Causes and consequences
of corruption in the police

A civil society view
Mark Pyman, Director
Int’l Defence and Security ...
INTRODUCTION: OUR WORK
SPECIALISED IN DEFENCE AND SECURITY FORCES

Armed Forces
Defence Ministries

Interior Ministries
Po...
POLICE CORRUPTION
CONSEQUENCES

• Reduces public trust - rule of law easily undermined
• Stops development
• Stops commerc...
TI ANALYSIS
‘ARRESTING CORRUPTION IN THE POLICE’

1. Police corruption is complex: there
are markedly different issues

2....
1. POLICE CORRUPTION – WHAT IS IT? – 33 RISK AREAS
2. HOW CORRUPT DO CITIZENS PERCEIVE
THE POLICE TO BE?
ASIA PACIFIC

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

LATIN AMERICA

Vietnam (1st)

Came...
HOW CORRUPT DO CITIZENS PERCEIVE
THE POLICE TO BE?
LATIN AMERICA

Mexico (1st)

MEXICO

• Over 90% of crimes go unreported...
3. POLICE ANTI-CORRUPTION
REFORM – TEN CASE STUDIES
+ SINGAPORE

• A corrupt Singaporean Police Force (SPF) emerged from c...
POLICE ANTI-CORRUPTION REFORM
- VENEZUELA
• 2006 report highlighted the problems of corruption: poor training, lack of
awa...
4. PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY TO
CITIZENS

•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Public oversight of reforms
International comparisons
One-on-one enga...
PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY TO CITIZENS

PUBLIC SCRUTINY OF REFORMS

HONDURAS
• Worst homicide rate in the world: 85.5 deaths pe...
PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY TO CITIZENS
INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS
GLOBAL DEFENCE ANTI-CORRUPTION INDEX
• TI has compared the ant...
GLOBAL GOVERNMENT DEFENCE ANTI-CORRUPTION RANKING

REGIONAL RESULTS | SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY TO CITIZENS
INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS
THE WAY FORWARD
• A POLICE and SECURITY FORCES ANTICORRUPTION ...
PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY TO CITIZENS
CHECKING BADGES
RUSSIA
• Very visible campaign by TI Russia
highlighting the duties of p...
PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY TO CITIZENS
ASSESSING POLICE STATIONS
ALTUS POLICE WEEK
• Altus: a global alliance between civil soc...
PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY TO CITIZENS
POLICE-CITIZEN PROTOCOL
MEXICO
POLICE-CITIZEN PROTOCOL – a Project developed by TI Mexic...
PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY TO CITIZENS
POLICY-MAKING INPUT
ROMANIA
EU project to strengthen integrity of the MOI and raise the ...
PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY TO CITIZENS
AFGHANISTAN
• Huge police corruption issues
• „Accountability to citizens‟ not at all th...
PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY TO CITIZENS
JAMAICA
• Huge police corruption issues. National Police Hotline discredited
•

Re-start...
CONCLUSIONS

1. Lack of direct accountability of
police to citizens is both a cause
and a consequence of corruption
2. The...
THANK YOU - QUESTIONS?
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Causes and consequences of corruption in the police | Mark Pyman

  1. 1. Causes and consequences of corruption in the police A civil society view Mark Pyman, Director Int’l Defence and Security Programme Transparency International UK POLICE ACCOUNTABILITY IN DEMOCRACIES Los Cabos, October 24th, 2013
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION: OUR WORK SPECIALISED IN DEFENCE AND SECURITY FORCES Armed Forces Defence Ministries Interior Ministries Police Indexes, Research Preventive Training Anti-corruption tools Arms Transfers Defence Companies Fragile States Peacekeeping
  3. 3. POLICE CORRUPTION CONSEQUENCES • Reduces public trust - rule of law easily undermined • Stops development • Stops commerce - International companies avoid corrupt economies • Impacts operational effectiveness, damages recruitment quality • Accelerates organised crime, trans-national threats • Deep damage to police morale and coherence
  4. 4. TI ANALYSIS ‘ARRESTING CORRUPTION IN THE POLICE’ 1. Police corruption is complex: there are markedly different issues 2. Most citizens rate police as their No.1 corruption concern 3. Most reform efforts are unsuccessful 4. Reforms are more successful with public/external monitoring. 5. More focus needed on direct accountability mechanisms with citizens
  5. 5. 1. POLICE CORRUPTION – WHAT IS IT? – 33 RISK AREAS
  6. 6. 2. HOW CORRUPT DO CITIZENS PERCEIVE THE POLICE TO BE? ASIA PACIFIC SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA LATIN AMERICA Vietnam (1st) Cameron (1st) Mexico (1st) Malaysia (1st) Ghana (1st) Venezuela (1st) Pakistan (1st) Kenya (1st) El Salvador (1st) Philippines (1st) Liberia (1st) Bolivia (1st) Thailand (1st) Nigeria (1st) Brazil (3rd) Bangladesh (1st) Senegal (1st) Argentina (4th) Cambodia (2nd) South Africa (1st) India (2nd) Uganda (1st) Transparency International’s Global corruption Barometer 2013
  7. 7. HOW CORRUPT DO CITIZENS PERCEIVE THE POLICE TO BE? LATIN AMERICA Mexico (1st) MEXICO • Over 90% of crimes go unreported (2012) • 68% of households believe the police to be „extremely corrupt‟ • 3600 federal police officers dismissed after vetting • Entire police force of Veracruz dismissed • On average, a bribe costs $12 • Corruption costs 14% of the income of an average Mexican household • Cost of corruption in 2010 was $2.5 billion Transparency International’s Global corruption Barometer 2013
  8. 8. 3. POLICE ANTI-CORRUPTION REFORM – TEN CASE STUDIES + SINGAPORE • A corrupt Singaporean Police Force (SPF) emerged from colonial rule under the British. Success since 1952 was driven by: - Government showed long-lasting political will to tackle corruption - A strong „Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau‟ - High wages for police officers - Recruitment and monitoring process had strong anti-corruption focus • The exceptional circumstances of Singapore as a city state limit the lessons but highlight the need for long-term action
  9. 9. POLICE ANTI-CORRUPTION REFORM - VENEZUELA • 2006 report highlighted the problems of corruption: poor training, lack of awareness of ethics surrounding policing, impunity of officers • Inherent mistrust from communities • In 2008, creation of local councils to monitor police with a particular focus on accountability • New national police service: intention of working closer with communities • BUT Political interference and poorly resourced judiciary represents a major barrier to reform
  10. 10. 4. PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY TO CITIZENS • • • • • • • Public oversight of reforms International comparisons One-on-one engagement Review of local stations Policy-making engagement Education and awareness Grass roots legal centres
  11. 11. PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY TO CITIZENS PUBLIC SCRUTINY OF REFORMS HONDURAS • Worst homicide rate in the world: 85.5 deaths per 100,000 people • Private security groups outnumber police 15:1 • High citizen pressure for real reform. Local NGO „Alianza por la Paz y la Justicia‟ (APJ) is coordinating a huge public coalition • Government police reform body “Dirección de Investigación y Evaluación de la Carrera Policial” (DIECP) established 2012. Not trusted. • 2013: APJ established civil society Independent Monitoring Committee to oversee Police reform; headed by former Guatemalan Foreign Minister, includes Sr. Jose Ugaz from Peru and TI-DSP.
  12. 12. PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY TO CITIZENS INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS GLOBAL DEFENCE ANTI-CORRUPTION INDEX • TI has compared the anti-corruption capability of 82 country Defence Ministries and Military Forces. Report released in January 2013 • Detailed assessment based on 77 technical questions and „model answers‟ • Only 2 countries score the maximum (Australia, Germany), on scale A (best) to F (worst). • 2/3rds of countries have poor anti-corruption controls in defence • Mexico scores D+
  13. 13. GLOBAL GOVERNMENT DEFENCE ANTI-CORRUPTION RANKING REGIONAL RESULTS | SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
  14. 14. PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY TO CITIZENS INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS THE WAY FORWARD • A POLICE and SECURITY FORCES ANTICORRUPTION INDEX? For the region? Global? • TI-Americas, TI-Mexico and TI-UK are actively looking at developing such an index
  15. 15. PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY TO CITIZENS CHECKING BADGES RUSSIA • Very visible campaign by TI Russia highlighting the duties of police officers • Key area of concern is the accountability of officers, specifically their anonymity with the public • TI Russia documents their own experiences on national „badge checking day‟ with a series of blogs and videos
  16. 16. PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY TO CITIZENS ASSESSING POLICE STATIONS ALTUS POLICE WEEK • Altus: a global alliance between civil society organisations • Organises an annual „Police Week‟ during which citizens visit local stations to perform assessments • The purpose of these visits is to strengthen accountability and transparency, and recognise current best practice • The most recent Police Week incorporated visits to 1044 stations across 20 countries
  17. 17. PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY TO CITIZENS POLICE-CITIZEN PROTOCOL MEXICO POLICE-CITIZEN PROTOCOL – a Project developed by TI Mexico with the support of Global Integrity • Teaches citizens how to interact with police and reduce the abuse of power by following a simple police-citizens protocol • Allows citizens to report when police have avoided or abused the standard protocol by asking for a bribe • Test whether enhanced citizen participation in accessing their legal rights can effectively mitigate law enforcement abuses
  18. 18. PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY TO CITIZENS POLICY-MAKING INPUT ROMANIA EU project to strengthen integrity of the MOI and raise the Romanian police (200,000) to EU standards: develop an anti-corruption investigative structure, improve partnership with civil society • Creation of a “Transparency Advisory Forum” (TAF) with NGOs Exposed discrimination against minority groups; Improving public transparency of the MOI anti-corruption measures; supported covert strategy approach • Legislation enacted to allow the use of covert investigation techniques • Establishment of an independent Anti-Corruption Department (ACD) • AC Strategic Committee (ACSC) consisting of key senior MOI/police and TAF members, allows challenge of decision-making by the MOI
  19. 19. PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY TO CITIZENS AFGHANISTAN • Huge police corruption issues • „Accountability to citizens‟ not at all the norm • Since 2009: National hotline becoming a success – 8000 calls per day. Developed between MOI and EUPOL • Since 2012: Inspector General of Police organising public meetings in each region. Regional, local police chiefs attend. Public and NGOs engage with issues, complaints. Developed between MOI and NATO. •
  20. 20. PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY TO CITIZENS JAMAICA • Huge police corruption issues. National Police Hotline discredited • Re-started. Developed an overseas hotline, as only way to build trust. Hotline centre based in UK, run by former Metropolitan Police • Follow up in Jamaica by separate group, also headed by overseas officer. Confidence building by working with Civil Society organisations • DFID supported
  21. 21. CONCLUSIONS 1. Lack of direct accountability of police to citizens is both a cause and a consequence of corruption 2. There is huge untapped potential for citizen engagement to improve police integrity 3. Regional and global comparisons are powerful for making change 4 Proper evidence-gathering of the impact of reforms is needed.
  22. 22. THANK YOU - QUESTIONS?

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