Sneakernets: Bringing the Mountain to You Sameer Verma, Ph.D. Professor Information Systems Department San Francisco State University San Francisco, CA 94132 USA http://verma.sfsu.edu [email_address] @sameerverma Seminar Department of Computing University of the West Indies, Jamaica Unless noted otherwise
sneakernet Walking data across buildings on a storage device from one computer to another. High bandwidth, high latency. “ The theoretical capacity of a Boeing 747 filled with Blu-Ray discs is 595,520,000 Gigabytes, resulting in a 245,829 Gbit/s flight from New York to Los Angeles.” – Wikipedia
Internet Access http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Internet_Penetration.png
Can information flow like water? http://ltse.env.duke.edu/files/ltse/images/India%20Persian%20wheel%20irrigation%20Ganges%20Plain.jpg
A water “battery”. Can we build information batteries?
Viva La Revolución Can we spark a paradigm shift by providing equitable access to information all over the world?
Somebody is finally thinking of the children! To create educational opportunities for the world's poorest children by providing each child with a rugged, low-cost, low-power, connected laptop with content and software designed for collaborative, joyful, self-empowered learning. — OLPC Mission Statement, It's an education project, not a laptop project. — Nicholas Negroponte
Mission OLPC's mission is to empower the world's poorest children through education We aim to provide each child with a rugged, low-cost, low-power, connected laptop. To this end, we have designed hardware, content and software for collaborative, joyful, and self-empowered learning. With access to this type of tool, children are engaged in their own education, and learn, share, and create together. They become connected to each other, to the world and to a brighter future.
What does the XS look like? Reality View http://www.flickr.com/photos/popcorncx/149706221/
What does the XS look like? <ul><li>Any x86 box with requisite memory, crunch and storage can be the XS. </li><ul><li>It could also be a ARM machine in the near future... </li></ul><li>Ideally, we want a machine that </li><ul><li>Consumes very little power
Other media </li></ul><li>Backup </li><ul><li>Journal/Datastore backup </li></ul><li>XO Software updates </li><ul><li>Push updates including firmware and OS images </li></ul><li>Activity server </li><ul><li>Pushing activity bundles </li></ul></ul>
Networking <ul><li>Provides networking infrastructure for the school.
Acts as an Internet gateway (if backhaul exists) </li><ul><li>Includes HTTP proxy (optional)
Identity management <ul><li>Single One Time Passwords (SOTP) for maintenance. </li><ul><li>Remote ISP maintenance, etc. </li></ul><li>OLPC XO Browse </li><ul><li>authenticates seamlessly with Moodle
Moodle talks to ejabberd for permissions, etc. </li></ul><li>First XO to access Moodle </li><ul><li>This XO becomes admin.
This XO can assign other teachers, course creators, and other such roles </li></ul></ul>
Collaboration <ul><li>XMPP-based collaboration via ejabberd. </li><ul><li>Ejabberd is a XMPP (jabber) server written in erlang. </li></ul><li>Uses gabble mode under telepathy in Sugar. </li><ul><li>Gabble allows for server-based collaboration </li></ul><li>XOs switch to salut mode in case no XS is found. </li><ul><li>Salut allows for peer-to-peer collaboration </li></ul><li>Activities such as Chat, Write, Memorize use XMPP to collaborate. </li></ul>http://xmpp.org/ http://collabora.co.uk http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telepathy_software
Storage <ul><li>Much of the storage lives in /library partition. </li><ul><li>Mount /library on external USB disk or other media and expand storage.
Run rest of the system off a CF or SD card (solid state) </li></ul><li>Files can be served as </li><ul><li>links via Moodle
links via Apache (add Apache config) </li></ul></ul>
Backup <ul><li>Three processes: </li><ul><li>Traffic control </li><ul><li>provides basic "traffic control" to manage load. </li></ul><li>Backup-complete script </li><ul><li>Creates links for latest snapshot. </li></ul><li>Daily cleanup </li><ul><li>enforces a per-user "soft" quota. </li></ul></ul></ul>
Updates <ul><li>Pushing updates to OS image and firmware via rsync. </li></ul>
Fit PC and Fit PC2 <ul><li>Fit PC works well and is comparable to the XO-1 in performance. </li><ul><li>More configurable than the XO-1.
Replace a SSD in the FitPC to make it cooler and more power efficient. </li><ul><li>http://www.fit-pc.com/fit-pc1/ </li></ul></ul><li>Fit PC2 has heat problems. </li><ul><li>Intel Atom runs too hot </li><ul><li>Surprise, surprise.
Maybe glue on a large heat sink? </li></ul></ul></ul>http://www.flickr.com/photos/ndevil/3535934684/
Hardware recommendations <ul><li>Schools with up to 100 laptops: </li><ul><li>1GHz CPU, 1GB RAM,
A zip file, which includes content and structure for the entire course! Moving courses ...deploy in Madagascar! Create in San Francisco...
XS: Internet in a box No Internet? No power? No problem :-) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OLPC_XS http://wiki.laptop.org/go/School_server
Pathagar: A Book Server Open Publication Distribution System Pathagar : Path + Agar पाठागार : पाठ + आगार A Practical Hindi-English Dictionary http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/caturvedi/
Problem: Dissemination of Media in remote places <ul><li>Books </li><ul><li>Portable Document Format (PDF) </li><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pdf </li></ul><li>Electronic Publication format (ePub) </li><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EPUB </li></ul><li>Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) </li><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Html </li></ul></ul><li>All digital “media” are a collection of bits. So we can also disseminate </li><ul><li>Music
OPDS: Open Publication and Distribution System <ul><ul><li>OPDS Specification </li><ul><li>The Open Publication Distribution System (OPDS) Catalog is a syndication format for electronic publications based on Atom RFC4287 and HTTP RFC2616.
Catalogs enable the aggregation, distribution, discovery, and acquisition of electronic publications.
OPDS Catalogs use existing or emergent open standards and conventions, with a priority on simplicity. </li></ul></ul></ul>http://code.google.com/p/openpub
Book Server <ul><li>Book Server = OPDS Server
Repository </li><ul><li>Add books, along with title, author, language, description, etc.