What is Corruption ? In broad terms, corruption is the misuse of public office for private gain (World Bank, 1997). Corruption arises in both political and bureaucratic offices. Degrees of corruption vary greatly, from minor uses of influence and patronage to do and return favours, to institutionalised bribery and beyond. The end-point of political corruption is kleptocracy, literally rule by thieves, where even the external pretence of honesty is
Types of CorruptionBRIBERYAn offer of money or favors to influence a publicofficial.TRADING INFLUENCE / INFLUENCEPEDDLINGIts the situation where a person is selling his/herinfluence over the decision process involving athird party.GRAFT
It refers to favouring supporters, for example with governmentemployment.NEPOTISM AND CRONYISMFavouring relatives (nepotism) or personal friends (cronyism) ofan official is a form of illegitimate private gain.EMBEZZLEMENTIt is outright theft of entrusted funds.KICKBACKSIt is an officials share of misappropriated funds allocated fromhis or her organization to an organization involved incorrupt bidding.UNHOLY ALLIANCEIt is a coalition among seemingly antagonistic groups.
Causes of corruption Emergence of political elite Artificial scarcity Change in the value system and ethical qualities Absence of strong public forum Over- population and widespread illiteracy
Corruption and India As with many developing nations, corruption is widespread in India. It has taken the role of a persistent aspect of Indian politics and administration.Reasons: socialist-inspired policies extensive regulation, protectionism, and public ownership license rajThe first case of corruption in India was the
TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONALSURVEY REPORT Most corrupt states Bihar and J&K Highly corrupt states M.P., U.P.,Karnataka, Ta mil Nadu, Rajasthan, Chhat tisgarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Kerala, Oris sa Moderately corrupt states Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, H.P.,
Statistics CORRUPTION PERCEPTION INDEXOn the ranking based on the scale from 0(perceived to be highly corrupt) to 10 (low levelof corruption), India scored 3.3 to grab 87thposition in 2010.India has slipped three places in globalrankings of most corrupt countries, from 84 in2009 to 87.The outgoing Central Vigilance Commissionerhas said that almost one out of three Indians
6 Major Corruption Scams in India SPORTS : IPL LALIT MODI SCAM HEALTH : CORRUPTION IN BANK FUNDED PROJECTS FOR HIV AIDS & MALARIA (PROBED BY BRETTON WOODS) DEFENCE :THE BOFOR CASE
Corruption : Is there a way out?Corruption is a cancer, which every Indianmust strive to cure.There are two approaches here to tacklecorruption:1) What as an individual we can contributeto stop or curtail this menace2) The other is what can government do toensure the machinery is less corrupt orremove corruption all together.
Community Participation It is the community members are the people who benefit from a successful program; therefore, they would have stronger incentives to monitor corruption at the local level.The Right to Information Act 2005 This Act enables the common man to seek information about and closely monitor the functioning of all the departments under the purview of either the Central or State
Autonomous bodies for monitoring corruption Lokayukta It is an anti-corruption ombudsman organization in the Indian states for the redressal of citizens grievances against the politicians and officers in the government service involving corruption. CVC It was setup by the Government to advise and guide Central Government agencies in the areas of vigilance. Its jurisdiction extends to all Central Government Departments, Central Government
Zero Rupee Note Next time someone asks you for a bribe, just take your country’s zero currency note and hand it to them. This will let the other person know that you refuse to give or take any money in order to perform services required by law or
2G Spectrum Scam What happened ?CHEAP TELECOM LICENSES GIVEN-Entry fee for spectrum licenses in 2008 pegged at 2001 prices-Mobile subscriber base had shot up to 350 million in 2008 from 4 million in 2001NO PROCEDURES FOLLOWED-Rules changed after the game had begun-Cut-off date for applications advanced by a week-No proper auction process followed, no bids invited-Advice of TRAI, Law Ministry, Finance Ministry ignoredFAVOURITISM-Unitech, Swan Telecom without any prior telecom experience got licenses illegally-Reliance Telecom was allocated spectrum ahead of the others Total loss - Rs. 1.76 lakh crore Main accused – then Telecom Minister A Raja
Commonwealth Games Scam What happened?– financial irregularities in Queens baton in UK.– allowing CWG budget in other activities– over-inflated price and bungling in purchase of equipment– awarding overpriced contracts to companies like Omega– approval to release 146 thousands pounds for AM films without checking all the facts– embezzlement of Rs 1.5 crore in the purchase of HOVA Courts for Badminton stadium– malpractices in the tender for kitchen equipment installation– misappropriation in video board tenders– payment to non-existent parties– will-ful delays in execution of contracts Total loss- about Rs 8,000 crore