CLAUDIA’S NOTES ON
MULTIPLE
SCLEROSIS
CLAUDIA CHANDLER, THE CHICAGO SCHOOL, 2014
• Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, often
disabling disease that attacks the central
nervous system (CNS), which is ma...
>Predominant age: 20-40
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS AFFECT:
0.1%Worldwide incidence
Higher
incidence in
Northern
European
descent a...
Blood-brain barrier
breakdown
The BBB prevent entrance of T cells into the nervous system.
The blood–brain barrier is norm...
The most common initial symptoms
•changes in sensation in the arms, legs or face
(33%)
•Optic neuritis (20%)
•weakness (13...
Disconnect
Medical vs. Psychosocial
Disconnect
Medical vs. Psychosocial
Overwhelmed with diagnosis
- Overloaded by amount ...
““
“The quality of life in
patients with MS is not solely
determined by physical
disability, but rather by the
level of so...
Bring on the
Healthcare Extenders!
(The treatment team)
Awesome!
Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis
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Multiple Sclerosis

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Overview of MS

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Multiple Sclerosis

  1. 1. CLAUDIA’S NOTES ON MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS CLAUDIA CHANDLER, THE CHICAGO SCHOOL, 2014
  2. 2. • Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, often disabling disease that attacks the central nervous system (CNS), which is made up of the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves. • Symptoms may be mild, such as numbness in the limbs, or severe, such as paralysis or loss of vision. • The progress, severity, and specific symptoms of MS are unpredictable and vary from one person to another. Today, new treatments and advances in research are giving new hope to people affected by the disease. • Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, often disabling disease that attacks the central nervous system (CNS), which is made up of the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves. • Symptoms may be mild, such as numbness in the limbs, or severe, such as paralysis or loss of vision. • The progress, severity, and specific symptoms of MS are unpredictable and vary from one person to another. Today, new treatments and advances in research are giving new hope to people affected by the disease. The Invisible Side of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Understanding and Treating Psychosocial Barriers What is Multiple Sclerosis? (MS)
  3. 3. >Predominant age: 20-40 MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS AFFECT: 0.1%Worldwide incidence Higher incidence in Northern European descent and in temperate climate, but the latitude gradient is decreasing The ratio is increasing now people in US have MS 400, 000 1–3% risk of MS among 1st-degree relatives worse prognosis Highly variable and unpredictable
  4. 4. Blood-brain barrier breakdown The BBB prevent entrance of T cells into the nervous system. The blood–brain barrier is normally not permeable to these types of cells, unless triggered by infection or a virus, which decreases the integrity of the tight junctions. When the blood–brain barrier regains its integrity, usually after infection or virus has cleared, the T cells are trapped inside the brain. Autoimmunology The immune system attacks the nervous system, forming plaques or lesions. Commonly involves white matter. Destroys oligodendrocytes- causing demyelination Remyelination occurs in early phase but not completely. Repeated attacks lead to fewer remyelination. Inflammation T-cells attacks on myelin triggers inflammatory processes, stimulating other immune cells and soluble factors like cytokines and antibodies. Leaks form in the BBB cause swelling, activation of macrophages, and more activation of cytokines and other destructive proteins Pathophysiology
  5. 5. The most common initial symptoms •changes in sensation in the arms, legs or face (33%) •Optic neuritis (20%) •weakness (13%) •double vision- internuclear opthalmoplegia (7%) •unsteadiness when walking (5%) •and balance problems (3%) Lhermitte's sign  (25-40%) is an electrical sensation  that runs down the back and into the limbs and is  produced by bending the neck forwards. The sign  suggests a lesion of the dorsal columns of the cervical  cord or of the caudal medulla. Uhthoff's phenomenon is the worsening of neurologic  symptoms in multiple sclerosis and other neurological,  demyelinating conditions when the body gets overheated  from hot weather, exercise, fever, or saunas and hot  tubs.
  6. 6. Disconnect Medical vs. Psychosocial Disconnect Medical vs. Psychosocial Overwhelmed with diagnosis - Overloaded by amount of information they are given - Depression due to isolation and mounting losses - Fear and uncertainty about the future - Loss of roles: parent, spouse, worker, active member of society - Concern about financial issues - Difficulty with activities of daily
  7. 7. ““ “The quality of life in patients with MS is not solely determined by physical disability, but rather by the level of social support, living area, depression, level of education, employment, fatigue and religiosity… we suggest that these should be evaluated in every patient with MS as they may be modified by targeted interventions.” (Yamout et al, 2013)
  8. 8. Bring on the Healthcare Extenders! (The treatment team) Awesome!

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