Components of physical fitness


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  • (Instructor Note – Choose the amount of detail that you think your audience requires – The slides are written as if an overview of the basic concepts and components is needed. For participants who may need more information than is provided here – refer them to the Teacher’s Guide)
  • (defined on slide) – as found in PB Teacher’s Guide (p.5 in the 2nd edition)
  • Skill-related components - Basic skills and concepts common to all movement forms are needed for students to become self-sufficient in health-related fitness activities (Teacher’s Guide – p.157)
    Health-related components - Each of the health-related fitness concepts is specific to physical health.
    We’ll briefly examine each of the skill-related and health-related components (next slide)
  • Additional principles of fitness that apply to aerobic fitness, muscular fitness and flexibility include overload and progression.
    (read slide)
    Body Systems include -(cardiorespiratory, muscular, or skeletal)
  • refers to how an individual should increase overload.
    Proper progression involves the above.
  • Further principles of fitness are expressed through the FITT Guidelines, including:
    Frequency – (how often) the person performs the activity
    Intensity – (how hard) a person exercises during an activity period
    Time – (how long) the activity is maintained
    Type – (what kind) refers to the mode of activity a person chooses to perform in each area of health-related fitness / similar to specificity, which states that explicit activities that target a particular body system must be performed to bring about fitness changes in that area
  • Note: Although 10-30 sec is recommended as the length of time to hold a stretch, an advanced student may hold a stretch up to 60 sec.
  • WHY – are all of the components and principles important? Because of the many benefits of fitness – (Instructor can ask participants to name benefits – or read the following)
    Some of the benefits are:
    Makes the heart pump more strongly.
    Helps lower blood pressure and resting heart rates.
    Reduces the risks of heart disease.
    Strengthens the bones and muscles.
    Gives you more energy to do school work, daily chores, and play.
    Helps maintain a healthy body weight.
    Reduces stress.
  • Components of physical fitness

    1. 1. Dr. D. N. Bid
    2. 2.  (Health-Related) Physical Fitness  Measure of a person’s ability to perform physical activities requiring:  Endurance  Strength  Flexibility
    3. 3.  SkillRelated Fitness  HealthRelated Fitness
    4. 4.      Agility Balance Coordination Reaction time Speed
    5. 5.      Speed:  Amount of distance travelled in one direction in comparison to time  Running a certain distance in fastest time possible 100 M Dash Balance:  Definition – Ability to maintain equilibrium  Measurement – Balance board/ Stork stand Coordination:  Definition – Putting relevant motor programs in correct order  Measurement – football Agility:  Definition – Ability to move and change direction quickly  Measurement – dancing, martial arts Reaction Time:  Definition – Time between stimulus-response  Measurement – Reaction time test
    6. 6. 1. Muscle strength 2. Muscle endurance 3. Cardiovascular endurance 4. Flexibility 5. Body composition
    7. 7.  The ability of a muscle or muscle group to exert a maximum force against a resistance ONE TIME through the full range of motion. Range of motion (ROM) is the degrees through which a joint can move.  1 RM-one repetition maximum.  Bench press  Squat
    8. 8.  The ability of a muscle or muscle group to exert a submaximal force REPEATEDLY over a period of time.
    9. 9. To improve strength, lift heavier weights than you are used to. To improve muscle endurance, lift more times, not more weight.
    10. 10.  The ability to perform large muscle moderate to high intensity exercise for PROLONGED PERIODS keeping your heart rate in the heart rate target zone: 220 - age x 70% to 85% The target heart rate zone for a 17 year old is 142-173 beats per minute.
    11. 11.  Is the ability to move a joint through its complete range of motion (ROM).
    12. 12.  Is the amount of lean body mass (bone, muscle, organs and body fluids) compared with the amount of body fat. ADULT MALE 15%-18% ADULT FEMALE 22%-25% BMI = Body Mass Index It is an indirect measure of body composition based on height and weight.
    13. 13.     A. Multiply your weight in pounds by .45 to get kilograms B. Convert your height in inches and multiply this number by .0254 C. Multiply your height number by itself D. Divide this into your weight in kilograms A man weighing 175 pounds and standing 5’9” tall A. 175 x .45= 78.75 B. 5’9” = 69” 69” x .0254= 1.7526 C. 1.7526 x 1.7526 3.0716 D. 78.75/ 3.0716 = 25.64 BMI (Body Mass Index)
    14. 14.  Range        19 and below lowest risk for premature death 19 to 24.9 20% higher 25 to 26.9 30% higher 27 to 28.9 60% higher
    15. 15. Overload  human body stressed slightly more than accustomed. Threshold of Training  minimum level of exercise. Adaptation  body adapts to exercise level. Principle of Progression  gradually increase overload over a period of time.
    16. 16.   Principle of Reversibility  use/disuse-use it or lose it2weeks Principle of Overuse  overdo causing chronic injuries or undue fatigue.
    17. 17.  States that a body system must perform at a level beyond normal in order to adapt and improve physiological function and fitness.
    18. 18. A gradual increase in the level of exercise that is manipulated by increasing frequency, intensity, or time, or a combination of all three components.
    19. 19.  Frequency  Intensity  Time  Type
    20. 20. Frequency Intensity Time Type How Often How Intense How Long What Kind Three times per week, preferably daily and after a warm-up to raise muscle temperature. Slow elongation of the muscle to the point of mild discomfort and back off slightly. The preferred stretch for the classroom is slow static stretching for all muscles or muscle groups. Up to 4-5 stretches per muscle or muscle group. Hold each stretch 10-30 sec. Always warm up prior to stretching.
    21. 21. Reduces Risk of Heart Disease Stronger Bones & Muscles RHR wer Lo rg y e En ore M Lo we rB lo o dP res sur e Reduces Stress n Heart e trength S Helps Maintain Healthy Body Weight
    22. 22.  Step ups for two minutes Count pulse immediately after for one minute to determine cardio endurance level
    23. 23.  Step Test Results 85- 95 Excellent 96-105 Good 106-125 Fair  125 or more – needs improvement
    24. 24.     One way to check how hard you are exercising is to check your maximum heart rate ( MHR). If you exercise hard enough you will be in your target heart rate zone which is 60 % to 85% of your MHR. Resting Heart Rate (RHR) is your heart rate when you are not exercising Recovery Time: the amount of time your heart takes to return to its RHR after exercising    MHR = 220 – age 60% of MHR = MHRx60 85% of MHR=MHRx0.85
    25. 25. > Is exercise that uses oxygen to get energy > Oxygen comes from the glucose in sugars in bread or fruits that we eat > Endurance exercises such as long distance running and swimming are aerobic exercises
    26. 26. 1) Exercise that is fueled without using oxygen 2) In this exercise glycogen is use. It is another kind of sugar found in food 3) Activities that use strength in short bursts, such as sprinting and weight lifting are anaerobic exercises
    27. 27. 1)Aerobic and Anaerobic exercises can be used together 2) For example, tennis players use short burst of strength when they serve or return the ball so they are using anaerobic energy. 2) Their bodies use aerobic energy to keep playing.
    28. 28.      > Competition: is a contest between two or more people or teams > Competition can help improve fitness > Competition can also be fun > Sportsmanship: is the ability to treat all players, officials, and fans fairly during competition > makes competition fun for players, fans and officials
    29. 29.      >Someone who practices sportsmanship > Always plays his/her best > Follows the rules of the game > Considers the safety of other players > Congratulates players for a good job even if they are on a different team  > polite if he/she loses and modest when he/she wins
    30. 30.     > The use of weights to make muscles stronger or bigger. > Improves muscular strength and endurance > Two types of weight lifting: 1) strength development 2) body building
    31. 31. > Usually lift more weights, does fewer repetitions and does a different number of sets than someone who does not want big muscles >Repetition: number of times you do an exercise > Set: is a group of repetitions
    32. 32.    > Two types of weight- training equipment 1) Free weights: dumbbells, barbells and curl bars. 2) Machines: use a system of pulleys to let your control the weight as you lift it
    33. 33.       1) Use a spotter: someone who can take weight away if you can not finish a lift 2) Lift weights in groups. Take turns to rest 3) Make sure the free weights are secured to the bar 4) Make sure you understand how a machine works 5) Do not lift something that is too heavy for you 6) Exercise both sides of a joint to prevent injury. If you worked on your chest, you should also work on your shoulders
    34. 34.        > Sharp pain > Tenderness in a single area > Swelling > A reduced range of motion around a joint > muscle weakness > numbness or tingling > muscle soreness is normal and will go away the next time you exercise
    35. 35.       > Most adults need to exercise at least three to five time a week. However, some people exercise too much >Signs of overtraining * You feel tired all the time * You aren’t doing well during games and practices * Your resting heart rate increases * You may get hurt more often
    36. 36.     > Acute Injuries 1) Strains: when a muscle or tendon is overstretched or torn 2) Sprains: when a joint is twisted suddenly; the ligaments are stretched or torn 3) Fracture: a cracked or broken bone
    37. 37.     > Report an acute injury to your parents or a teacher right away. > You may need to see a doctor > First aid includes rest, ice, compression( wrap with bandage) and elevation ( elevate on a chair or stool) > These steps reduce swelling and pain
    38. 38.     > Develops a long period of time > Examples: 1) Stress fractures: a tiny fracture 2) Tendinitis: an irritation of a tendon > Can be caused by increasing physical activity too quickly > can be used by using the wrong equipment   > Can be caused by exercising on uneven surfaces > The best treatment is rest
    39. 39. 1) Warm up and Cool Down: injuries can happen without these 2) Do stretching before exercising and after warming up improves flexibility 3) Do not go too fast Increasing frequency, intensity and time too much or too soon can lead to injury
    40. 40. 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 4) Improve your form: Use a mirror to see if your form is right; get a trainor who can tell you if your form is good or not 5) Take a break: Alternate hard exercise with active rest 6) Wear the right sports gear: Take the weather into consideration; always wear appropriate shoes
    41. 41. 7) Use your safety equipment: falls and collisions are common in sports and accident happen when you least expect them 8) Do not exercise alone Exercising with friends is a good way to prevent accidents