This concept will describe the function of the cardiovascular system and explain how to determine the appropriate intensity of exercise needed to promote cardiovascular fitness.
Cardiovascular fitness refers to the fitness of the cardiovascular system Cardio = heart Vascular = vessel
This slide provides a flow diagram of the cardiovascular system. NOTE: slides are numbered in the following order. 1. The heart pumps oxygenated blood to the muscles 2. The heart receives de-oxygenated blood from the muscles 3. The heart pumps it to the lungs. 4. The oxygenated blood returns from the lungs and can then be pumped out to the rest of the body. A healthy cardiovascular system must have a strong heart, clean lungs and healthy arteries and veins.
Compares the cross sectional view of arteries and veins. Arteries are round in shape and have muscular walls that help to pump the blood around the body. Veins do not have this muscular wall around the vessels and rely on the pumping action of the muscles to facilitate venous return.
Review the procedures for some of the common field tests of cardiovascular fitness.
The amount of aerobic exercise needed to improve CV fitness has been summarized as a prescription according to the FIT formula Frequency: Intensity: Time: This is considered to be the minimal stimulus (threshold of training) to "improve" CV fitness. Less activity is needed to promote general CV health. This was discussed in the "How Much is Enough" lecture.
This is the target zone for cardiovascular fitness. It is best developed with moderate to intense physical activity since this challenges the cardiovascular system more than lower intensity exercise The amount and intensity of exercise needed to improve health is much lower than the amount of exercise needed to improve fitness or performance
Ratings of perceived exertion can be used to provide an approximate target zone for aerobic exercise
This diagram shows conceptually the relationship between threshold and target zones. The threshold is the minimal intensity you have to reach to obtain cardiovascular fitness benefits. The target zone is the desired range that you want to be in to optimize the training benefits. There are two procedures used for calculating the threshold and target zones and they are described in the subsequent slides.
The two ways of calculating target heart zones are the maximum heart rate method and the working heart rate method. The maximum heart rate method is the easiest method but is overly simplistic since it does not take into account a person’s resting heart rate. The working heart rate considers resting heart rate and gives a more accurate and individualized target heart rate.
The pulse you feel is the blood moving through your arteries as it makes its way through the body. The pulse indicates that rate at which your heart is beating. For the blood to move efficiently through the body the arteries must be elastic enough to swell when the blood moves through. If the arteries become atherosclerotic they lose their elasticity and blood flow is compromised.
Heart rate provides the best measure of exercise intensity during exercise. To monitor heart rate during exercise you must first know where to find it. The carotid artery is the easiest for most people but some people prefer the radial artery on the thumb side of the wrist. (Point out the sites to the students)
This figure shows the flow and pressure changes within the vessel. The peak pressure in the vessel is called the Systolic blood pressure. The lowest pressure in the vessels is called the Diastolic blood pressure. The notch in the peak reflects the elastic nature of the vessels and is called the aortic notch. When the pulse arrives some of the blood makes it through and causes the artery to swell. The second peak occurs as the vessel rebounds from the swelling.
Cover the factors associated with heart rate monitoring. The pulse should be counted for a short time so that the heart does not begin to decrease while you are counting (6 or 10 seconds are best). This value is then multiplied by either 10 or 6 (respectively) to get counts for 60 seconds. The 10 second count is recommended because it promotes less error than the 6 second count. The pulse should be located quickly so the hr reflects the exercise that was done. Also do not sprint at the end of the activity because that will make the heart rate seem higher than it was during the actual bout of exercise.
Lab 7a information
Lab 7b information
The procedure is known as the Karvonen or heart rate reserve method. It is based on calculating a target zone between the person's resting and maximal levels (their heart rate reserve). The percentages for this technique are 40% and 85% rather than 55% and 90% for the other maximum heart rate method. Go through example on the slide for a hypothetical 22 yr. old person with a resting heart rate of 68 bpm The next slides will go through an example of how to calculate your individual target heart zone.
Go through example using math calculations for a 20 year old person with a resting heart rate of 60 bpm max hr= 208 – (.7 * 22) = 192.6 = 193 rest hr = 68 working range= 193-68=125 (125 x .40) + 68= 118 (125 X .85) + 68= 174 A table is provided in the book for you to calculate your target heart zone. It gives a value that corresponds with your resting heart rate and maximal heart rate (according to your age).
This slide shows the recommended guidelines for individuals of low, average and high levels of fitness. Note: These guidelines are for individuals who want to “improve” their fitness.
This shows the general heart rate pattern during a bout of aerobic exercise. The heart rate initially climbs from a resting level and then reaches a plateau value. Ideally, the heart rate should fall within a person's personal target heart rate zone and remain there during the duration of the workout. Remind the students that they can calculate their personal target zones using information from the lecture and the book.
Cardiovascular fitness is probably the most important aspect of
physical fitness because of its importance to good health and
optimal physical performance.
"Cardio" = heart
"Vascular" = vessels
A strong heart and healthy
vessels (developed from regular
physical activity) help to make a
strong cardiovascular system.
Images of the CV system
come up with subsequent clicks
Muscles send deoxygenated blood to heart
Heart sends deoxygenated blood to lungs
Lungs oxygenate the blood
Heart sends oxygenated blood to body
Characteristics of Blood Vessels
Arteries pump oxygenated blood
and have muscular, elastic walls
that promote good circulation
Veins carry de-oxygenated blood
and rely on pumping action of
muscles to move blood
CV Fitness & Health Benefits
Reduces risk for:
Protection against the health risks
associated with obesity.
Enhances the ability to perform various tasks
Improves ability to function
Associated with a feeling of well-being.
Field Tests of
Rockport Walking Test
Astrand Ryhming Bike Test
12-minute Run Test
12-Minute Swim Test
FIT Formula for CV Fitness
Threshold of Training
HR in target zone at least 40% HRR
OR 55% max HR
At least 15
Target Zone: CV Fitness
THRESHOLD FOR FITNESS
F: 3-6x per week
I: 40-85% HR reserve
55-90% Max HR
T: 15-60 min
CONCEPTS OF FITNESS AND WELLNESS
VERY VERY LIGHT
for using RPE
VERY VERY HARD
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e
Summary of Target Zones
for Aerobic Exercise
55-90% of maximum heart rate
40-85% of heart rate reserve
55% of maximum heart rate
40% of heart rate reserve
Calculating Target Heart Zones
Maximum heart rate method
Working heart rate method
Click on icon for examples for calculating
target zones with both approaches. The same basic
information is used for both to allow for
comparisons of results.
(e.g. 22 years old with a resting heart rate of 68 bpm)
elastic walls and
stretch as the blood
the vessel. This is
what is felt as the pulse.
Location for Pulse
Indicates the elastic
nature of the vessels
of the vessels
Short time (10-15
Typical of the exercise
HR monitors can provide
a continuous record of
heart rate during your
Lab 7a Information
Counting Target HR &
Ratings of Perceived Exertion
Practice counting pulse (carotid / radial)
Estimate threshold of training (low)
Estimate target zone for training (range)
Rate your perceived exertion
Check pulse after two bouts of running
(or other form of exercise)
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e
Lab 7b Information
Evaluating CV Fitness
Perform at least one test of CV fitness
and evaluate and rate your current level
(Note: performing more than one test is recommended
in order to get a more valid assessment)
Interpret the results of your fitness
based on your current level of activity
Heart Rate Reserve Method
(Sample calculations: 22-year-old w/ resting hr of 68)
Prescriptions Based on
Current Fitness Level
Intensity (%HRR) 40-50
If an individual has a low level
of fitness they could work at
the low range of the target
zone and still get benefits.
HR Target Zones
Note:This range was calculated assuming the person had a low level of
fitness. The values would be different if different ranges were used.
Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e