Origins• In Japan, the word manga means comics of any kind. In the West, we have adopted the word manga to just mean Japanese comics, or to an art style from late 19th century Japan.• Manga have a long history in Japanese art and culture, but the manga that is known today has only been popular since just after World War II.
The manga art style is distinctive and widely recognised.While every artist is not the same, common features include:• Large eyes• Exaggerated facial expressions• Elaborate costumes and hairstylesManga are nearly all printed in black and white, so manga artists usehalftones to shade and texture their pages. It is not uncommon forwhole panels to be without shade or tone, but this is possiblebecause of the way the images are outlined. Thick and thin lines areused where halftones are not.
Magazines• Manga are mostly published through magazine anthologies that are released weekly and monthly, depending on the magazine itself.• The first manga magazine, Eshinbun Nipponchi, was made in 1874 and only ran for three issues. It had a very simple style and was not popular. It influenced some successors, titled Kisho Shinbun and Marumaru Chinbun. The first manga magazine for boys, CREATED 1895, was titled Shonen Sekai. In 1905, Shojo Sekai, the girls’ counterpart, was created.
Volumes• Manga volumes or series are released in chapters and these chapters are what are serialised – when there are three or four (or more) chapters for one series, these chapters are made into volumes and republished alone.
East vs West• Compared to Western Comics, that usually feature superheroes saving the world, Manga are much less sci-fi and are instead often heavily based on magic or fighting (usually both).• Another difference is that Manga heroes nearly always have their own missions to fulfil, rather than the save the world archetype that America has given comics.• Single stories can go on for years and many volumes before they are finished. Again, this is different to comics in that comics may have backstory but no story goes on for quite as long. Because comics don’t have a definite end (a result of the lack of having a single mission to fulfil), they may go on for decades. Manga, though long, are finite.
• The order of reading a manga is different to the order we would naturally read, because Japanese is traditionally written horizontally from right to left.• Until recently, when manga were translated the pages would be flipped so that Western readers didn’t have to adjust. This lead to some inconsistencies, with rights becoming left, but worked overall.• Manga are now left in their original format, and translated versions have a “STOP!” page where Westerners would start reading in case they are new to the format.
Anime• Comics are made into cartoons; manga are made into anime. Anime, as a word, is again used in Japan to mean all cartoons but used in the west to mean cartoons made in Japan.• Though every popular manga has a companion anime, the cartoon version often strays from the manga storyline, and this can result in different things.• Usually everyone carries on and accept the gaping differences – common practice among fans is to treat the two versions differently. Most faith in what is official and what isn’t lies with the manga.• In the case of Fullmetal Alchemist, another version of the anime is being made that does follow the manga. In the case of Tsubasa Chronicles, the anime was pulled by the manga’s creators and is entirely discredited by fans. Clip from Tsubasa Chronicles: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vvv-2XhIpQ0 Corresponding manga chapter: http://www.citymanga.com/tsubasa_reservoir_chronicles/chapter-109/07/