CORRUPTION AND ITS DEEPIMPACT ON GOOD GOVERNANCE IN PAKISTAN AND INDIA
In modern English usage the words corruption and corrupt have many meanings: Political corruption,the abuse of public power, office, or resources by government officials or employees for personal gain, e.g. by extortion, soliciting or offering bribes. Police corruption, a specific form of police misconduct designed to obtain financial benefits, other personal gain, and/or careeradvancement for a police officer or officers in exchange for not pursuing, or selectively pursuing, an investigation or arrest.
Corporate corruptioncorporate criminality and the abuse of power by corporation officials, either internally or externally, including the fact that police obstruct justice. Corruption (philosophical concept) often refers to spiritual or moral impurity, or deviation from an ideal Corruption Perceptions Index published yearly by Transparency International Putrefaction the natural process of decomposition in the human and animal body following death Data corruption an unintended change to data in storage or in transit
Linguistic corruptionthe change in meaning to a language or a text introduced by cumulative errors in transcription as changes in the language speakers comprehension Bribery in politics, business, or sport Rule of lawgovernmental corruption of judiciary, includes governmental spending on the courts, which is completely financially controlled by the executive in many transitional and developing countries
Types of Corruption1. Systemic corruption2. Sporadic (individual) corruption3. Political corruption4. Grand corruption5. Petty corruption6. Legal and Moral Corruption
CORRUPTION AND ITS DEEPIMPACT ON GOOD GOVERNANCE IN PAKISTAN AND INDIA
CORRUPTION IN CORRUPTION ON INDIA PAKISTAN • India has slipped to 87th spot in• Transparency Internationals• Pakistan 2008 Corruption latest ranking of nations based Perceptions Index Score is 2.5. on the level of corruption, with Out of 180 countries, it is ranked the global watchdog asserting as the 46th most corrupt country that perceptions about in the world. corruption in the country increased in the wake of the scam-tainted Commonwealth• Corruption jumps 400% in Games Transparency Pakistan in 3 years ICC T 20 World Cup 2009 Corruption in Pakistan has surged by • Internationals Corruption whopping 400 percent in the last Perception Index report 3 years, said National covering the public sector in Corruption Perception Survey 178 countries shows that India 2009 carried out by fell by three positions from its Transparency International. ranking of 84th in 2009.
• The National Corruption • With an integrity score of Perception Survey 2009 3.3, India is now ranked 87th in indicates that the overall the world in terms of corruption. Corruption in 2002 has Neighboring China is ahead of increased from Rs 45 Billion to India in the list at 78th Rs 195 Billion in 2009. place, with a score of 3.5.• Police and Power maintained • It was at 79th position in 2009. their ranking as the top two most corrupt sectors. Major • "India has gone down in the Findings of Pakistan National ranking as well as integrity score Corruption Perception Survey and this is a matter of concern 2009 and regret. It appears that the are: Police, Power, Health and level of governance has not Land are the most corrupt improved despite India having a departments, and skilled set of administrators. Judiciary, Customs & Taxation have improved their ranking
Economically Economically• The world economic forum’s • Increasing cases of Global Competitiveness Report corruption in India are• (2007-08) identifies corruption as becoming a threat to the the 3rd greatest problem for countryseconomy and will companies doing business in affect the nations aim to gain Pakistan after government bureaucracy and poor over 9 percent growth, says a infrastructure. survey. •• The report spells out the economic • A consultancy firm KMPG state of affairs, business environment and other factors in conducted the survey by 139 countries and places Pakistan questioning 100 top domestic at 123rd position. Pakistan’s and foreign businesses. It ranking is worsening at an pointed out that corruption alarming speed, it says. has increased to such an During the survey, business executives were asked to spell out extend that that foreign 15 hurdles and problems investors are being deterred confronting the business activities from the country. in the country.
• A majority of the respondents placed • According to The BBC, the report corruption on top followed by instability pointed that Corruption poses a risk of the government. Inconsistency of the to Indias projected 9 percent GDP policies is the third problem and inflation stands at fourth place. growth and would result in a volatile political and economic environment.• The fifth hurdle that confronts the business activity in the country as • The reports said: "Today India is determined by the report is an incompetent bureaucracy. faced with a different kind of challenge",• At the sixth place is theft seventh position is seeking financing and the tax rate was placed by business executives • "It is not about petty bribes any as the eighth issue. more, but scams to the tune of thousands of crores that highlight a• A rise in the inflationary trend is directly political/industry nexus which, if not proportional to speedy printing of currency notes. Its standing in this checked, could have a far reaching respect had touched the 137th position impact." out of 139 leaving behind only Venezuela and Ethiopia.
• The silver lining is also there Black money when we find the overall tax rate at 31.6, that is 37th in the world. • India tops the list for black money in the entire world with• In many European countries the almost US$1456 billion in Swiss tax rate is more than 40 percent. banks (USD 1.4 trillion approximately)• The country is 6th in the world in the form of black money. on the basis of population but its share in the GDP is only 0.63. • According to the data provided by the Swiss Banking• According to the WEF, Pakistan Association Report (2006), India occupies the 117th position as has more black far as corruption and maladministration is concerned, and 127th in • money than the rest of the world organised crime but at the 91st combined. Indian Swiss bank position as far as trust in account assets are worth 13 politicians is concerned times the country’s national debt. Indian black money is sometimes physically transferred abroad.
Corruption in taxes Corruption in taxes• According to the Transparency • None of the Government International Pakistan National department in India is corruption Corruption Perception Survey free. No of corruption cases also 2010, tax administration is ranked registered against Income Tax as the eighth most corrupt public Authorities. The corrupt systems sector, out of ten assessed public are developed by the authorities. sectors in Pakistan, and its ranking has improved in comparison to the • People have to pay money to avoid previous surveys. Nevertheless, still harassment’s per Anti Corruption more than half of the household Law, if an officer is caught with red respondents to the survey report handed is termed as corrupt. No having encountered corruption officer will demand the money in when dealing with the tax writing or will give receipt of money department. received.• This corruption includes paying • A man is so much harassed, he is bribes to reduce tax assessments helpless to pay money. If he will and to reduce tax. complaint, there will be further lot of harassment to him.
LAND AND PROPERTY LAND AND PROPERTY• Corrupt practices within real • At the root of India’s corruption estate commissions, industrial epidemic is the business of land allotment commissions and land allocation. revenue offices are not uncommon. • India does not have a rigorous• According to an International framework of property titles. Federation of Surveyors study, Corruption and Land • For historical reasons, much of the Administration 2006, there are land in this country is government numerous cases where high-level owned by default. officials have illegally accumulated land (both agricultural and industrial) and property for • Further, archaic, 19th century laws themselves and their relatives. allow state governments to expropriate farm property and• Furthermore, property rights are not redistribute it to private completely guaranteed. Both the entities, citing a decidedly bogus state and the military have on “public interest”. numerous occasions violated property rights.
•• The military-owned Fauji • This leads to a scarcity of land Foundation is the countrys largest available in the free market. As corporation and land owner. such, it becomes very valuable. Real estate prices in India’s• The Transparency cities, for example, are International Global Corruption astronomical. With the commodity Report 2008 reports that the of land being so prized, cash deals Defence Housing Authority and a black-market property regularly encroaches on private and economy are inevitable. provincial lands to replenish its stocks without negotiation or • Unless this system is payment. broken, corruption in India will never be seriously challenged.• One example of property rights violation was the suppression of the • A strong Lokpal law may focus on farmers movement by the military. big-ticket swindles at the very top — by Union ministers and• when tenant farmers protested Commonwealth Games against military land-grabbing organisers, for instance — but the initiatives. The protesters were fount of crony capitalism will not run detained for weeks, and some were dry. unlawfully arrested and tortured.
• According to the Association • The situation can be best for Progressive explained with a case study. Communications, the Pakistan Telecommunications • The office of the Comptroller Authority (PTA), the and Auditor General (CAG) regulatory authority of recently released its report on Pakistans Internet, issued Maharashtra government orders in August 2008 to public sector undertakings for block 6 websites, the year ending March 31, 2009.• as the content supposedly posted on these links was • It makes an interesting exposing Admiral Afzal reference to the Maharashtra Tahir, Pakistans Naval Airport Development Chief, as a land grabber and Company (MADC), set up in how he had been misusing 2002 to develop a “multi- his power. model international passenger and cargo hub airport” in Nagpur.
Religious institutions Religious institutions• Still worse is its impact on • In India, the corruption has also religious circles who sell fake crept into religious institutions. degrees to the needy politicians Some of the Church of North with impunity; show fake entries India are making money by of students get more Zakat selling Baptism certificates. money and sell religion edicts on need basis. • A group of church leaders and activists has launched a• At times it appears that the campaign to combat the whole structure has been soiled corruption within churches. and has replaced scholarship as it is becoming increasingly • The chief economic difficult to find a genuine consequences of corruption are religious scholar from any the loss to the economy an quarters. unhealthy climate for investment and an increase in the cost of government-subsidised services.
Armed Forces Armed Forces • The Indian Armed Forces have frequently witnessed corruption involving senior armed forces officers from the Indian• In the PAC meeting held at Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air the Parliament House under Force. the chairmanship of opposition leader Chaudhry • Many officers have been caught for Nisar Ali Khan, Audit officials allegedly selling defence stores in the black market in the border informed the committee that districts of Indian states and the Pakistan Army had been territories. using government land falling in A-1 category, worth Rs • Recent sukhna land scandal 120.767 billion, for involving four Indian Lieutenant commercial purposes. Generals has shaken public faith in the countrys growing military at a time when large sums are being spent on modernizing the armed forces.
• • A recent report of the Controller of Auditor General (CAG) paved• The audit report for Financial way for the action against Lt. Year 2010-11 revealed that the General(R) SK Sahni. relinquishment of the land of Fortress Stadium would be • The report revealed that soldiers based on at the rate of were supplied Rs150,000 per square wheat, rice, pulses and edible oil yard, while the recovery to be after 28 days of their expiry effected as in the case of a date. In this respect, food items private treaty arrangement would be amounting to a sum of • were bought at cheaper rates by arrears, already worked out in the contractors and then the special audit report, up to Rs supplied to various army 1.386 billion, excluding cost of units, while rations worth of Rs. land referred to above, which 1.92 crore were untraceable in would be equal to Rs 122.154 the Northern Command as of billion. March 2008. •
• Nonetheless, almost every month, we see some odd case of corruption in the Indian armed forces, but involvement of the senior ranked army officers like Major Generals, Lieutenant Generals and full Generals in corruption cases is a matter of concern for the whole Indian Army.• It is due to this fact that over the years, the confidence of the soldiers over their military leadership has been dwindling because of their mall-practices, raping women, involvement in sex scandals, becoming party to land mafia groups and involvement in financial embezzlements.•
Judiciary Judiciary • The people of the country have been relegated to the status of the• Corrupt politicians are out to curtail nobodies. The paid servants of the the judiciary to gag the voice it has state have cornered all the been raising for the betterment of powers, privileges, and the country and the people. prerogatives. The people have These views were expressed by been left high and dry. Ahsan Rasheed, President Pakistan Tehrek-e-Insaf Punjab • The legislature is answerable and chapter, on Monday. accountable to the people. The executive is accountable and• He said every institution in the answerable to the people but not country was depreciating due to the the judiciary. I fail to comprehend corruption of the rulers who were why the members of judiciary want striving only to ensure their power unbridled and unlimited powers. rule when the fact, courts were overburdened with the files of their • Whenever, there is a talk of judicial corruption cases. reforms in the country the CJI and others start screaming from the rooftops that the judiciary’s independence and freedom would be compromised if reforms were introduced.
• He said when the supreme court • The constitution of India has took notice of the corruption, the pampered the judiciary to the extent rulers used delaying tactics. He that judges of the higher courts think said judiciary was giving the themselves to be Gods or angels. politicians a chance to mend their They are neither. ways in order to save the system but they were exploiting even • They are as human as anybody else court’s sincere instructions as well. is. Is it their case that hey can do no wrong just because they have been appointed judges to the high courts• PTI leader said the nation was and the Supreme Court? They have facing gas, electricity crisis, price an approach of “Holier than thou” and hike, unemployment, increasing preach and sermonize all and sundry. crime rate and other countless Look at their performance. problems but these politicians were somersaulting on every issue to • Look at the administration of justice ensure their own rule as welfare of as delivered by the unbridled and the common man was not their irresponsible judiciary. Millions of priority. cases are pending in various courts including the Supreme Court of India. • According to a 2002 survey, 96 The conviction rate is hardly 30%. It percent of respondents in takes anything from 10 years to 30 Pakistan who had contact with years in deciding a case. The justice the lower courts had is a luxury and comes with a price encountered corrupt practices. tag.
Police Police• Police has maintained its distinction • Three out of four Indians believe of being at the top of corruption list political parties and the police are followed by Revenue and local extremely corrupt. Almost half the government departments, while people who had any contact with the education department has slightly police department in the past year improved its corruption rating by said they had to pay a bribe to get coming at number five. their work done.• The Transparency Interntional (TI) • This is among the findings of a report released a report on released by Berlinbased the International Anti-Corruption watchdog Transparency International. Day, 9th December. According to India, however, fared better than the report Pakistan Police is at the Kosovo, Cameroon, and top in corruption. Albania, which were the worst offenders, with around three quarters of respondents surveyed saying they• The rest two top corrupt institutions paid a bribe in the past 12 months. of Pakistan are the Political Parties Around the world, one in 10 people and Parliament. paid a bribe in the past year, with the police and judiciary seen to be pocketing the most money.
• It is not a hearsay but statement of Director General Anti-corruption Establishment Punjab Tariq Saleem Dogar who himself is a senior • The prognosis for India is not police officer and has joined ACE good. Compared to the 2006 on deputation basis. edition of the study, most• utilities and departments He revealed this while addressing a have fared worse in terms of Press conference at his office here public perception of on Friday. He said that total 9,179 inquiries were started during last six corruption. months from May 1st 2008 to November 30, 2008, out of which only 3,773 were against police, 590 • The only exception is the against employees of armed forces where public Revenue, 773 Local perception of corruption has government, 506 Irrigation and declined from 1.9 in 2006 to Power, 381 education, 258 1.8. Political parties score C&W, 89 E&T, 98 Agricultural and 2,711 inquiries were against 4.6, and the police 4.5. different department of the Punjab government. Similarly 1,597 cases were registered within this period out of which 571 against police, 491 Revenue and 111 against local
• CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS “Poor governance leads to, and encourages and breeds, corruption in a number of ways, for instance through bribery and extortion, nepotism and fraud and embezzlement, It reduces the efficiency on which an economy depends, and by increasing the cost of investment, lowers the potential Return. It also reduces the government’s resources and hence its capacity for investment” (a) Improving predictability and consistency between fiscal and human resources and the mandates of reformed judicial and public Institutions at the federal, provincial and local level. (b) Ensuring greater transparency and accountability in the performance of the judiciary, the police and administration justice institutions.
(c) Providing a legal basis for judicial, policy and administration Reforms. (d) Improving the efficiency time lines and effectiveness in judicial and Police services.(e) Supporting greater equality and accessibility in justice services for The vulnerable poor.