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A Framework for Information Access
in Rural and Remote Communities.
Presented at: ISTAS 2016
October 20-22, 2016
Trivandrum, Kerala, India
Sameer Verma, Ph.D.
Professor, Information Systems
San Francisco State University
San Francisco, CA 94132 USA
Sameer Verma, Ph.D.
sverma@sfsu.edu
● Professor, Information Systems
● College of Business
● Interests: Access to Information,
Remote/offline networks, Free
and Open Source Software,
Digital Commons, Open Data.
John P. Ryan, Ph.D.
john@peoplecentered.net
Introduction
● Universal access to the Internet
– Tool for empowering
– Take ownership
– Build capability and capacity
● Analyze very specific, but central problems in the field
● Propose a framework
– Access to electricity
– Access to the Internet
● Three case studies
– Madagascar, Jamaica, India
Access to Information
● The limited scalability of analog access
● 48.6% of the world's population is connected
● Internet access is not a binary variable (yes/no)
– Throughput, latency, etc.
● High variance in use cases
– Email, Web, Netflix
Access to Electricity
● 1.2 billion people live without any form of
electricity
– South Sudan is at 5.06%
– Samoa sits at 100%
● Rural electrification rate sits at 67%
– Latin America: 85%
– Africa: 26%
Devices
● Low-powered mobile devices
– Smartphones
– Tablets
● Year-on-Year (YoY) growth of 9.8% in 2015
(1.43 billion units shipped)
● Expect to ship 1.86 billion units in 2019
● Estimated mobile devices worldwide: 4.61
billion units
Framework
Electricity
Internet
Framework
Electricity
Internet
Case Studies
● Madagascar
– Town of Maroantsetra in eastern Madagascar.
– Surrounding rural villages not on the electrical grid.
– Non-traditional power sources such as water
turbines, solar panels and diesel generators.
Madagascar: Location
Madagascar: Server
Content Delivery
● Pathagar (http://pathagar.info)
– Python Django
– Embedded database
– OPDS: Open Publication
and Distribution System
● Malagasy and French
Case Studies
● Jamaica
– Primary school in August Town, a small town on the
outskirts of Kingston, Jamaica.
– On electrical grid.
– Single DSL line. Not reliable.
Jamaica: Location
Jamaica: Server
Jamaica: Content Delivery
● Pathagar (http://pathagar.info)
– Python Django
– OPDS: Open
Publication and
Distribution System
● Moodle
– Learning Management
System
– Class-based materials
Case Studies
● India
– Bhagmalpur, a small village in Uttar Pradesh, India.
● Hundred kilometers north of Varanasi.
– Unreliable electrical grid.
● Solar + diesel generators.
– Unreliable Internet access.
● 2G/3G dongle.
India: Location
India: Server
India: Server
India: Content Delivery
● Wikipedia
● TED Talks
● Khan Academy
● Openstreetmap
● Project Gutenberg
● Audio/Music
● Pathagar
1TB hard drive for offline content
Framework
Electricity
Internet
Conclusion
● Begin with the use case.
● Examine access to electricity.
● Examine access to the Internet.
● Select network infrastructure technology.
● Select content delivery technology accordingly.
● Focus on off-the-shelf equipment.
● Focus on Commons licensing.
Future Scope
● Community participation
● Learning analytics
Community participation
Bailey, A., McNaughton, M., Muschette, N. and Verma, S. (2015) The
Role of ICTs in Early Childhood Education in Jamaica: Early
Observations from a One Laptop per Child Pilot Project. Caribbean
Journal of Education. Vol 37, No. 1
Analytics - XOVis
Eventual Consistency
Cloud
Micro-Cloud
Micro-Cloud
Micro-Cloud
CouchDB
CouchDB
CouchDB
CouchDB
Incremental replication
XOVis: Quest for Data
Workshop
Sameer Verma
sverma@sfsu.edu
Anish Mangal
anishmg@umich.edu
Leh, Ladakh. Perhaps the highest solar-powered
offline content service.
Thank you

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