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UX design, service design and design thinking

What is UX design, service design & design thinking ? How are they related ?

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User experience design,
User experience design

service design & design thinking




by Sylvain Cottong, www.integratedplace.com
SA UX Forum, Faculty of Design, University of Johannesburg,  August 18th, 2009
http://groups.google.com/group/sa‐ux‐forum/browse_thread/thread/ba87ca0252c48a7d
User experience design  (UX)
User experience design (UX)
What is user experience design?
               p            g

    User Experience (abbreviated: UX) is the quality of experience 
    User Experience (abbreviated: UX) is the quality of experience
    a person has when interacting with a specific design. This can 
    range from a specific artifact, such as a cup, toy or website, 
    up to larger, integrated experiences such as a museum or an 
    up to larger integrated experiences such as a museum or an
    airport.

    Source:  http://www.uxnet.org/
                p //            g/

    It most commonly refers to the result of a planned integration 
    of software design, business, and psychology concerns.

    In the web world, user experience is sometimes conflated with 
    usability, information architecture (IA), and user interface (UI) 
    design, all of which are components of it.
    d i       ll f hi h                     fi

    Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User_experience_design
What is user experience design?
               p            g

    Jesse James Garret’s famous representation of UX for the Web:
What is user experience design?
               p            g

    Peter Morville’s honeycombs:

                                   Information architecture:

                                   ‐ The combination of organisation, 
                                   labeling, and navigation schemes within 
                                   an information system. 

                                   ‐ The structural design of an information 
                                   space to facilitate task completion and 
                                   intuitive access to content.

                                   Sources: 
                                   http://semanticstudios.com/publications/sem
                                   antics/000010.php
                                   http://semanticstudios.com/publications/sem
                                   h //         i    di      / bli i /
                                   antics/000029.php
What is user experience design?
               p            g

    Peter Morville’s honeycombs:

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UX design, service design and design thinking

  • 3. What is user experience design? p g User Experience (abbreviated: UX) is the quality of experience  User Experience (abbreviated: UX) is the quality of experience a person has when interacting with a specific design. This can  range from a specific artifact, such as a cup, toy or website,  up to larger, integrated experiences such as a museum or an  up to larger integrated experiences such as a museum or an airport. Source:  http://www.uxnet.org/ p // g/ It most commonly refers to the result of a planned integration  of software design, business, and psychology concerns. In the web world, user experience is sometimes conflated with  usability, information architecture (IA), and user interface (UI)  design, all of which are components of it. d i ll f hi h fi Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User_experience_design
  • 4. What is user experience design? p g Jesse James Garret’s famous representation of UX for the Web:
  • 5. What is user experience design? p g Peter Morville’s honeycombs: Information architecture: ‐ The combination of organisation,  labeling, and navigation schemes within  an information system.  ‐ The structural design of an information  space to facilitate task completion and  intuitive access to content. Sources:  http://semanticstudios.com/publications/sem antics/000010.php http://semanticstudios.com/publications/sem h // i di / bli i / antics/000029.php
  • 6. What is user experience design? p g Peter Morville’s honeycombs:
  • 7. What is user experience design? p g UX design is a Human‐Centered Design process An International Standard ISO 13407: The Human‐centered design process defines a general process for  including human‐centered activities throughout a development life‐cycle, but  including human‐centered activities throughout a development life‐cycle but does not specify exact methods. 
  • 8. What is user experience design? p g UX design is a Human‐Centered Design process Specify the context of use Identify the people who will use the product, what they will  use it for, and under what conditions they will use it. use it for and under what conditions they will use it Specify requirements Identify any business requirements or user goals that must be  met for the product to be successful. met for the product to be successful Create design solutions This part of the process may be done in stages, building from a  rough concept to a complete design. g p p g Evaluate designs The most important part of this process is that evaluation ‐ ideally through usability testing with actual users ‐ is as  integral as quality testing is to good software development. 
  • 9. What is user experience design? p g UX design is a Human‐Centered Design process
  • 10. UX design process g p Many similar ways of representing the UX design process.
  • 26. Typical UX tools & deliverables There are many other UX tools & methods. You have to decide in the context  of each project which ones to use. of each project which ones to use. http://project.cmd.hro.nl/cmi/hci/toolkit/ http://nform.ca/tradingcards/ http://clearlyitworks.pbworks.com/UX+and+IA+Resources
  • 27. Key benefits of UX? Benefits to Businesses in Enterprise Applications Benefits to Businesses in Enterprise Applications Manages the risk the workers won't be able to use the application,  or won't want to use it Ensures that vital features are not left out  Reduces costly development of features that users don't want or  don't need  Reduces training and support costs 
  • 28. Key benefits of UX? Benefits to Businesses in Customer‐Facing  Applications Enables ease‐of‐use, resulting in higher conversion rates and  , g g greater cross‐selling and up‐selling opportunities  Reduces support & service costs, generates greater customer  satisfaction & loyalty and improved perception of the brand  Improves customers' tolerance of business goals that conflict with  their personal goals  h l l Reduced overall project costs and timescales And thus generates increased revenues
  • 30. What is Service design ? g Today, services represent between 60% & 70 % of GDP of  most industrialised nations most industrialised nations Whereas design methods have always been applied to  products, services have long been considered as a necessary  p , g y extension to products without paying them the same  attention than products themselves Most products today are combined with services, thus it is  the overall experience that counts and that is judged by  customers The emerging field of service design combines design  methods from product design & interaction design for  designing the experience of and the interface to services. A lot  designing the experience of and the interface to services A lot of educated interaction designers work in service design.
  • 31. What is Service design ? g Service design is most developed in northern Europe (Scandinavia,  The Netherlands and Great Britain and to a lesser extent in the US.) ) Source: http://howardesign.com/exp/service/worldwide/
  • 32. What is Service design ? g Service design is about making what you do more useful,  usable &desirable for your users, and more efficient, effective & valuable for you ‐ everyone loves a great experience. Do you remember the  UX design honeycomb ?
  • 33. What is Service design ? g Service design is a human‐centered approach that focuses on  customer experience and the quality of service encountered  as the key value for success. Do you remember the  human‐centered design  process ?
  • 34. Service design: Key concepts g y p Service touch points are the tangibles, for example:  spaces, objects, people or interactions that make  the total experience of using a service, i.e.: Advertising Web, mobile phone & PC interfaces Physical environments (shops, reception areas,  transport environments, hospitals, etc.) Customer facing staff (Call centers, customer  representatives, receptionists, etc.) Communication & mailings, etc.
  • 35. Service design: Key concepts g y p Systems Services are provided and experienced through systems  p p g y and relationships. Value Different services create and measure value in different  ways, but most services try to provide the best value for  both users and producers. Journeysy All services are experienced over time. People also take  different journeys to, through, and from a service. People p Services always involve people and rely on both the user  and the producer working together. Propositions p Services are generally packaged as a ‘proposition’ for users  to buy into.
  • 36. Service design: Tools & Methods g Ethnography, user studies & personas Identifying, discovering and understanding the service context and the users.
  • 37. Service design: Tools & Methods g Customer journey map Illustrates how the customer perceives and experiences the service  interface along the time axis.
  • 40. Service design: Tools & Methods g Service blueprinting Allows for a quantitative description of critical service  elements,  elements such as time, logical sequences of actions and processes,  also specifying both actions and events that happen in the  time and place of the interaction (front stage) p ( g ) and actions and events that are out of the line of visibility  for users, but are fundamental for the delivery of the  for users but are fundamental for the delivery of the service (backstage).
  • 44. Service design: Tools & Methods g Ideation, context mapping & participatory design Reveals users’ conscious and latent needs,  experiences, hopes and expectations.  Users  p , p p participate in a workshop facilitated by a tutor.
  • 45. Service design: Tools & Methods g Service prototyping: Scenarios, storytelling, storyboards, real  world experience simulation ld i i l ti
  • 46. Service design: Tools & Methods g Service prototyping: Scenarios, storytelling, storyboards, real world  experience simulation i i l ti Techniques from movie‐making and the performing arts are thus very  T h i f i ki d th f i t th useful for service prototyping.
  • 47. Service design: Key benefits g y Do you remember the key benefits from UX design? Do you remember the key benefits from UX design? Enables ease‐of‐use, resulting in higher conversion rates and  greater cross‐selling and up‐selling opportunities  lli d lli ii Reduces support costs, greater customer satisfaction &  loyalty, and improved perception of the brand Improves customers tolerance of business goals that Improves customers' tolerance of business goals that  conflict with their personal goals 
  • 48. Service design: Key benefits g y And more specifically: And more specifically: Everyone, like it or not, is a service provider The inclusion of good customer service is becoming a key  differentiator for any type of organisation, be it product or  service‐based. In our new economy and social system it is the  i b d I d i l t it i th whole experience, before, during or after the actual selling  that really counts.  Customers are willing to pay a premium for products and  services that help make their lives easier, more enjoyable and  services that help make their lives easier, more enjoyable and exciting.
  • 49. Service design: Key benefits g y And more specifically: And more specifically: Innovating, redesigning and managing services represent a  competitive advantage for modern businesses and public sector  competitive advantage for modern businesses and public sector organisations. Helps meeting customers’ rising expectations of choice and  H l ti t ’ ii t ti f h i d quality Helps make use of the technologies’ revolution, that multiplies  the possibilities for creating, delivering and consuming services Helps answering the pressing environmental, social and  economic challenges to sustainability
  • 50. Service design: Case study g y Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, a project by Maya design A strategic design project : interior redesign  interior redesign wayfinding web site and the library catalog and thus is a service design project as it  dealt with several touch points and the  customer journey, but with a strong  j b ih focus on information architecture. http://www.maya.com/portfolio/carnegie‐library MAYA Design, Inc. / SouthSide Works, Building 2, Suite 300 2730 Sidney Street /  Pittsburgh, PA 15203 /+1 412‐488‐2900
  • 51. Service design: More resources on the Web g About http://www.designcouncil.org.uk/en/About‐Design/Design‐Disciplines/Service‐ p g g g g p design‐by‐Bill‐Hollins/ http://www.howardesign.com/exp/service/ Case studies Case studies http://www.enginegroup.co.uk/projects/ Methods & tools http://www.enginegroup.co.uk/service_design/methods/ http://servicedesign.wikispaces.com/ http://www.servicedesigntools.org/ http://www.servicedesign.org/ http //www servicedesign org/ Professional organization http://www.service‐design‐network.org/ p // g g/ and many blogs…..
  • 53. Design thinking g g What is the meta‐trend & concept behind such practices as  UX design & service design? d i & i d i ? Design thinking, a way for solving all kinds of problems  using design tools & methodologies. using design tools & methodologies Often also referred to as “design thinking in business”. It’s about a methodology, but also about a mindset and  about a changing paradigm in management theory, moving  from the traditional top‐down and quantitative approach to  p q pp a more bottom‐up, qualitative approach in innovation &  transformation processes. It’s a new design discipline that builds on traditional design  skills to address social and economic issues. 
  • 54. Design thinking: Characteristics Design thinking:  Good design creates products, services, spaces, interactions and  Good design creates products services spaces interactions and experiences that not only satisfy a function or solve a problem, but that  are also desirable, aspirational, compelling and delightful.  These qualities can be used by organisations in both the public and private  sector which are seeking to transform the way in which they connect to  individuals. It’s a process that can be applied to almost any problem.  p pp yp Benefits:  placing the person – the ‘user’ – at the heart of a solution;  a means for experts to collaborate equally on complex issues;  a rapid, iterative process that can adapt to changing circumstances;  and a highly creative approach to problem‐solving that leads to practical  d hi hl i h bl l i h l d i l & innovative everyday solutions.
  • 55. Design thinking: Characteristics Design thinking:  The main characteristic of creativity & design thinking is the ability of  The main characteristic of creativity & design thinking is the ability of divergent thinking, bringing different approaches together to find new  solutions for complex and ill‐defined problems.  B‐school meets D‐school (Or left‐brainers meet right‐brainers). Design schools create the tools of transformation and graduate the  people to implement them.
  • 56. Design thinking: Characteristics Design thinking:  Design Thinking is a focus on synthesis rather than analysis  Design Thinking is a focus on synthesis rather than analysis (“Multidisciplinarity” , “Get the big picture”) Designers problem solve holistically, not in a linear fashion. While the  Designers problem‐solve holistically not in a linear fashion While the scientific method for problem solving uses problem‐focused strategies  and analysis, designers use solution‐focused strategies and synthesis. Good Design Thinking is the ability to see things not readily apparent to  others (and that's where market differentiation can occur).  It's the ability to see the 'edges' of something, to find shape and form in a  mass of stuff. It's the ability to see things differently – to see the implicit  and make it explicit.
  • 57. Design thinking: Characteristics Design thinking:  Design Thinking it is not a matter of saving money or "controlling" risks.  Design Thinking it is not a matter of saving money or "controlling" risks It is about survival and being truly honest with customers. A design driven approach to creating something new favors a qualitative  A design‐driven approach to creating something new favors a qualitative approach over a data‐driven approach.  Rather than amassing mounds of data from customer and market  g research, you go out and observe people to understand their lives and  needs and how products could fit into them (Ethnography).  building empathy with customers.
  • 58. Design thinking: Characteristics Design thinking:  Design Thinking helps transform existing conditions into preferred ones, thus  g g p g p , improving the future. There are no judgements in design thinking.  This eliminates the fear of failure and encourages maximum input and  participation.  Wild ideas are welcome, since these often lead to the most creative solutions.  Everyone is a designer, and design thinking is a way to apply design  Everyone is a designer and design thinking is a way to apply design methodologies to any of life's as well as public & business organisation's situations. (‐> Service design, social design, process design, decision‐making design,  business model design, product design, web design, etc.)
  • 59. Design thinking: Process Design thinking:  EXPLORATORY MINDSET Decision mindset: "I am going to identify all the alternatives, weigh their  ii i d " i id if ll h l i i h h i consequences, and choose one.“ Design mindset: "Many of the alternatives are yet to be discovered, and the true  g y y , consequences of choosing any of them are difficult to be sure of; let's iteratively  explore the possibilities together, discovering new ones and choosing as best we  can at each step.“ DESIGN PROCESS Design thinking is built on confidence in The Design Process: understand the context you are addressing ‐‐ the people, relevant activities and  environments ‐ the forces at work must necessarily shape any workable solution try to conceive something that might serve the situation you've started to  understand embody the potential solution in some form that lets you put it into the target  embody the potential solution in some form that lets you put it into the target context and see how it works this takes you back to the "understand" step, and around you go again.
  • 60. Design thinking: Process Design thinking:  Design thinking norms Process Observe &  Ideate &  Prototype  Implement Define Choose Research Co‐create & test & learn Characteristics of tools & methods Think visually – Tell stories
  • 62. Design thinkers: Skill sets Design thinkers: Skill sets Empathy Integrative thinking Optimism O i i Experimentalism Collaboration Source: http://www.ideo.com/images/uploads/news/pdfs/IDEO_HBR_Design_Thinking.pdf It’s about how to use product, communication, interaction and  spatial designers’ core skills to transform the ways in which the  public interacts with systems, services, organisations and policies.
  • 63. Design thinkers: Skill sets Design thinkers: Skill sets Empathy E th Ability to imagine the world from multiple perspectives – those of  colleagues, clients, end users and customers “People first” approach: imagine solutions that are inherently desirable  and meet explicit and latent needs. Notice things instantly that others don’t see (Ethnography)
  • 64. Design thinkers: Skill sets Design thinkers: Skill sets Integrative thinking I t ti thi ki Not only relying on analytical processes (that produce either/or choices) But also seeing the salient – and sometimes contradictory – aspects of a  But also seeing the salient and sometimes contradictory aspects of a confounding problem and creating novel solutions that go beyond and  dramatically improve on exiting alternatives. Optimism No matter how challenging the constraints of a given problem, at least  No matter how challenging the constraints of a given problem at least one potential solution is better then the existing ones. 
  • 65. Design thinkers: Skill sets Design thinkers: Skill sets Experimentalism E i t li Significant innovations don’t come from incremental tweaks. Design  thinkers pose questions and explore constraints in creative ways that  progress in entirely new directions.  progress in entirely new directions Collaboration increasing complexity of products, services, and experiences increasing complexity of products services and experiences replaced the myth of the lone creative genius with the reality of the  enthusiastic multidisciplinary collaborator.  enthusiastic multidisciplinary collaborator design thinkers don’t simply work alongside other disciplines; many of  g p them have significant experience in more than one & are used to working g in multidisciplinary teams.
  • 66. Design thinking: Skill sets Design thinking: Skill sets "T‐shaped” people  They have a principal skill that describes the  vertical leg of the T ‐‐ they're mechanical  engineers or industrial designers. But they are so  empathetic that they can branch out into other  skills, such as anthropology, and do them as well.  They are able to explore insights from many  different perspectives and recognise patterns of  behavior that point to a universal human need.  behavior that point to a universal human need Tim Brown, CEO of design consultancy IDEO in  http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/95/design‐ strategy.html?page=0%2C0 t t ht l? 0%2C0
  • 67. Design thinking: The design of business Design thinking: The design of business Roger Martin, the dean of the Rotman school of management, another leading  design thinker, says that traditional firms must become more like a  design shop : design thinker says that traditional firms must become more like a “design shop”: Source: http://www.rotman.utoronto.ca/rogermartin
  • 68. Design thinking: Summarising Design thinking:  Design thinking is a new mindset & set of methods  (inspired by traditional design  theory) for solving today’s pressing economic, social & environmental problems, as  opposed, but also as in addition to, the traditional analytical and quantitative methods. It is a human‐centered approach, built on empathy & ethnography, that produces  It is a human‐centered approach built on empathy & ethnography that produces new, innovative and sometimes radical solutions in a multidisciplinary & participatory  way. These solutions are constantly prototyped, tested and implemented in an iterative  process. These solutions generate consistent bridge experiences that create new values for  These solutions generate consistent bridge experiences that create new values for the consumer & the provider. UX design for the web & service design are practices that are perfectly in line with the design thinking process & mindset. It’s about applying long known traditional  h d i hi ki & i d I’ b l i l k di i l design methods & processes in product design to more complex, abstract, interactive &  intangible things.
  • 69. Thank you for your attention. Your questions? sylvain@integratedplace.com