Scotland
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Scotland

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Scotland Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Scotland „In My Defens God Me Defend"
  • 2. Where is Scotland located?
  • 3. right here
  • 4. Scotland’s national flag is commonly known as Saint Andrew’s Flag or the Saltire and it was adopted in the 16th century. According to a legend Saint Andrew a martyr and Scotland’s patron was crucified on an X-shaped cross in Patras, Greece. National day: 30 November No official anthem – unofficial „Flower of Scotland” The Royal Standard was adopted in 1222 by Alexander II, King of Scots. Original version by the Corries (1967)
  • 5. National symbols of Scotland Floral emblem Heraldic symbol, unicorn was used as a royal standard before the lion Kilt(tartan)
  • 6. Demographics • 2011 census – 5,3 million • 96% white, 2.7% Asian, 0.7% Black, 0.4% Mixed, 0.2% Arab • Religion Christianity (Church of Scotland) – 42.4% Christianity (Roman Catholic) – 15.9% Christian (Other) – 6.8% Islam – 0.8% Hinduism – 0.1% Judaism – 0.1% Buddhism 0.1% No religion 27.6% • Language three official languages: English, Scots and Gaelic almost everyone speaks English (Scottish English) Scots language (Germanic) between 17 and 33% Gaelic (Celtic) only 1% • Fertility rate – 2.1%
  • 7. Government • Devolved government within constitutional monarchy • Monarch: Elizabeth II • First Minister: Alex Salmond • Prime Minister: David Cameron • Scottish Parliament established in 1999. • Limited self-government
  • 8. Edinburgh • Capital of Scotland • Centre of Scottish Parliament • Population: 482,640 • Centre of the Church of Scotland: St’ Giles Cathedral • Second strongest economy after London in the GB • Historical places: Holyrood Palace and Edinburgh Castle • Many museums and galleries • Banking and tourism Edinburgh Castle
  • 9. Glasgow • Largest city in Scotland • Population: 598,830 • Major centre in the Scottish Enlightenment • Main industrial centre • Large port • „Second City of the British Empire” • Shipbuilding, marine engineering, chemicals, textiles • Big Asian community • Royal Exchange Square, Glasgow Science Centre, Gallery of Modern Art
  • 10. Cuisine Scotland’s natural larder consists of hunted animals, fish (mostly salmon), dairy products, fruit and vegetables. Scotland is famous for its porridge and oatcakes, which were already made in 13th century. Perhaps the most famous (or infamous?) Scottish dish is haggis a sort of pudding which is made from a sheep’s heart, lungs and liver with onion, oatmeal and spices and simmered inside a sheep’s stomach Scotland is also renowned for its special blend of whisky.
  • 11. Highland Games and sports Highland games are held every year in different places around the globe with Braemar, Scotland and Dunoon being the most popular. There are so called heavy events, which require a lot of strength, for example tossing the caber, stone put, hammer throw and tugo-war. Attendees wear traditional Scottish clothing (kilts) and traditional music is played with bagpipes. Popular sports in Scotland include rugby, football, cricket, golf and tennis. Perhaps the most known sportsman from Scotland is Andy Murray who won the 2012 Olympic men’s tennis title.
  • 12. Geography Ben Nevis
  • 13. Scotland’s geography is very varied with rural lowlands to barren highlands. There are unihabitated places but large cities as well. Total area: 78,772 km2 Borders the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the North Sea to the east. The only country Scotland borders is England to the south. Around 31,460 lakes (lochs), Loch Lomond and Loch Ness being the biggest. Many rivers: River Tay (193 km) Around 790 islands in the Shetlands, Orkneys and Hebrides Ben Nevis – highest mountain located in Grampian Mountains – 1,344 meters high Two national parks: Cairngorms National Park – Cairngorms Mountains, Loch Lomond and The Trossachs National Park – biggest lake in the country and surrounding mountains
  • 14. Loch Lomond Loch Ness and its’ famous „monster” Nessie
  • 15. Isle of Skye
  • 16. Fauna and Flora Animals: • Lynx • Brown bear • Wolf • Elk • Wildcat • Lots of sheep • Lots of fish Plants: • Fir trees • Pines • Ferns • Scottish Primrose • Birch trees • Ooooaaakk • Thistle
  • 17. Climate • Climate is temperate and oceanic • Mild winters • Lower temperatures than in the rest of Great Britain • Western Scotland is warmer than the Eastern part • Tiree in the Inner Hebrides is the warmest place • Annual rainfall in the Highlands is 3,000mm • Annual rainfall in the Lowlands is 800mm
  • 18. Some history • First proper settlements around 9,500BC • Celts arrive in Britain in 500BC. • Picts and Gaels merged and became Scots later also mixing with Britons. • 1st century BC – Romans invaded Scotland but met with a high resistance • Hadrian’s Wall and Antonine’s Wall were erected to control the Celts. Oldest house in Scotland – 3500BC – Orkney Islands
  • 19. • After the Romans left The Kingdom of The Picts was established with Kenneth MacAlpin being the first monarch. • The line was broken in 1286, and Edward I of England started taking control of Scotland. • Wars of Scottish Independence (1296–1328), led by William Wallace and Robert the Bruce who later became king. • In 1603 James VI inherited both the throne of England and Scotland. • In 1706 the Treaty of Union was passed and Kingdom of Great Britain was established.
  • 20. • In the 18th century many Jacobites Risings took place in Britain and were popular in the Highlands. • The 19th century saw large Scottish contributions to science (Scottish Enlightenment). • In 1998 the British parliament passed the Scotland Act 1998, and the Scottish Parliament was established once again.
  • 21. Famous Scots • Historical figures • Poets, writers Robert Burns William Wallace Robert the Bruce Sir Walter Scott James VI and I Robert Louis Stevenson A.A. Milne Mary, Queen of Scots
  • 22. • Scientists and philosophers Alexander Graham Bell first practical telephone Adam Smith Father of modern economy Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin John Watt modernised the steam engine
  • 23. • Sportspeople Rob Wainwright rugby player Chris Hoy track cyclist Andy Murray tennis player Allan Robertson one of the first pro tennis players
  • 24. • Actors and TV personalities Billy Boyd David Tennant Sean Connery Ewan McGregor Gordon Ramsay Billy Connolly Gerard Butler
  • 25. • Musicians and bands Amy Macdonald Lonnie Donegan Franz Ferdinand The Jesus and Mary Chain