozier. (2000a). “Chaining”. Encyclopedia of NLP. Scotts Valley: NLP University Press. http:// nlpuniversitypress .com/html/CaCom15.html accessed on July 21, 2005.
    • Fehrman, Kenneth R. and Cherie Fehrman. (2000). Color - The Secret Influence . New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.
    • Fogg, B.J. (2003). Persuasive Technology - Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.
    • Jordan, Patrick, W. (2000). Designing Pleasurable Products. London: Taylor & Francis.
    • Kemper, Theodore D. (1978). A Social Interactional Theory of Emotions. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    • Norman, Donald A. (2004). Emotional Design - Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things . New York: Basic Books.
    • Plutchik, Robert, and H. R. Conte, eds. (1997). Circumplex Models of Personality and Emotions . Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • 68. References
    • Reeves, Byron and C. Nass. (1998). The Media Equation - How People Treat Computers, Television and New Media Like Real People and Places. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Russell, J.A. (1980). “A circumplex model of affect”. In Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 1161–1178.
    • Thoits, Peggy, A. (2004). “Emotion Norms, Emotion Work, and Social Order.” in Antony S.R. Manstead and Nico Frijda, Agnesta Fischer, eds. (2004). Feelings and Emotions - the Amsterdam Symposium. pp.359-378. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • van Gorp, T. (2006). Emotion Arousal Attention and Flow: Chaining Emotional States to Improve Human-Computer Interaction. Master’s Degree Project. Forthcoming - University of Calgary.
    • Yerkes Robert M., and John D.Dodson (1908) “The Relation of Strength of Stimulus to Rapidity of Habit-Formation” Journal of Comparative Neurology and Psychology , 18, 459-482)