SCOTLAND Realizado por: · Estela Rodríguez Moreno · Olga Sánchez Ruiz · Antonio Mª Rodríguez Alonso · Samuel Rodríguez Ortega
Emblem: Nemo me impure lacessitFlag: Cross of St AndrewNational Day: 30th NovemberArea: 78.387 Km2Population: 5.222.100Capital City: EdinburghMajor Cities: Glasgow, AberdeenOfficial Language: EnglishNationality: Scottish and BrithishAnthem: Flower of ScotlandMain religions: Church of Scotland, Scottish Episcopal Church, Roman CatholicismCurrency: PoundsHighest point: Ben NevisLowest point: Bed of Loch MorarLongest river: River TayLargest Lake: Loch LomandOfficial Animal: Robin
Geography SCOTLAND Scotland is a very small country. It is 441 kilometers long. The coastline is so jagged that it adds up to 3218 kilometers. At its widest point it is 248 kilometers. At its narrowest it is only 40 kilometers. Because of Scotland´s narrowness and its deep inlets, it is never possible to get far away from the sea. Scotland occupies the northern third of the islands of Great Britain. The river Tweed and the Cheviot Hills form Scotland’s southern border with England. The Northwest Channel separates southwestern Scotland from Northern Ireland. The northwest coast faces the Atlantic Ocean. East faces the North Sea. The east coast faces the North Sea, which separates Scotland from the mainland of Europe. The highest point is Ben Nevis ( 1344 meters ), and the lowest point is Bed of Loch Morar (300 meters below sea level ).
Regions• The Highlands: Is a rugged, barren region that covers the north of Scotland. There are two major mountain ranges, the Northwest Highlands and the Grampian Mountains rise in this region. In this region, it is Ben Nevis.• The Lowlands: The valleys of the Rivers Clyde, Fourth, and Tay cross the Central Lowlands. This region has Scotland’s best farmland. Wide, fertile fields and low hills with patches of trees cover the entire region.• The Southern Uplands: The top of the hills are largely barren, but rich pasture land covers most of the lower slopes. Many sheep and cattle are raised in the southern uplands.
HISTORY • The recorded history of Scotland begins with the arrival of the Roman Empire in Britain, when the Romans established the Roman province of Britannia in the southern part of Great Britain, as far north as Hadrians Wall. To the north was territory not governed by the Romans — Caledonia, by name. Its people were the Picts. Scotland was invaded by Gaels (Scoti) from Ireland, the Anglo-Saxons from the continent and the Norse from Scandinavia. The Kingdom of Scotland was established in the 9th century.CALEDONIA • William Wallace: Sir William Wallace was a Scottish knight and landowner who became one of the main leaders during the Wars of Scottish Independence. Along with Andrew Morray, Wallace defeated an English army at the Battle of Stirling Bridge in 1297, and was Guardian of Scotland, serving until his defeat at the Battle of Falkirk. In 1305, Wallace was captured in Robroyston near Glasgow and handed over to King Edward I of England, who had him hanged, drawn, and quartered for high treason and crimes against English civilians. He is the protagonist of the famous film Braveheart.
FAMOUS PEOPLE• Walter Scott: Scott was born on August 15, 1771, in Edinburgh as the son of lawyer Walter Scott and Anne, a daughter of professor of medicine. He attended Edinburgh High School and studied at Edinburgh University arts and law. Scott was apprenticed to his father in 1786 and in 1792 he was called to the bar. In 1799 he was appointed sheriff depute of the county of Selkirk. In 1797 Scott married Margaret Charlotte Charpenter. They had five children. He died on September 21, in 1832.• Arthur Conan Doyle: Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle was born on 22 May 1859 in Edinburgh, Scotland, the eldest son born to Roman Catholic parents Mary née Foley and artist Charles Altamont Doyle . Charles would lead a life troubled by alcoholism and depression; after spending much time in mental institutions, he died in Scotland in 1893. During his years of studies and afterwards he wrote numerous articles and stories for such publications They include "The Captain of the Pole-Star", "The Five Orange Pips", "The Heiress of Glenmahowley", "J. Habakuk Jephsons Statement", and "The Man From Archangel".
NESSIE The Loch Ness "monster" -- affectionately known as "Nessie" -- is an alleged plesiosaur-like creature living in Loch Ness, a long, deep lake near Inverness, Scotland. Many sightings of the "monster" have been recorded, going back at leastas far as St. Columba, the Irish monk who converted most of Scotland to Christianityin the 6th century. Columba apparently converted Nessie, too; for it is said that until he went out on the waters and soothed the beast, she had been a murderess. The modern legend of Nessie begins in 1934 with Dr. Robert Kenneth Wilson, a London physician, who allegedly photographed a plesiosaur-like beast with a long neck emerging out of the murky waters.
GOVERNMENT• The Scottish Government (formerly known as the Scottish Executive) is the devolved government for Scotland. It develops and implements policy, and is accountable to the Scottish Parliament. It is responsible for many issues, including health, education, justice, rural affairs and transport. Led by the First Minister, it is made up of Cabinet Secretaries and Ministers.• Scottish parliament: The Scottish Parliament debates topical issues and passes laws on devolved matters affecting Scotland. It also scrutinises the work and policies of the Scottish Government. It is made up of 129 elected Members of the Scottish Parliament (MSPs), and meets at Holyrood in Edinburgh.
CLANS• The Clan is a concept which dates back to the 12th Century. The Scottish clans were originally extended networks of families who had loyalties to a particular chief, but the word clan is derived from the Gaelic clann, meaning literally children.
TRADITIONAL FOOD AND DRINK · What is “haggis” ?It is a dish containing sheep’s “pluck”, minced with onion, oatmeal, suet, spices and salt, mixed with stock.· What is “shortbread”? It is a type of unleavened biscuits wich is traditionally made from one part white sugar, two parts butter and three parts oatmeal flour. · Whisky: It is a type of distilled alcoholic beverage made from fermented grain mash. HAGGIS SHORTBREAD WHISKY
POPULAR SPORT IN SCOTLAND Sport plays a central role in Scottish culture. The temperate, oceanic climate has played a key part in the evolution of sport in Scotland, with all-weather sports like association football, rugby union and golf dominating the national sporting consciousness.· GOLF: Scotland is the "Home of Golf", and is well-knownfor its many links courses, including the Old Course at StAndrews, Carnoustie, Muirfield and Royal Troon. Scotlandis at the forefront of international golf, with some of theworlds premier courses being located there.· ICE HOCKEY: Scotland has a very long successful historyof ice hockey. Scotland are host to the oldest ice hockeyteam in Britain which are the Fife Flyers. At the momentthere are four Scottish teams competing in the UK-wideElite Ice Hockey League.
TRADITIONAL SCOTTISH MUSIC AND SONG Scotland is internationally known for its traditional music, which has remained vibrant throughout the 20th century ways Scottish music is similar to Irish music. In many Scottish groups often include Irish musicians. Singers such as Andy M. Stewart or Connie Dover switch back and forth between Irish and Scottish songs naturally."Auld Lang Syne" is a Scots poem written by RobertBurns in 1788 and set to the tune of a traditional folk song.It is well known in many countries, especially in theEnglish-speaking world; its traditional use being tocelebrate the start of the New Year at the stroke ofmidnight. By extension, it is also sung at funerals,graduations and as a farewell or ending to other occasions.The phrase "Auld Lang Syne" is also used in similar poemsby Robert Ayton (1570–1638), Allan Ramsay (1686–1757),and James Watson (1711) as well as older folk songspredating Burns. Matthew Fitt uses the phrase "In thedays of auld lang syne" as the equivalent of "Once upon atime..." in his retelling of fairy tales in the Scots language. Robert Burns
THE CAPITAL: EDINBURGHEdinburgh is the capital city of Scotland, the second largest city in Scotland, and the eighth most populous in the United Kingdom. The City of Edinburgh Council governs one of Scotlands 32 local government council areas. The council area includes urban Edinburgh and a 78 km2 rural area. Located in the south-east of Scotland, Edinburgh lies on the east coast of the Central Belt, along the Firth of Forth, near the North Sea. Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Parliament. The city is one of the historical major centres of the Enlightenment, led by the University of Edinburgh, helping to earn it the nickname Athens of the North. Climate: Edinburgh has a temperate, maritime climate which is relatively mild despite its northerly latitude.Winters are generally mild, with daytime temperatures rarely falling below freezing, . Summer temperatures are normally moderate, with daily upper maxima rarely exceeding 22 °C.The highest temperature ever recorded in the city was 31.4 °C on 4 August 1975 at Turnhouse Airport. The lowest temperature recorded in recent years was -14.6 °C during December 2010 at Gogarbank. FIRTH OF FORTH CLIMATE EDINBURGH
FESTIVALS AND CELEBRATIONS• Hogmanay:To this day, Hogmanay is still a more important festival in Scotland than Christmas. Historians believe that they inherited the celebration from the Vikings who, coming from even further north than scotland, paid even more attention to the passing of the shortest day. While clearly celebrated around the world, the Scots have a long rich heritage associated with this event, when the whole country celebrates in the build up to "the bells" chiming midnight - and Burns song "Auld Lang Syne" is murdered once again!• The Edinburgh Festival: The Edinburgh International Festival is a festival of performing arts that takes place HOGMANAY in the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, over three weeks from around the middle of August. By invitation from the Festival Director, the International Festival brings top class performers of music (especially classical music), theatre, opera and dance from around the world to perform. The festival also hosts a series of visual art exhibitions, talks and workshops.• Robert Burn’s Festival: Robert Burns was born on 25 January 1759 in Alloway in Scotland and died on 21 July 1796. In his short life he made a tremendous impression on many people in Scotland, so it was only natural that they should want to mark his life and works with some sort of celebration. THE EDINBURG FESTIVAL