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Cardiovascular endurance


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  • This concept will describe the function of the cardiovascular system and explain how to determine the appropriate intensity of exercise needed to promote cardiovascular fitness.
  • Cardiovascular fitness refers to the fitness of the cardiovascular system
    Cardio = heart
    Vascular = vessel
  • This slide provides a flow diagram of the cardiovascular system.
    NOTE: slides are numbered in the following order.
    1. The heart pumps oxygenated blood to the muscles
    2. The heart receives de-oxygenated blood from the muscles
    3. The heart pumps it to the lungs.
    4. The oxygenated blood returns from the lungs and can then be pumped out to the rest of the body.
    A healthy cardiovascular system must have a strong heart, clean lungs and healthy arteries and veins.
  • Compares the cross sectional view of arteries and veins. Arteries are round in shape and have muscular walls that help to pump the blood around the body. Veins do not have this muscular wall around the vessels and rely on the pumping action of the muscles to facilitate venous return.
  • Review the procedures for some of the common field tests of cardiovascular fitness.
  • The amount of aerobic exercise needed to improve CV fitness has been summarized as a prescription according to the FIT formula
    This is considered to be the minimal stimulus (threshold of training) to "improve" CV fitness. Less activity is needed to promote general CV health. This was discussed in the "How Much is Enough" lecture.
  • This is the target zone for cardiovascular fitness. It is best developed with moderate to intense physical activity since this challenges the cardiovascular system more than lower intensity exercise
    The amount and intensity of exercise needed to improve health is much lower than the amount of exercise needed to improve fitness or performance
  • Ratings of perceived exertion can be used to provide an approximate target zone for aerobic exercise
  • This diagram shows conceptually the relationship between threshold and target zones. The threshold is the minimal intensity you have to reach to obtain cardiovascular fitness benefits. The target zone is the desired range that you want to be in to optimize the training benefits.
    There are two procedures used for calculating the threshold and target zones and they are described in the subsequent slides.
  • The two ways of calculating target heart zones are the maximum heart rate method and the working heart rate method. The maximum heart rate method is the easiest method but is overly simplistic since it does not take into account a person’s resting heart rate. The working heart rate considers resting heart rate and gives a more accurate and individualized target heart rate.
  • The pulse you feel is the blood moving through your arteries as it makes its way through the body. The pulse indicates that rate at which your heart is beating. For the blood to move efficiently through the body the arteries must be elastic enough to swell when the blood moves through. If the arteries become atherosclerotic they lose their elasticity and blood flow is compromised.
  • Heart rate provides the best measure of exercise intensity during exercise.
    To monitor heart rate during exercise you must first know where to find it.
    The carotid artery is the easiest for most people but some people prefer the radial artery on the thumb side of the wrist.
    (Point out the sites to the students)
  • This figure shows the flow and pressure changes within the vessel. The peak pressure in the vessel is called the Systolic blood pressure. The lowest pressure in the vessels is called the Diastolic blood pressure. The notch in the peak reflects the elastic nature of the vessels and is called the aortic notch. When the pulse arrives some of the blood makes it through and causes the artery to swell. The second peak occurs as the vessel rebounds from the swelling.
  • Cover the factors associated with heart rate monitoring.
    The pulse should be counted for a short time so that the heart does not begin to decrease while you are counting (6 or 10 seconds are best). This value is then multiplied by either 10 or 6 (respectively) to get counts for 60 seconds. The 10 second count is recommended because it promotes less error than the 6 second count.
    The pulse should be located quickly so the hr reflects the exercise that was done. Also do not sprint at the end of the activity because that will make the heart rate seem higher than it was during the actual bout of exercise.
  • Lab 7a information
  • Lab 7b information
  • The procedure is known as the Karvonen or heart rate reserve method. It is based on calculating a target zone between the person's resting and maximal levels (their heart rate reserve). The percentages for this technique are 40% and 85% rather than 55% and 90% for the other maximum heart rate method.
    Go through example on the slide for a hypothetical 22 yr. old person with a resting heart rate of 68 bpm
    The next slides will go through an example of how to calculate your individual target heart zone.
  • Go through example using math calculations for a 20 year old person with a resting heart rate of 60 bpm
    max hr= 208 – (.7 * 22) = 192.6 = 193
    rest hr = 68
    working range= 193-68=125
    (125 x .40) + 68= 118
    (125 X .85) + 68= 174
    A table is provided in the book for you to calculate your target heart zone. It gives a value that corresponds with your resting heart rate and maximal heart rate (according to your age).
  • This slide shows the recommended guidelines for individuals of low, average and high levels of fitness.
    Note: These guidelines are for individuals who want to “improve” their fitness.
  • This shows the general heart rate pattern during a bout of aerobic exercise. The heart rate initially climbs from a resting level and then reaches a plateau value.
    Ideally, the heart rate should fall within a person's personal target heart rate zone and remain there during the duration of the workout.
    Remind the students that they can calculate their personal target zones using information from the lecture and the book.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Cardiovascular Fitness Cardiovascular fitness is probably the most important aspect of physical fitness because of its importance to good health and optimal physical performance.
    • 2. Cardiovascular Fitness   "Cardio" = heart "Vascular" = vessels A strong heart and healthy vessels (developed from regular physical activity) help to make a strong cardiovascular system. 2
    • 3. Cardiovascular System Images of the CV system come up with subsequent clicks Muscles send deoxygenated blood to heart Heart sends deoxygenated blood to lungs Lungs oxygenate the blood Heart sends oxygenated blood to body 3
    • 4. Characteristics of Blood Vessels Arteries pump oxygenated blood and have muscular, elastic walls that promote good circulation Veins carry de-oxygenated blood and rely on pumping action of muscles to move blood 4
    • 5. CV Fitness & Health Benefits  Reduces risk for:  heart disease  early death     Protection against the health risks associated with obesity. Enhances the ability to perform various tasks Improves ability to function Associated with a feeling of well-being. 5
    • 6. Lab 7b info Field Tests of Cardiovascular Fitness Rockport Walking Test  Step Test  Astrand Ryhming Bike Test  12-minute Run Test  12-Minute Swim Test  6
    • 7. FIT Formula for CV Fitness Threshold of Training 3 days/week HR in target zone at least 40% HRR OR 55% max HR At least 15 minutes 7
    • 8. Target Zone: CV Fitness TOO MUCH FITNESS TARGET ZONE: THRESHOLD FOR FITNESS F: 3-6x per week I: 40-85% HR reserve 55-90% Max HR T: 15-60 min INACTIVITY CONCEPTS OF FITNESS AND WELLNESS
    • 9. Ratings of Perceived Exertion 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 VERY VERY LIGHT VERY LIGHT FAIRLY LIGHT SOMEWHAT HARD Target Zone for using RPE HARD VERY HARD VERY VERY HARD Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 9
    • 10. Summary of Target Zones for Aerobic Exercise TARGET ZONE 55-90% of maximum heart rate 40-85% of heart rate reserve THRESHOLD OF TRAINING 55% of maximum heart rate 40% of heart rate reserve INACTIVITY 10
    • 11. Calculating Target Heart Zones Maximum heart rate method  Working heart rate method  Click on icon for examples for calculating target zones with both approaches. The same basic information is used for both to allow for comparisons of results. (e.g. 22 years old with a resting heart rate of 68 bpm) 11
    • 12. Pulse Arteries have elastic walls and stretch as the blood moves through the vessel. This is what is felt as the pulse. Pulse 12
    • 13. Location for Pulse Carotid artery Radial artery 13
    • 14. Pulse Wave Aortic Notch Systolic Diastolic Indicates the elastic nature of the vessels The elastic properties of the vessels promotes good circulation. 14
    • 15. Lab 7a info Factors in Pulse Monitoring Short time (10-15 seconds)  Locate quickly  Typical of the exercise bout  HR monitors can provide a continuous record of heart rate during your exercise. 15
    • 16. Return to presentation Lab 7a Information Counting Target HR & Ratings of Perceived Exertion Practice counting pulse (carotid / radial)  Estimate threshold of training (low)  Estimate target zone for training (range)  Rate your perceived exertion  Check pulse after two bouts of running (or other form of exercise)  Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 16
    • 17. Return to presentation Lab 7b Information Evaluating CV Fitness  Perform at least one test of CV fitness and evaluate and rate your current level of fitness (Note: performing more than one test is recommended in order to get a more valid assessment)  Interpret the results of your fitness based on your current level of activity 17
    • 18. Heart Rate Reserve Method (Sample calculations: 22-year-old w/ resting hr of 68) 193 MAX Working Range = HR 68 125 bpm TARGET ZONE 85% 40% REST 0 18
    • 19. Working Heart Rate (Sample calculations: 22-year-old w/ resting hr of 68 ) Max HR - Rest HR = Heart Rate Reserve (HRR) 193 - 68 = 125 40% of HRR 85% of HRR = 50 = 106 Lower Limit = 50 + Rest HR (68) = 118 Upper limit = 106 + Rest HR(68) = 174 19
    • 20. Prescriptions Based on Current Fitness Level Fitness Level Low Frequency 3 Intensity (%HRR) 40-50 Time (min) 10-30 Marginal Good 3-4 50-60 20-40 5 60-85 30-60 If an individual has a low level of fitness they could work at the low range of the target zone and still get benefits. 20
    • 21. Return to presentation HR Target Zones HR 179 130 118 THRESHOLD 50% 40% TIME Note:This range was calculated assuming the person had a low level of fitness. The values would be different if different ranges were used. Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e 21