About me • Only child • Moved 10 times before 8th grade • Went to college to be Medieval/ Renaissance History Professor • 6 jobs before Wunderman • Been to all 50 states and their capitals by 17 (OK, all the Canadian Provinces too) • I’ve been described as: – “Doggedly optimistic” – “Broadband” – “Iron fist, velvet glove”
Introductions§ Me§ You – Format: – name (duh) – What you do (e.g. company, role) – Fun fact
Shared Context§ How would you define the term Strategy?
Today1. Introductions2. Why we need Strategy (don’t we?)3. Definitions: Strategy, Insight4. Guest Speaker: Creative & Strategy5. Tools for Finding Insights6. Making Strategy Actionable7. Flavors of Strategy
What you’ll get out of today(hopefully)§ How do define a Strategy – How to generate them§ How to define an Insight – How to find them§ How to use these in the real world§ A little networking on the side
Strategy in context:§ Objective: what you are trying to accomplish§ Strategy: an evidence-based approach to achieving your objective that is based on an understanding of opportunities and obstacles (social, attitudinal, systems- based)§ Tactics: the activities to be undertaken that are a manifestation of the strategy§ Outputs: measurable accomplishment of tactics§ Outcomes: measurable accomplishment of your objective
Another way of framingObjective Goal Strategy TacticA marketing A marketing goal is A marketing strategy Tactics are definedobjective is a defined as a desired is defined as your as specific andmission or purpose result or specific game plan to discrete actionsin which all and measurable achieve your (implementationmarketing plans will achievement objectives steps) that will bebe based upon, taken in support ofbroader in scope the strategiesthan goals
Origin of Strategy "στρατηγία" (strategia) office of general, command, generalship “στρατηγός" (strategos) leader or commander of an army, general "στρατός" (stratos) + "ἀγός" (agos) army, host leader, chief
What is strategy? "All men can see these tactics whereby I conquer, but what none can see is the strategy out of which victory is evolved." Sun Tzu, ‘The Art of War’
Therefore…§ Tactics deal with the use and deployment of troops in actual combat.
War § Goal: – Win the war. § Strategy: – “Divide and conquer.” (vs. “Nuke ‘Em.”) § Tactics: – CIA spies gather intelligence. – Navy Seals knock out enemy communications while paratroopers secure the airports. – Armored Divisions race in and divide the opposing army’s forces. – Drone attacks take out the enemy leadership. – An overwhelming force of infantry invade.Source: http://www.brandinsightblog.com/2009/11/01/marketing-strategy-vs-tactics/
Think of it this way§ A strategy is an idea… A conceptualization of how the goal could be achieved.§ Therefore a strategy is conceptual. – A tactic isn’t. Usually.
Another way to think of it§ Strategy is – WHAT you are going to do§ Tactics are – HOW you are going to do it
An example§ Goal: Increase lagging Baking Soda sales.§ Strategy: Devise new reasons for their current customers to pick up that yellow box at the supermarket. Specifically, sell Arm & Hammer as a deodorizer for the fridge, use it in your cat litter, and my favorite – dump it down the sink to ‘sweeten the drain’ after it’s been in the fridge.§ Tactics: TV advertising. Magazine ads. Infomercials. Retail promotions. Website and user-generated content.
strategy & goalsare not synonymous§ Here are a few examples of misguided strategies: – “Create awareness” – “Overcome objections” – “Boost consumer confidence”§ These are NOT strategies, they’re goals. (And not even very good goals.) Remember, it’s not a strategy unless there’s an idea behind it.
Strategy should come fromStrategies§ There is always more than one right answer§ HBR:“Bringing Science to the Art of Strategy”: – “generate possibilities” – Status quo can be one of those – Three to five distinct choices
In short…§ A tactic is an action you take to execute the strategy.
What is our definition of aStrategy? “Our Game Plan to achieve our Objectives”
Strategy in context:§ Objective: what you are trying to accomplish§ Strategy: an evidence-based approach to achieving your objective that is based on an understanding of opportunities and obstacles (social, attitudinal, systems- based)§ Tactics: the activities to be undertaken that are a manifestation of the strategy§ Outputs: measurable accomplishment of tactics§ Outcomes: measurable accomplishment of objective
Where Strategy fitsObjective Goal Strategy TacticA marketing A marketing goal is A marketing strategy Tactics are definedobjective is a defined as a desired is defined as your as specific andmission or purpose result or specific game plan to discrete actionsin which all and measurable achieve your (implementationmarketing plans will achievement objectives steps) that will bebe based upon, taken in support ofbroader in scope the strategiesthan goals
T-Mobile example…Objective Goal Strategy TacticA marketing A marketing goal is A marketing strategy Tactics are definedobjective is a defined as a desired is defined as your as specific andmission or purpose result or specific game plan to discrete actionsin which all and measurable achieve your (implementationmarketing plans will achievement objectives steps) that will bebe based upon, taken in support ofbroader in scope the strategiesthan goalsImprove customer Improve perception of Establish a new • Create a coverageperception of T-Mobile T-Mobile’s network conversation by hub on website coverage as measured sidestepping the map • Communicate network in customer satisfaction and statistics wars, updates via email tracking by 2 focusing on newsletter percentage points continuous network • Dropped call innovation and value submission tool
How do I know it’s a strategy?§ Litmus test – Go back to definitions – Is it a goal, objective or tactic disguised as a Strategy?
The “What-if We”Test§ “What if we came up with a bunch of new uses for baking soda?” – That’s a strategy.§ “What if we search engine” doesn’t make sense. – Must be a tactic.§ “What if we increase market share?” – No idea, must be a goal.
Exercise!§ Practice makes better – (nobody’s perfect)§ Deconstruct these ads – What’s the: – Objective – Goal – Strategy – Tactic
Where Insights fit Facts Observations INSIGHT IDEA Opinions
Where did ‘Insight’ come from?§ c.1200 – innsihht – “sight with the eyes of the mind”§ "mental vision" – Get it? in + sight§ By 1580s: – "penetrating understanding into character or hidden nature"
What is our definition of anInsight? “A truth hiding in plain sight”
Examples of Insights§ Old Spice –body wash is a product women buy for men but never discuss with them§ Folgers – coffee’s smell (not taste) wakes people up first§ Jif – moms worry they’re inadequate§ Milk – no one appreciates milk until there’s none around
Insights can be based on:§ Real or perceived weakness in competitive product performance or value§ Attitudinal or perceived barrier in the minds of customers§ Untapped or compelling belief or practice
Insights are most effectivewhen they are:§ Unexpected§ Create a disequilibrium§ Change momentum§ Exploited via a benefit or point of difference that your brand can deliver
How to judge an Insight IS ISN’T § Based on a § Obvious simple human § Universal truth § Complicated § Specific to an § Something a Audience consumer would § Simple say (too obvious) § Evocative § Arbitrary § Inextricable
Judging your Insight Will people ‘get it’? Is it something new? Is it simple enough? Can you support it? Will it effect change?
Exercise (again)!§ Practice makes better – (again)§ Deconstruct this ad – What was the insight?
What’s the difference? Qualitative Quantitative• Deals with descriptions • Deals with numbers• Data can be observed • Data which can be measured but not measured • Length, height, area, volume,• Colors, textures, smells, weight, speed, time, tastes, appearance, temperature, humidity, sound beauty levels, cost, members, ages• Qualitative → Quality • Quantitative → Quantity
Example: UW freshmen class Qualitative Quantitative§ friendly demeanors § 672 students§ civic minded § 394 women, 278 men§ Environmentalists § 68% on honor roll§ positive school spirit § 150 students accelerated mathematics
1) Identify the Issue§ An opportunity for, or obstacle to, growth – Choose the issue of highest priority or where you will see the most impact.
Issue thought-starters:§ If I were a competitor, how would I put myself out of business?§ What changes would obsolete our products/services?§ If a good customer were to leave, what would be their reasons?§ How would we cope with losing several key employees?§ How could we double industry financial norms?§ If I had a magic wand and could change something in my organization, what would it be?§ Where am I personally holding the company back?
2) Create AssumptionsReasons why the issue is important§ Every strategic plan is built on a set of assumptions: those things you believe to be true.§ Worst-and best-case scenarios if issue is unsolved or solved.§ Declare your reasons to finish regardless of obstacles.§ Also need to make an assumption about how the issue will impact your revenue to rationalize ROI for plan.
3) Identify ValuesBeliefs/behaviors that drive success§ Specific to your issue. Not all your values.§ Pick the one that can be relied upon to successfully implement your strategy.§ Don’t attempt something that is counter to culture.§ Examples: integrity, adaptability, initiative, accountability or teamwork.§ Test: what are the values your people will need to resolve this particular issue?
4) Define a VisionBest imaginable outcome for issue§ Establishes frame of reference for entire plan.§ Create AB FAB BHAGS (Absolutely Fabulous Big Hairy Audacious Goals) with no thought as to how you will accomplish them.§ ‘the best imaginable outcomes for the issue selected’§ A good vision creates ‘strategic tension’§ Attach metrics – quantification clarifies the interpretation of your visionary intentions
A Vague Vision is a WeakVision Specific & Vague Quantifiable1. Have happy 1. Reduce employee turnover employees by 50% within two years 2. Reduce fixed costs by 15% in one year and reduce2. Reduce expenses variable costs 20% in two years3. Increase revenue 3. Double sales force productivity in three years from $200K to $400K, gross margin no lower than 50%
5) Identify Customer BenefitsPayoff from the vision§ You do not make money, you provide products and services; the customer supplies the money.§ In effect, the customer is the venture capitalist for your vision.§ Your vision must address customers’ needs.§ Quantify the benefit – Examples: – Internet ordering saves 15% in customers’ admin costs – Just in time delivery saves an average of $25K in customers’ inventory cost
Customer Benefit thought-starters§ How do my customers make and lose money and how do we contribute to both sides of that equation?§ What aspect of my customers’ lives will be improved by my product or service?§ How do the outcomes measurably contribute to my customers’ success?
6) Identify BeneficiariesOthers who will benefit from your vision§ You will need help from others to implement your vision.§ Could include employees, vendors, alliance partners, family, elves.§ Think ‘WII-FM’ – What’s In It For Me?§ List either by name, department or category.§ Quantify how they will benefit.
Beneficiaries examples§ Employees will add one new verifiable skill within 18 months qualifying them for a 10% bonus§ Shareholders will see their financial equity increased by 20%§ Vendors will increase the volume of business they do with us on average 35% per year at 50% higher margins
7) Identify ObstaclesObstructions to the vision§ By definition, vision is currently impossible; otherwise, you’d be doing it.§ When you created your vision, you created a performance gap. The gap is the distance from current reality to the vision and is full of obstacles.§ You must identify and examine all of your obstacles so you know what is facing you and what is needed to overcome these obstacles.§ Phrase obstacles in “How to” (or H2) statements to make them challenges instead of problems.
The power of H2 Obstacle H2 § Lack of § H2 create a urgency sense of urgency § Risk averse § H2 reduce fear of failure § Inadequate § H2 stimulate sales & customer marketing demand
8) Create Vital SignsMeasurements to track and adjust yourplan§ This step is about identifying what key indicators you will measure.§ Measure two each from Values, Vision, Customer Benefits, and Other Beneficiaries (steps 3, 4, 5, and 6).§ The measurements that matter most are those that reinforce the accomplishment of the vision for the issue.
9) Identify S, W & OWhat you have going for and against theissue§ Strengths you can build on.§ Weaknesses you need to correct or finesse.§ Opportunities you can leverage.
10) Create your StrategiesPerformance gaps that need to be closed§ Here is where you decide which performance gaps to attack with strategy.§ Select up to three gaps to close from Obstacles and Weaknesses.§ For each gap, describe strategic transition from current state to desired state (that is, from “as-is” to “want to be.”)
11) List the ActionsActivities necessary to close theperformance gaps§ Describe all of the actions needed to accomplish your vision to go from current status (From) to desired status (To).§ Prioritize actions.
12) Name that PlanDistill the Vision into 3 to 5 words§ Gives the project identity.§ Makes it easier to communicate about the plan.§ Is a rallying cry.§ Examples: – Acquired in 2 years – 6 million sq. ft. by 2014 – Same-day turnaround
Why Strategic Plans Fail§ Tactics trump strategy§ The tyranny of the urgent§ Just not getting it done – Inaction – Indecision – Infighting
Why we need an Input BriefWe love paperwork? We like to add to your We need to cover workload? our asses?
Why we need an Input Brief Better work Save time and money Judge the work easier• Ensures alignment with • Lack of a brief or incomplete • Removes subjectivity objectives briefs are faster, but only in the• More effective short term• More “creative”
What the brief is § The brief is a working document – For the marketing owner to define his needs and his thought process – For the agency to better meet the needs and expectations of the marketing owner
What the brief is § The Brief is the very first creative step of a campaign – This is where the agency will understand the level of ambition that is given to the campaign by the marketing owner
What the brief is § To Brief means to choose, engage, take a risk – The brief formalizes the reasons why they want to communicate and the results they want to achieve – The brief reflects strong directions that will lead to the creation of: – a strong message – a single goal – a clear audience – the expected results
What the brief is not § A Specifications list – It is not a detailed description of the actions to achieve, but a document with a business issue § An exhaustive information bible – The brief is not a library of information about a product, but a document that shows a selection of the information that the Marketing owner wants to highlight
What the brief is not § A document reusable for each campaign – Each campaign addresses a specific problem: the brief should provide the understanding of this issue § A piece of Administrative proceedings – The brief is not a contractual document, but a document that gives a comprehensive understanding of the campaign
A good input brief1. Focuses on ONE clearly defined communications goal, one that is clearly tied to a strategic business objective2. Is “brief”3. Is not the longest or most detailed, it’s the one with clarity and focus4. Flows logically, leading from one section to the next, building a framework5. Is not cut and paste from other documents6. Does not tell the agency what to do, but can tell us why7. Clearly indicates what success is and how it will be measured
The key components of theinput brief The The context objectives The product & The target & The market & offer their insights competition The The budget constraints The Unique The value Selling proposition Proposition
The Context § Gives the agency a clear understanding of its mission, the reasons for the briefing, the need and the ambition § Traps to avoid – Information unrelated to the operation – Too many details
The Objectives § Define the expected results in a explicit & clear way – Be as factual as possible and detailed with figures – Be consistent with the available budget – avoid "I have 8k$ to create brand awareness“ – they can be strategic (product launch, install a brand, generate leads ...), tactical (develop a campaign, follow a time to market, adapt an international campaign ...) or even personal (to sell an idea to my direction, find an innovative idea ...) § It should not be a description of how to implement or a list of deliverables
The Budget § This is key information for the agency $ when recommending the best communication strategy and the associated means and deliverables
The Product and Offer § Must be described in factual terms (characteristics, features) § Also essential to describe it in terms of consumer benefits § Highlight the benefits which constitute strategic advantage
The Target § The cohesive group of people we want to target in order to change their opinion and behavior – Behavioral / attitudinal descriptions – Don’t only give a factual description – Rather describe their mindset, or behavioral and attitudinal aspects – Don’t undermine or caricature
The Target’s Insights § The insight is an opinion, a belief, a thought, an expectation or an experience of the target § The goal is not to create needs through communication but to prove that the brand meets an existing and relevant need or concern – It is useless to rely on an insight which the product does not answer § It is as much coming from psychology as from marketing research.
The Value Proposition § The value proposition is the raw material for the creative concept. § It is how the communication is going to echo the needs of the target with a relevant and attractive response. § To write it, try to find the best pair of Insight to product benefit among all possible combinations.
Write the Value Proposition § The value proposition reflects a strong strategic direction – It selects one or more product benefits to a single resonance insight, so it needs to be carefully selected, otherwise the communication will be irrelevant and will sound false. § The value proposition should be written as much as possible in close partnership between the agency and the client: – The marketing owner knows his product, its benefits on the market and its target, the agency brings him a new way to think about it. – A value proposition jointly written creates a consensus ahead of the creation presentation
Write the Unique Selling Prop § The USP is adapted from the value proposition § It enriches the value proposition in order to inspire the creative teams and help them find the idea § It is not a slogan or a signature, don’t try to give an advertising tone
Value Proposition Example:Xerox § The fastest copier in terms of copies per minute § What they hate is when employees lose time doing useless stuff § Value Proposition: – The new Xerox copier will allow your employees to work faster
The USP Example:Xerox § USP : – With the new Xerox, your employees will not spend anymore time waiting at the photocopier
Eurostar Example 25-35 adults, living in Paris, TARGET who loves city life Eurostar is the fastest and London is thecheapest solution PRODUCT INSIGHT capital city of from Paris to BENEFIT showbiz London VALUE With Eurostar, you can access the PROPOSITIO capital of showbiz for an unbeatable price N Accessing the capital of showbiz USP with Eurostar is so cheap that you will ask yourself if it’s true!
The workLondondiscounted. Paris-London returnticket: 75 €
The work London discounted. Paris-London return ticket: 75 €
The workLondondiscounted.Paris-Londonreturn ticket: 75 €
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WorksheetObjective Goal Strategy TacticA marketing A marketing goal is A marketing strategy Tactics are definedobjective is a defined as a desired is defined as your as specific andmission or purpose result or specific game plan to discrete actionsin which all and measurable achieve your (implementationmarketing plans will achievement objectives steps) that will bebe based upon, taken in support ofbroader in scope the strategiesthan goals